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Full text of "The home of fadeless splendour : or, Palestine of today"

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Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2010 witii funding from 

University of Britisii Columbia Library 








With a Foreword by 


K.C.B., K.B.E., C.S.I., 



Illustrated with 1 6 Elthings and Map* by 

" O home of fadeless splendour, 
Of flowers that bear no thorn, 
Where they shall dwell as children. 

Who here as exiles mourn ; 
'Midst power that knows no limit, 

Where wisdom has no bound, 
The Beatific Vision 
Shall glad the Saints around." 

St. Bernard l>e Morlaix. 

HUTCHINSON & CO. (Publishers), LTD. 

Made and Printed in Great Britain by 
Willtam Clowes and Sons, Limited, London. 


VV. T. P. 



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ll o jace page xvi. 


" It had been a sunny blue day and the scenery was glorious. 
. . . We were ordered at 8 p.m. to start creeping up the hill, a 
dozen miles north-west of Jerusalem and almost overlooking the 
city. The night was very dark ; in places the boulders were 
almost insurmoimtable. We advanced less than half a mile in 
an hour. The men were very cheery, for they knew little of what 
lay ahead ; only the officers knew, and I for one was satisfied 
that the enterprise was desperate beyond words. The summit 
of the hill was little more than a mile away, though about four 
hundred and fifty feet above us in actual height. We lay down 
and waited for the rising of the moon. Waiting under such 
circumstances was not pleasant. The silence was broken only 
by the cry of jackals. 

" Suddenly the moon rose across the hills, turning the country 
into fairyland. We could see for miles and miles, right away 
beyond the orange groves to the plains and the sea. It was not 
long before we were seen, for there were Turkish snipers behind 
every ledge and boulder, as also in the trees. Machine-guns 
were hidden cleverly at the entrance to caves and ravines ; high 
above all were the breastworks on the hill crest, then a bare, 
open plateau without cover, and finally the rough walls of the 
old Roman village itself. . . . The first wave of men began to 
creep and crawl forward. The force I commanded was in the 
second wave, and we followed on, just a few yards every five 
minutes. ... In the distance we heard a few stray shots, and 
then silence again. Suddenly chaos was let loose. Shrapnel 
burst over our heads ; machine-gun bullets rained down literally 
in thousands, and how any men in the first wave escaped I cannot 
tell. The moonlight was in our eyes ; we could not fire back 
accurately. Turkish guns two miles away on another high 


ledge began to bombard us, and we could not hear our own voices. 
Men began to fall ; some crumpled up without a cry, others 
groaned in agony and then lay still. The first wave of men 
needed reinforcements, and I took my men up into the front line, 
running and leaping over and around the rocks, then falling fiat 
to recover breath. . . . 

" Water was scarce in both armies, and we were fighting for 
it — fighting for two wells in an old Roman village ! Bullets 
whistled past us, whizzed through the air above. We reached 
the front line one hundred and fifty feet below the hill-crest, 
fixed bayonets, and leapt forward on to the crouching Turks. 
It was a terrible moment. ... I do not give any details, mainly 
because as I jumped over the crest, stick in one hand, revolver 
in the other, interior guidance began, and I was lifted in con- 
sciousness away from the shrieks and the blood and the hell 
aroimd us. I gathered my men together. The enemy, who had 
been driven temporarily off the hilltop, swarmed up through the 
trees under cover of machine-gun fire which raked the ledge on 
which we lay. We tried vainly to fire over it and down while 
we flattened ourselves out on the hard rock. Suddenly a score 
of shrieking Turks jumped on to the ledge, but they never went 
back. Hundreds were behind them, led by of&cers dressed in 
British khaki. . . . Orders came not to advance ... so we 
lay there, to be picked off one by one, our fire going too high and 
doing but little damage. 

" We could not dig in, for we lay on the bare rock. Then 
Mills' grenades were sent over to us, and we just pitched them 
over the ledge more or less blindly into the ravine below. . . . 
Someone stood by me unseen, a guardian who seemed very grave 
and anxious, and I knew my fate would be decided during the 
next few minutes. I called for reinforcements, and half stood 
up. There was a Turkish sniper in a fig-tree just visible but we 
could not move him. Wails from the enemy came from the 
woods below, but there was silence on the ridge— those of us who 
had been struck were beyond pain. ... I felt a sudden pre- 
monition that a decision had been arrived at as to my own fate. 
The sniper in the fig-tree fired. I fell on my knees, wounded. 
A sergeant came over to see where I was hit, but fell dead across 
me, pinning me flat to the ground on that bare, bullet-swept 


ledge. I was bruised and broken, bleeding freely, unable to 
move. . . . The sun was rising in all its splendour across the 
hills of Judah, and there was silence. It was the morning of 
December 3rd, 1917. With pain, I raised my head. It was a 
bitterly cold morning, but the blood trickled warmly down my 
back and across my chest on to the groimd. What could I do ? 
I longed for another bullet, and just then firing recommenced. 
For a while the sergeant's body protected me. Then the unseen 
Presence beside me knelt and told me to lay my head down on 
the ground. I obeyed, and lay still. Then the Presence began 
to speak to me. The substance of the message was that I was 
needed for some work later on, and would not die just then 
however much I desired death. The experience I was passing 
through would be very valuable, especially as a test of faith. 
The ridge on which I lay could not be held much longer. Had 
I remained iin wounded, my duty would have kept me upon it 
until I was killed. . . . Later, I heard that no one was left alive 
there. My unseen friend had come to a quick decision how to 
get me away alive. I was to be wounded. I was to lie still for 
some time longer and make no effort to move while my escape 
was arranged. I must 'obey implicitly, faithfully.' 

" That is all I can remember now, except that the message 
satisfied me. The roar and shrieking no longer worried me ; 
I just lay still and waited. . . . Probably some twenty minutes 
passed, and then I was ' told ' to stir. I raised myself and found 
that the sergeant's body and rifle had rolled off me and I was 
free. Beside me there lay a strong hooked stick ; I have no idea 
from whence it came. With its help I drew myself into a position 
which enabled me to crawl along the ground, though without 
any sense of direction. 

" Soon I found myself in a cave crowded with men, one of 
whom was dying, but the rest unwounded. I summoned all 
my strength and ordered them out on to the ridge to reinforce. 
They obeyed, and I was left with a dying man alone. . . . By 
and by, I saw my Company Commander about fifty yards away 
directing operations, oblivious of his danger. He sent me his 
servant to give first aid. My own servant was dead. . . . 
Some time after, with the aid of my stick, I hobbled down the 
hillside in the direction of our second line. I completely lost 


my way, and although suffering much pain I was happy. To 
have descended into hell, to have suffered what millions are 
suffering to-day, to have been protected from death — all this 
buoyed me up. I was, of course, receiving unseen support, or 
I should have collapsed long before from loss of blood. 

" I met a wounded Tommy staggering along with half his 
face gone and with a wound in his foot. How much I had to be 
thankful for that I had not been disfigured like that ! He 
followed me, limping behind, thinking I knew the way. . . . 
Awful cries could be heard from the hill-crest above. I learned 
afterwards that this was the Turkish counter-attack which won 
them back the hill. Had I waited in the cave I should now be a 
prisoner in the hands of the Turks— or worse. Very few got 
away. ... I can picture the scene. . . . Suddenly a challenge 
rang out in very broad Irish. Being so dishevelled we were 
taken for Turks, and there was a dreadful moment of uncertainty. 
I found my voice in time. It was a patrol from another regi- 
ment which had not been in the fight and knew nothing of what 
had been happening. They directed us to a dressing-station, 
which it took us an hour to reach. . . . From the dressing-station 
I was carried down the rough hill-tracks by stretcher-bearers — 
an unpleasant, difficult process for all concerned — ^to another 
station in the protection of a quiet ' wadi.' This journey took 
three hours. After wounds had been dressed, the stretcher- 
bearers carried me down a seemingly endless series of 'wadis,' 
and at last we were out of range of the guns — an immense relief . 
. . . Camels now appeared on the scene ; basket-stretchers were 
strapped to their backs, two on each camel, and we were carefully 
transferred from the ground to the camel's back. Those who 
have been through the process need no details— in fact, the less 
said the better, for no human contrivances can make this part of 
the evacuation process anything but torture. 

"The camel journey lasted four hours. The growling, 
swaying animals pick their way among the stones and little 
gullies with the most painful deliberation, sometimes lunging 
forward, sometimes threatening to collapse on all fours to take 
a siesta, but usually rolling along on padded feet, plunged in 
endless meditation, as if impervious to all outside sights and 
sounds. . . . After many hours of jolting and jarring on a 


camel's back a badly-wounded man has reached the limit, and 
cares not what happens. 

" At last we reached a dressing-station on the plain, where we 
were left for some time, and then came a fresh examination, and 
wounds were dressed. I felt that I was no longer an independent 
person, but a piece of luggage, for a green label was attached to 
me describing who I was and why I still existed. I looked round 
and saw that every human form was thus labelled. . . . We had 
all become members of a brotherhood of humiliation ; our fate 
was being decided elsewhere. I caught myself wondering whether 
the only mode of transit into the ' Promised Land ' was on a 
camel's back. I kept on saying to myself, ' The only way to 
Heaven is on a camel's back, the only way, the only way ! May 
I for ever remain on earth, on earth ! May all the camels go 
to hell, to hell, to hell ! ' . . . 

" The next stage of our journey began. We travelled across 
the land of the Philistines in sand-carts, four mules being 
attached to each cart, which contained two ' cases,' sharing a 
spring mattress between them. We jolted along over the 
desert, which seemed infinite in length. . . . Then another 
halt. Those of us who could do so climbed down. It was now 
dark ; we had lost count of days and dates. Was it a year ago 
that we were maimed up there in those Judaean hills, or only 
yesterday ? 

We lay on the ground in blankets. Then an orderly 
approached carrying a lantern, and the inquisition began 
again. The green labels were examined ; mystic signs were 
scrawled across my label. I felt a prick upon my arm. A huge 
' T ' was drawn upon my wrist by a tired gentleman wearing 
an overall. . . . No Tetanus for me. ... I dozed again until 
my neighbour asked me for a match. My haversack was beneath 
my head— how it got there was a mystery. It contained some 
precious relics — three cigarettes, two matches, a bloodstained 
scarf, a broken biscuit, several raisins, and — greatest lind of all 
-an orange ! Someone then noticed that my water-bottle was 
half full — an achievement after twenty-four hours' ' scrapping ' 
in the hills. ... I dozed n(^ more. We roused ourselves and 
shared the relics greedily. . . . Sand-carts continued to arrive 
depositing their freight around us. The stars were brilliant. 


. . . My neighbour groaned and turned towards me. Had I 
any brandy ? By good fortune my flask remained with me, and 
I passed it along . 

" A commotion from the marquee ; orderiies arrived ; green 
labels were again examined. . . . Something between a large 
beetle and a tarantula was crawling across the sand in my 
direction. However, nothing dreadful happened ; the creature 
burrowed into the sand ; I breathed again. Someone spoke to 
me. . . . Yes, I can sit up. I am to become a ' sitting case ' ; 
the green label was duly inspected. A string of Ford cars, 
converted into ambulances, came bumping up the road out of 
the night. The road was full of holes : driving a car at night 
must be an anxious business, especially when Taubes and Gothas 
are about and all lights are out. ... I struggled to my feet and 
was helped into a seat beside the driver of one of these cars. 
. . . We were off again ; the land was stony, arid, flat, 

" And then a Taube, as if by magic, descended out of the sky 
towards us. We watched without interest ... a bomb has 
fallen just behind us ; mules lay about kicking ; commotion , 
consternation ; but the casualties were light. We drove on 
. . . the Taube disappeared. Two of our own fighting machines 
and a scouting plane were in pursuit. The railhead at last ! 
We have reached the junction on the captured Turkish narrow- 
gauge line. A Turkish train, somewhat dilapidated, awaited us. 
We were helped into a battered luggage-van — or was it a cattle- 
truck ? . . . Our labels were re-examined. We gave our age, 
religion, service, and countless other details. We were all 
beginning to feel very ancient. A shy padre looked in through 
the battered side-boards of the truck. The weather was men- 
tioned. ... An original idea struck the padre : ' There seems 
to have been a scrap up the line somewhere.' Someone smiled 
faintly. My neighbour politely assented, and was rewarded 
with a packet of ration cigarettes. 

" The train moved off and sauntered along for hours. Time 
no longer was of any consequence. At last we suddenly pulled 
up ; it was now dark again. We were transferred to marquees 
and given lime-juice, soup and bread. Those who could, slept. 
Mosquitoes buzzed around Our labels were examined again 


and every sort of hieroglyphic was added to them. Then ambu- 
lances appeared, and we found ourselves within a few hours in 
real beds under mosquito curtains in the ward of a base hospital 
beyond the reach of camels, Turks, and tarantulas. A blessed 
cup of tea arrives. Labels are detached and disappear. May 
they follow the camels, the sand-carts, the mules, the spiders 
away down into the nether regions. ... I hear voices in the 
distance, but I take no interest, and in a few minutes am 
asleep. . . . 

" Neither then nor since have I lost touch with my unseen 

Palestine. Christmas, 1917. 



The author has chosen a title worthy of his subject, which he 
treats with loving care. The Holy Land is in truth " The Home 
of Fadeless Splendour," and of imperishable memories for the 
followers of three of the religions of the world. In it their fore- 
fathers have in turn striven, triumphed, and failed. 

Standing at the gateway of the Orient, it has been from time 
immemorial the scene >i desperate struggles for mastery by the 
nations of the East and West, culminating in Allenby's last great 
crusade of 1917-18. That crusade opened up for Palestine and 
its people a future such as politically it never had before — of 
lasting peace and freedom from aggression, guaranteed by the 
Allied Powers. 

To myself, as first Chief Administrator, together with a band 
of loyal and able colleagues, selected for the most part from the 
Egyptian Expeditionary Force, fell the honour of assisting the 
country to recover from the loss and privation of four years of 
war, and of first applying to its people the principles of British 
freedom and justice, and of equal treatment for all races, classes, 
and creeds. Their generous and whole-hearted response was a 
convincing testimony of their ability — under wise and impartial 
guidance — to fulfil their rightful destiny in the world. 

The uninformed visitor is, perhaps not unnaturally, inclined 
to make unfavourable comparisons between the somewhat 
squalid villages and primitive cultivation of the Christian and 
Moslem peasants and the flourishing appearance and up-to-date 
methods of the Jewish colonies ; and he will probably form the 
erroneous conclusion that the Palestinian in general is an idle and 
thriftless cultivator. He is, on the contrary, a cheerful and 
willing worker, when he has anything to work for. 

It must be remembered that these Jewish colonies, carefully 
located on specially selected sites, have had the advantage of 


powerful financial and political backing from European sources, 
and the assistance of expert agricultural advisers. The same 
backing also served to protect the colonists to some extent from 
the exactions of the Turkish tax-gatherer. 

The Palestinian, on the other hand, living for centuries under 
the blight of Turkish rule, had little incentive to work and 
progress when the result of his labour would benefit chiefly the 
individuals to whom the collection of the agricultural tithe 
(actually 12.5 per cent.) was farmed out by the local government. 
He soon reacted, however, to the improved conditions and pros- 
pects opened up to him under British Administration, of security 
for life and property, impartial justice, and an equitable assess- 
ment and collection of taxes. His speedy recovery, indeed, from 
the lethargy of centuries was little short of marvellous, and was 
a tribute to his inherent sterling quaUties. 

Although it cannot truthfully be described at the present day, 
except in certain favoured localities, as " a land flowing with 
milk and honey," the mainstay of the. country is agriculture ; 
and what the farmer and peasant chiefly need are assistance in 
the form of agricultural loans, to enable them to improve their 
stock and methods of cultivation, expert advice, and especially 
political stability. 

During the years since the War such assistance has been 
generously afforded by the Mandatory Power ; racial animosities 
have largely subsided ; whilst public security and public health 
have reached a high state of efficiency. Pari passu with these 
conditions, and assisted in no small degree by the importation 
of Jewish capital and Jewish brains, the general standard of 
living and the prosperity of all classes have, in spite of occasional 
set-backs, due to economic and other causes, improved year by 
year. Great Britain may well be proud of the manner in which 
she has fulfilled the charge entrusted to her by the League of 
Nations . 

The Home of Fadeless Splendour will appeal to a large and 
varied class of reader as a true and faithful picture of the Holy 
Land, its past history', and its present condition. It not un- 
naturally passes lightly over the operations of "The Last 
Crusade," but a perusal of it will recall to soldiers all over the 
Empire many of the scenes of their triumph, and will also convey 


to them, in fuller detail than they were able to acquire during 
brief Visits of inspection, the story of places and sites long familiar 
to them from sacred and secular history. 

The religious pilgrim and the tourist will find a fund of 
accurate and interesting information about most of the Holy 
Places they will wish to visit, in a form not of the guide-book, but 
rather as it appeared to another interested and enthusiastic 
pilgrim in Palestine. To myself the pages of the book call back 
memories of the closing and perhaps most enthralling phase of 
my military career : friends of many nations, classes and creeds ; 
a band of colleagues second to none, to whom work for the good 
of the country and its people was in truth a labour of love ; and, 
lastly, memorj'-pictures of many scenes of " fadeless splendour " 
— the view from the Mount of Olives of the Holy City at sunrise, 
and of the Dead Sea at sunset with the Mountains of Moab in the 
background ; the Plain of Esdralon from Nazareth ; the Sea of 
Galilee from the western plateau ; the Bay of Acre from Carmel 
, . . memories and scenes that will ever remain enshrined in 
my heart. 



TuNBRiDGE Wells. 

January 1928. 


The origin of this book is explained by L'Avant-Propos, and it 
is thought that the impressions of one traveller to the Holy 
Land may be not only interesting but useful to others. 

The title chosen will not seem inappropriate when 
it is realised that, after twenty centuries, there has been 
but little change in the habits and customs of the immovable 
East, and that it was possible to follow one of the ancient caravans 
as we might follow a caravan to-day. The undulating hills, 
whose outlines we see, are the same, the animals are the same. 
The camels never change. They accompany their monotonous 
tread with soft padding of feet and a perpetual movement of 
the head, expressive of surprise and disdain. The race of 
Bedouins who drive them are of the same race as in the days 
of Herod ; we can imagine them in the time of the Patriarchs, 
with naked feet, open tunics, and the short white veil at the back 
of the head kept in position by cords or tresses of hair. It is, 
presumably, the magic of Eastern light and colour that transfigures 
them and all other things, for near at hand their clothes are dirty 
and shabby. In their verj^ walk they seem to carry the wealth 
of ages ; they are calm, serious and dignified, unchanged since 
the patriarchal days. So we can picture Abraham's eldest 
sers'ant, with his splendid retinue, bringing his camels to be 
watered at the well in the city of Nahor, where Rebecca, a damsel 
very fair to look upon, went down to the well, filled her pitcher 
and " gave drink to him and his camels also." ^ 

For nothing has really changed in the Holy Land and visitors 
do well to remember this fact. It is not the Holy Places alone, 
but the whole land which is holy ground, since it has been sanctified 
by the footsteps of Christ. 

' Genesis xxiv. i6. 


The undulating hills have sensed His Presence, the stony 
earth still feels the trace of His footsteps ; here they planted 
the Cross on which He died for the whole world and here is the 
empty tomb, an eternal witness to the Resurrection. There 
rises the Mount of Olives, there below rests little Bethany, there, 
dividing the hills, flows the brook Kidron, the whole place is 
charged with His Presence. Therefore pilgrims came in great 
numbers, not so much because there was an>i:hing particular to 
be seen, but because His footsteps had made the country a 
Holy Land. They cared neither for peril by sea nor by land : 
they scorned the peril by robbers ; nothing could shatter their 
constancy nor hinder their desire. And when at length they 
reached the peak of En-Nebi Samwil, where, according to tradition . 
Samuel lies buried, they wept for joy, for there before them lay 
the object of their quest. 

" Our feet shall stand in thy gates, O Jerusalem." 
Possibly, having no such stress to endure, the pilgrim, 
visitor or tourist of to-day, handicapped by vexation over his 
passport, baggage and other such troubles, can hardl}^ under- 
stand this intensity, for in those distant days they asked at 
once to see the Holy Places, and when they were pointed out 
the pilgrim experienced a thrill that no other place in the world 
could give him. Such visitors as these, and, thank God, there are 
many like them even to-day, have no doubts, for to them doubt 
would be sacrilege. And as a French writer says to those 
coming on such a pilgrimage : ' ' Clurchez-le vons aussi : essay ez 
. . . puisqu'en dehors de Lui il ny a rien." ^ 

August 15th, 192 1. 

^ Jirusalevi, Monlaur. 


This smaller and abridged edition is now published in the hope 
that The Home of Fadeless Splendour may possibly appeal to 
a wider public. In view of the many pilgrims and visitors of 
to-day a word of advice may be useful. Be careful to study 
the history and the geography of Palestine before you start on 
your journey, for the knowledge that you will gain thereby 
will greatly enhance the pleasure of your visit. Do not trust 
only to the local "guide," though he may be useful up to a 
point for locaUsation. With a good map and after having 
read some of the best books you will be independent. If you 
are fortunate enough to obtain the help of some learned Greek 
or Latin cleric as your cicerone you will fare exceeding 
well. The Greek Patriarchate will assist you, as also the 
Franciscans of St. Salvatore, and the Dominicans of St. Stephen. 
if you make your visit in a pilgrim spirit. Do not jump to 
conclusions or give way to hasty prejudice ; go slowly. You 
cannot "do " Palestine as you would Paris or Venice. It is 
not mere sight-seeing that counts, rather it is absorbing the 

The thanks of the author for valuable assistance are due 
to Mr. B. C. Boulter for the splendid illustrations, which are an 
important feature of the book, to Lady Watson for much help 
given to the author on his first visit to Palestine ; to the late 
Mr. Gerald Patrick Moriarty, Professor of Indian Civil History 
in Cambridge, for revising the chapter on " The Relit<ion of 
Islam " ; to the Reverend Dr. Danby for suggestions in revising 
the chapter concerning the Jews, as also to the Zionist 
Organisation, and, above all, to Major Wellesly Tudor Pole 
without whose help the book could not have been written. 

Finally the author trusts that The Home of Fadeless Splendour 
may be a welcome companion to all who take part in pilgrimages 


to the Holy Land, and a pleasant souvenir for those who were 
privileged to make the first four Anglo-Catholic Pilgrimages 

Perhaps it will also be of some interest to those who may 
never have the opportunity of visiting Palestine, but still will 
find in its pages something to bring to their minds the Land 
of Unchanging Glory. 

February isi, 1928. 


L Avant-Propos ... - - - xi 

Foreword by Major-General Sir Arthur Wigram Money, 
K.C.B., K.B.E., C.S.I. (Sometime Chief Administrator of 
Palestine) ....... j^ 

Preface to First Edition - - . . . xxiii 

Preface to Second Edition ..... xxv 

Chapters ........ xxvii 

List of Illustrations ...... xxxi 


A Pilgrim on his Way to Jerusalem • - 35 


Within the Holy City 

Jerusalem in History — In the Streets and Among the People — Men 
and Matters — Basilica of St. Stephen and the Dominicans — 
St. Salvatore and the Franciscans — St. Francis and the Holy 
Land — The Way of the Cross — The Pool of Bethesda and the 
White Fathers — The Dorraitio and the Benedictines — Notre 
Dame de France and the Assumptionists — St. James and the 
Armenians — The House of John Mark and the Syrian-Jacobites 
— The Collegiate Church of St. George and the Anglicans. 43 


Christendom's Most Holy Place 

Impressions of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre — Its History — 
Description of the Holy Sites — The Holy Tomb — The Finding 
of the Cross — Authenticity of Golgotha — The Chapel of Calvary 
— The Orthodox Greek Church — Liturgy and Customs — 
Greek Patriarchate — Greek Convents— The Great Schism — 
A Short Story of the Crusades and their Failure - - 73 

xxviii CONTENTS 

Holy Week and Easter in Jerusalem 
Palm Sunday— Latin Ceremonies— Pilgrimage to Gethsemane on 
Maundy Thursday— Good Friday— The Moslems and NebS 
Musa— Easter Sunday— Riot in the Streets— The Greek and 
Armenian Washing of the Feet on Maundy Thursday— The 
Holy Fire— Symbolism or Miracle ?— An Abyssinian Ceremony 
— Easter Triumph -...._ 


A Land of Hills and Valleys 

The Mount of Olives-Tomb of the Virgin-Gethsemane-Footprints 
of our Lord— The Triumphal Entry—" Gordon's Calvary "— 
The Gates of the City— Aceldama— Ain Karim and St. John 
Baptist - . . . _ _ 


Israel Past and Present 

The Passover— Wailing Place— Zionism— Jewish Colonies— Reflec- 
tions ... 





The Religion of Islam 

The Prophet— Moslem Faith and Practice-Some Notable Moslems 

—Mount Moriah-The Temple-The Dome of the Rock - 179 


A Place of Hallowed Memoncs-The Story of Mary Magdalene— 
Legends— Raising of Lazarus— Marseilles Tradition— Bethany 
and the Sacred Humanity— The Final Scene in the Life of our 
Lord - - - . 




Jkricuo, Jordan and the Dead Sea 

The Clianging Scenery — Inn of the Good Samaritan — Convent of 
St, George — Jericho of Herod — Modern Jericho — Jericho of 
Joshua — Mount of Quarantana — The Temptations — Plain 
of Jordan — The Dead Sea — En Neb! MusSl - - . 209 


The Excellency of Mount Carmel 
Haifa : Visit to Abdul Baha Abbas — Mount Carmel — St. John of 


The Glories of Galilee 

On Leaving Nazareth — Mount Tabor — Nain — The Witch of 

Endor — Plain of Esdraelon — El Afuleh - - - 235 



Sebastieh — Ebal and Gerizim — Nablus, the City of Sichem 

Samaritans and their Passover — Jacob's Well — The Tomb of 
Joseph — Return to Jerusalem - - - - 2';7 


" And Thou, Bethlehem . . ." 

Mar Elyis — The Tomb of Rachel — Position of the Little City 

The Streets of the City — Its Women — The Franciscans — 
The Great Basilica — Grotto of the Nativity — The Silver Star 
— Greek and Latin Disputes —Reflections in the Grotto- 
Chapels of the Manger and the Magi — The Romance of the 
Wise Men — The Holy Innocents — Other Chapels — St. Jerome 



and the Grotto — The Greek Ikonastasis — The Grotto of Milk 
— The Field of the Shepherds — The Romance of the Shepherds 
— Some Thoughts on Reunion — Bethlehem the Focal Point 
of Unity — Gloria in Excelsis — Visit to the Greek Convent — 
Greeks and Reunion — An Early Mass by the Silver Star — 
Bethlehem and its Idyllic Memories .... 273 

L'Envoi rrgi 


1. Some Memorable Dates connected with the History of 

Jerusalem -.....- 305 

2. The Thirteen Holy Places in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre - 307 

3. Events connected with the History of Bethlehem - - - 308 

4. Extracts from the Mandate of 1922- - - - 309 

5. Short Bibliography and books recommended - - •311 

Index 315 


A Street in Jerusalem {B. C. Boulter) - Frontispiece 

Facing page 

Map of Modern Palestine {B. C. Boulter) - - - xvi 

A Plan of Ancient Jerusalem {B. C. Boulter) - - 44 

On the Via Dolorosa {B. C. Boulter) - - - - 58 

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre : Easter, 1920 

{B. C. Boulter) 74 

Church of the Holy Sepulchre: "Crusaders' Tower"- 84 

The Brook Cherith and the Monastery of St. George 

{B. C. Boulter) 94 

In the Garden of Gethsemane {B. C. Boulter) - - 120 

The Chapel of the Ascension {B. C. Boulter) - - 140 

The Jews' Wailing Place {B. C. Boulter) - - - 164 

The Haram Area {B. C. Boulter) - - - - 188 

Bethany {B. C. Boulter) ...... 202 

Abdul Baha Abbas Receiving the Insignia of Knighthood 

from Colonel Stanton, the Governor of Haifa - - 224 

The Grotto of the Nativity : Bethlehem {B. C. Boulter) 274 

Bethlehem : Impression of the Church of the Nativity 

{B. C. Boulter) 286 

Leaders of the 1927 Pilgrimage with their Hosts in 

Jerusalem 298 






A FEW days before leaving Cairo, I read in a 1912 guide-book 
the following : " The whole journey to Jerusalem occupies 
from eight to ten days . . . the railway is taken from Cairo 
to El Kantarah, where the journey by camels is commenced. 
After travelling over sixteen miles of hard desert, we come 
to a stretch of sand dunes. ..." Tempora mutantur. Some- 
times it took sixteen days to make the journey which now can 
be accomplished in a night. Tea at Cairo and breakfast the next 
morning in Jerusalem. Some years hence, perhaps, the journey 
will be accomplished by flight, a matter of three hours. Probably 
most people in days gone by travelled via Port Said or Alexandria 
to Jaffa, this being a more rapid and far less costly route, but 
the voyage is not to be recommended except in fine weather. 
There being no harbour at Jaffa, visitors land in small rowing 
craft, with an occasional drenching from the heavy surf. 

The time of my first visit was exceptionally interesting. The 
war was over, the Turk driven out of Palestine, and everyone 
was waiting expectantly to hear the fate of the little country. 
Owing to various difficulties, political and otherwise, tourists 
were not encouraged to visit the country, nor pilgrims to attend 
the Easter ceremonies. There were several anti -Zionist de- 
monstrations, and faction fights between Jews and Moslems. 
And then in April came the news that the Peace Conference 
had given the Mandate for Palestine to Great Britain, and with 
this Mandate the prospect of the fulfilment of the Balfour 
Declaration — namely, " Palestine a Homeland for the Jews." 

Strategically, Palestine is most important. It adjoins 

Egypt, and no power can attack that country successfully 

except by way of Palestine . In days gone by it was the " jump- 

ing-off ground " for armies menacing the svuroimding empires ; 



hence it was here that Egypt, Babylon, and other countries 
contended for the mastery of the world. Thus David and 
Solomon kept up large armies, and the old Hebrew kings entered 
into treaties with neighbouring monarchs in order to preserve 
their country from invasion. 

Palestine is about the size of Wales, and occupies six thousand 
square miles, and, hke Wales, is very mountainous— hills and 
valleys, with here and there a rolling plain. There is almost 
every kind of soil, from sand and limestone to red loam ; every 
variety of cUmate may be experienced— for example, winter in 
Jerusalem one morning, and that same afternoon tropical summer 
in Jericho— and almost every variety of fruit and vegetable, 
tropical and European, can be cultivated. 

We passed through the Sinai desert with its immense tracts 
of sand, and soon arrived at El Arish, the former frontier town 
between Egypt and Palestine. The desert between El Arish 
and Gaza is beginning to "blossom as a rose." The railway 
authorities have found a great difficulty from the drifting desert 
sands, so they have a staff engaged in collecting desert plants 
and cultivating them, with a view of planting them in rows 
over miles of country in the neighbourhood of the line, in order 
to bind the sand. The country between El Arish and Gaza 
has ah-eady been thus planned out, and aU these desert plants 
are now growing. When once the sand is bound, and a certain 
amount of loam is formed, other plants will follow. 

It was at El Arish that Baldwin L, the second Latin king 
of Jerusalem, died in 1118. 

Then came El Rafeh, or Rafah, the present frontier town, 
and after a while we arrived at Gaza, a city full of battle memories! 
What can be seen of the town from the train shows the effect 
of the terrible struggles for mastery, the three battles (1916-17) 
culminating at last in victory for the British forces. Gaza 
signifies " the Strong," and it was one of the strongholds of the 
Philistines. After the treachery of Delilah, the scenes of 
Samson's torture and death were enacted at Gaza, and here 
his final trial of strength resulted in the destruction of the god 
Dagon's temple, the death of his tormentors, and his own.^ 
The British MiUtary Cemet ery, containing about 2,000 graves 

* Judges xvi. 21 and 30. 


of the brave men who fell in this neighbourhood, is close to 
the station, each grave being marked by a small white cross. 
Groves of palm-trees alternate with miles of cactus plants, 
untidy-looking objects not yet recovered from the plucking 
of their fruit, the prickly pear. 

In the early afternoon we reached the ancient Lydda, to-day 
commonly known as Ludd, where the orange groves stretched 
for mile after mile, a yellow-green mass of fohage, from which 
most of the oranges had been plucked. Here we had to change 
and wait over an hour for the train that would take us to 

Lydda was once a city of Benjamin ; it was the scene of 
St. Peter's miracle in curing the paralytic iEneas : and when 
Dorcas was dying at Joppa, messages were sent to fetch St. 
Peter thither from Lydda. " The chief interest of Lydda 
centres round her St. George. There is no hero whom we shall 
more frequently meet in Palestine. Indeed, among all the 
saints there has been none with a history like this one, who, 
from obscure origins, became not only the virtual patron of 
Syrian Christendom, and an object of Moslem reverence, but 
patron as well of the most Western of all Christian peoples. 
St. George of Lydda is St. George of England ; he is also a 
venerated person in Moslem legend." ^ 

After the martyrdom of the saint at Nicomedia, his body 
was brought to Lydda, and a church, erected by Justinian, built 
over his grave. This church was destroyed by Moslems during 
the First Crusade, but in the latter part of the twelfth century 
the Crusaders built another church near the site of the old one ; 
this was badly damaged by Saladin when fighting against 
Richard Coeur de Lion, but fortunately it escaped destruction. 
Since the latter part of the nineteenth century, the church 
and tomb have been imder the protection of the Ortho- 
dox Church, who restored the apse. The tomb is in the 

On November 15th, 1917, Ludd, together with Ramleh, 
was taken from the Turks by the First Austrahan Light Horse 
Brigade. To-day it is a poor little town, with a popiilation 

* Historical Geography of the Holy Land. George Adam Smith. 


of some 4,000 Moslems, 2,000 Greek Christians, and no Jews. 

Ramleh lies about a mile to the north-east. According to 
a mediaeval legend, Ramleh corresponds to the Arimathaea of 
which Joseph was a citizen. It was one of the Crusaders' cities, 
and has a tower belonging to a ruined mosque dedicated to 
the " Forty Champions of Islam " who died fighting against the 

Beyond Ludd the scenery changes completely, and in the 
place of vast tracts of sand are fertile plains with vivid green 
and promising crops. From Ludd to Jerusalem is one long 
ascent ; the train winds up the hills through gorges resplendent 
with wild flowers, cyclamen, the red anemone, " the lily of the 
field," white and pink cistus, and many other varieties. After 
a while the scenery becomes very rocky, stones everywhere in 
the vaUey and on the hiUs. At Bittir, the last station before 
Jerusalem, the train stopped for the engine to take in water, 
for here is the best spring in the valley, the water supply for the 
village of Bittir, which can be seen on the hiU above, near the 
site of the town of Bether, where JuHus Severus defeated the Jews 
in 135 A.D. and suppressed the revolt of Ber Koziba. 

After leaving Bittir, the ravine gradually opens out and 
rises into the valley of Rephaim, where David defeated the 
Philistines. The summit level, from which the Holy City can 
be seen, is soon reached, and shortly afterwards the train arrives 
at the terminus of the line — Jerusalem. . . . 

Outside the Jaffa Gate the heterogeneous crowd waiting to 
pounce upon the visitor is at first a trifle disconcerting. Arabs 
shouting to clean your boots ; droves of sheep, goats, and 
camels mingling in confusion ; Jewish merchants jostling with 
calm and dignified Moslems ; children with naked feet making 
wild gesticulations ?nd clamouring for bachsheesh : this first 
aspect of the Holy City is somewhat of a nightm?re to those 
who expect to find European order and cleanliness. In reality 
this " disorder " is only part of an Eastern tableau, the " cur- 
tain-raiser " of wonderful scenes to follow, and therefore by no 
means incongruous. . . . 

This is the " Home of fadeless splendour," the city of David, 
of Solomon, of Judas Maccabaeus ; the city of Christ and the 


Apostles ; the city that has suffered siege, revolution, destruction, 
yet being indestructible, is alive in every stone in every street, 
proclaiming its past, its present, and its triumph to come. It 
is good to be within the walls of the " Urbs Syon inclyta " at 
long last. 



(a) Jerusalem in History. 

{b) In the Streets and Among the People. 

(c) The Dominicans and St. Stephen's. 

(d) The Franciscans and St. Salvatore. 

{e) The Via Dolorosa. 

(/) The White Fathers of St. Anne and the Pool of 

(g) The Benedictines and the Dormitio on Mt. Syon. 

(h) The Assumptionist Fathers and Notre Dame de France. 

(i) The Armenians and the Church of St. James. 

(;) The House of John Mark and the Syrian Jacobites. 

{k) The Collegiate Church of St. George and the 




" A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid." 

(a) Jerusalem in History 

It would be difficult to find any town of great antiquity that has 
such an uninterrupted history as Jerusalem. Few capitals have 
had so fine a site, whether in regard to beauty of position 
or to salubrity, as Jerusalem. Its very existence would seem 
to date from prehistoric ages : it has been captured, burnt, 
destroyed times without number, but never quite obliterated, 
and it has ever again risen from its own ashes. 

Jerusalem has undergone no less than twenty-two sieges — 
sieges always terrible. We cannot see the Jerusalem of David 
and Solomon, nor can we see the Jerusalem of Christ and the 
Apostles ; the streets on which they walked lie buried at least 
thirty to eighty feet below the present surface. There is but 
one small rehc of the city erected by the Romans after the 
great siege by Titus, for Jerusalem has risen and fallen often 
since then. Romans, Persians, Greeks, Saracens, Crusaders, 
Egyptians, Turks — all had their share in the destruction or 
rebuilding of the Holy City as they had in the massacre of its 
inhabitants . 

The Jerusalem of to-day is built on the ashes of the Jerusalem 
of the past, but it remains the Holy City.^ The superficial 
visitor may talk of its filth and squalor, or an author may describe 
it as "a stricken and ruinous thing," yet it is built upon those 

* Those who are interested in the wonderful discoveries brought 
about since 1921 by excavation will find it to their advantage 
to subscribe to the Palestine Exploration Fund. 



splendid hills which saw the wonder of the world's Glory. To-day 
in the twentieth century it is full of healthy activity, and its 
importance as a city is as great as when David chose it nearly 
three thousand years ago as the most suitable place for the 
capital of his Kingdom. 

Jerusalem still stands on its original site, and this fact, 
while being historically of great interest, has the disadvantage 
of making it difficult to understand the position of old Jerusalem, 
for it would be no exaggeration to say that city overlies city. 
Thanks to the excavations that have taken place in recent 
years and are still being carried out under efficient control, it 
has been made possible to describe the approximate position 
of the ancient city. 

Of the hills on which the city is situated, the two most 
important are the western and eastern, which comprised the 
two parts of the ancient city. These were separated from each 
other by a deep valley, which is now filled up with the debris 
and accumulation of the centuries. The western hill runs 
north and south from the Jaffa Gate to the Cenaculum. The 
Christians called this hill Mount Syon, although the Jewish 
Zion was on the eastern hill. On this latter hill on the other 
side of the central valley, is the sacred Rock, now called the 
Sakhrah, on which once stood the Jewish Temple, and which 
to-day is covered by the Dome of the Rock, often called erron- 
eously the Mosque of Omar. Upon this eastern hill was situated 
the city of David, the royal city of the Kings of Judah. 

Another hill, the north-western, was once separated from the 
west and east by valleys which disappeared centuries ago. On 
this hill stands the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the most 
sacred Christian site in the world. 

The northern hill, imder which is " Jeremiah's Grotto," 
rears its crest outside the Damascus Gate. This hill was called 
Bezetha at the time of the destruction of Jerusalem, and under- 
neath are the quarries out of which the stone was taken for the 
construction of King Solomon's temple. 

The city was already a place of some importance at the 
time when it was captured by Joshua, the inhabitants then 
being called Jebusites, probably because Jebus was the name 
of the city, of which Adonizedec, a powerful chieftain, was king. 

..First Wait 

... Sccoi-uLWjXL 
. . . TRu-d NVjJl -Aq riffo. '. 

"2. Scale ^^ 

Iflc 'Fumva.n nuirurali I -IS de>icie the 
Staitons on cdc Vtx Dckrosx 

crphaiy oTiOfnjzl , the soidfi.- eastern^ 
JtilL, Since tfui CAri5tun. art dUnam^ 
Sicn. fuxs Iseen. ^iven to ^ 5'W luli ■ 


zJ Jocx? feet- 


[7'o ytut' pat;c 44. 


It was he who organised a confederation of kings for the purpose 
of attacking Gibeon, which ended in the disastrous battle of 
the Five Kings. 

In later years David built his palace on the eastern hill, 
known as Zion, and this for many centuries continued to be the 
royal city, and was only inhabited by the king, his court, and 
his priests. The civil city known as Jebus was on the western 
hill, and of this Joab was appointed Governor. With the capture 
of Jerusalem by David the city entered upon a new epoch, and its 
real history may be said to have begim. 

The place of David's burial is unknown. Probably it was 
on the eastern hill, somewhere between the royal city and 
Siloam. The sepulchre would seem to have been opened, 
according to Josephus. at least on two occasions in past days — 
firstly by Hyrcannus the high priest, and secondly by King 
Herod the Great. " who built a great monument of white stone 
at the mouth of the sepulchre." This monument would have 
been seen by our Lord, for it was standing at the time of His 
death, and is mentioned by St. Peter in his address to the great 
audience on the feast of Pentecost at Jerusalem. 

Men and brethren, let me freely speak to you of the patriarch 
Da.vid, that he is botli dead and buried, and his sepulchre 
is with us unto this day.' 

Passing by the period of the captivity and the destruction 
of the Temple by Nebuchadnezzar, referred to elsewhere, we 
come to the times of King Herod the Great, who more than any 
monarch has left his mark on the city. First of all, the fortress 
of Antonia, which was completely destroyed after the siege of 
Titus, but which stood on the ground till lately occupied by 
the Turkish barracks at the north-west comer of the Haram- 
esh-Sherif. This fortress was probably a square building with 
towers at the angles, and surrounded by a strong exterior wall. 
Next in order was the Royal Palace. This was built in the upper 
part of the city near the Jaffa Gate, on the spot recently occupied 
by the Turkish citadel. Here were situated three great towers, 
Mariamne, so called after the wife he had murdered : Phasaelus, 
in remembrance of his brother who had committed suicide ; 

1 Acts xi. 29. 


and Hippicus, after one of his friends. It is generally supposed 
that the foundations of the tower Phasaelus were used as the 
base of the existing tower in the Turkish citadel, commonly 
called the Tower of David. The Royal Palace and its gardens 
must have reached as far as the grounds on which the Armenian 
Church of St. James now stands. The whole would have formed 
a great citadel, commanding the western hill of Jerusalem, 
just as the fortress of Antonia dominated completely the eastern 
or Temple hill. The third and greatest of Herod's buildings 
was the Temple, a gigantic task, which he undoubtedly undertook 
more from political than religious motives, for it would please 
the Jews, with whom he naturally desired to be on good terms. 

Tyrant and murderer though he was, it is well to remember 
that he made Jerusalem once again a great and splendid city. 
Josephus sums up his character as " a man of great barbarity 
to all men equally and a slave to his passions : above the con- 
sideration of that which was right. Yet he was favoured by 
fortune as much as any man was, for from a private man 
he became a king." 

At the time of our Lord, Golgotha was still outside the 
city, but quite close to the second wall, only divided by the 
breadth of a trench. The third wall, built by Herod-Agrippa I 
in A.D. i6, was the last piece of work done in the city before its 
fall and destruction. The building of this wall brought the site 
of Calvary within the city, as it is to-day. 

Reference is made elsewhere to the days of the fall of Jerusa- 
lem in A.D. 70. Years afterwards, about the year a.d. 135, 
Hadrian built on the ruins of that city a Roman colony, which 
he called Mlia. Capitolina. Pagan temples were set up, one to 
Astarte on Golgotha, and another to Jupiter, or to the Emperor 
Hadrian, for opinions differ on this point, on the site of the 
Temple. Only one relic remains of this Roman colony, namely, 
that which is commonly called the " Ecce Homo " arch, but 
which once formed part of a Roman arch of triumph. Part of 
this arch has been built into the Chapel of the Sisters of Syon. 
The Jews were excluded from the .^ha Capitolina, but Christians 
were allowed to settle in the colony, and probably it was at this 
period they returned from Pella, whither they had emigrated 
at the time of the destruction. Possibly it was about the same 
period that the name Syon was transferred from the eastern 


to the western hill, for the Temple and the city of David no longer 
existed, whereas the western hill had now become the most 
important part of the city. 

Two other facts of interest date from this period : the 
Christians beheved that the great Tower built by King Herod, 
and left intact by Titus, had formed part of a palace of King 
David, and thus it is commonly called the Tower of David to 
this day ; also from about this time the Christians would seem 
to have regarded the very site of the Jewish Temple with much 
aversion, and as a natural result the Christian Church became 
more widely separated from its Jewish origin, and even, according 
to tradition, chose as the first Bishop of JElia, Capitolina, Mark, 
who was of Greek nationality. 

Events followed in rapid succession ; the Roman colony was 
destroyed, the city of Jerusalem built again, churches were 
completed only to be demolished and then rebuilt. Nearly 
eight hundred years after the conversion of Constantine to 
Christianity the first Crusade was launched against the infidel, 
during which Godfrey de Bouillon captured Jerusalem . 

The last stronghold of the Crusaders, Acre, fell in 1291, 
and with its fall ended the short and ill-fated Christian occupacion . ' 
But already in 1244 the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem had come 
to an end, and the Christians in the Holy City had been 
massacred by the wild Kharezmian Tartars. Two more Crusades 
followed before the fall of Acre, but they never reached Jerusalem, 
which to all intents and purposes was under the rule of the 
Mamluks from 1247 to 1507. Then followed the great revival 
of Ottoman power ; in 1453 the Turks captured Constantinople, 
turning St. Sophia into a mosque, while in 15 17 they took Jerusa- 
lem, which except for a period of ten years remained under the 
blight of Turkish rule until 1917, when on December 9th the 
city surrendered, and two days later the approach to the Jaffa 
Gate was alive with an Eastern crowd. General AUenby was 
received by guards of honour representing the various nation- 
alities engaged in the expedition. As is well known, he entered 
the city on foot with only a few of his staff, together with the 
commanders Jind attaches of the Allies. On the steps of the 

• Vide chapter on The Crusades. 


Citadel a proclamation was read in Arabic, Hebrew, Englisii, 
French, Italian, Greek, and Russian, the chief object of which 
was to assure the citizens that " since the city was regarded 
with affection by the adherents of three of the great religions 
of mankind, and its soil had been consecrated by the prayers 
and pilgrimages of multitudes of devout people, every sacred 
building, holy site, shrine, and place of prayer belonging to the 
three religions would be held inviolate in accordance with their 
customs and beliefs." And then, after receiving the notables 
and the heads of different religions, General Allenby left 
Jerusalem as quietly as he had entered it. 

It is said that when Godfrey de Bouillon was chosen by the 
Christians to be king of Jerusalem, he refused both the title 
and the crown, declaring that he would not wear a crown of 
gold in the city where his Saviour wore a Crown of Thorns, 
and he entered the Holy Sepulchre unarmed and barefooted. 
This humility is somewhat marred by the fact that several days 
of appalling bloodshed followed the Crusaders' entry, and 
presumably Godfrey made no attempt to protect the citizens 
from massacre. 

The method of Lord Allenby 's entry upset both Moslem 
and Jewish tradition, for it was commonly believed that when 
at last the Christians did conquer Jerusalem, they would follow 
the example of our Lord on His day of earthly triumph and enter 
by the Golden Gate. 

Probably there were many in the crowd that welcomed 
General Allenby who remembered another entry — that of 
Wilhelm, ex-Kaiser of Germany, in 1898. The ordinary entrance 
into the city was through the Jaffa Gate, or Bab el-Khalil, as 
the Arabs call it, the Gate of the Friend, and by this narrow 
way General Allenby entered — but not so W'llhelm. For his 
entry a great breach was made in the main wall by order of 
his friend Sultan Abdul Hamid . One who witnessed this amazing 
spectacle wrote of it thus : "On the afternoon of Saturday, 
October 2gth, 1898, a curious sf)ecimen of a pilgrim entered the 
Holy City, armed cap a pie, escorted by troops, with Turkish 
mounted police thrashing out of the way such natives as had 
drawn near. The Kaiser had arrayed himself hke a Crusader 
as seen in pantomime — silver helmet, white silk robe with red 


cross falling over the haunches of his white horse, and the other 
usual trappings for the part. As he rode through the streets 
which had been trodden barefoot by myriads of pilgrims, he 
appeared to be in a mood of exaltation, and saluted with almost 
epileptic fury. Indeed, it seemed as if he had captured the city 
by the sword instead of arriving there, as was the fact, as one of 
Cook's personally-conducted tourists. . . . On the same occasion 
he took part in the dedication of the German Lutheran Church. 
He and his attendant officers, gigantic men selected for 
their size, marched up the church armed to the teeth, with a 
mixture of goose-step and cake-walk, while the choir sang a 
respectful anthem which the Kaiser took to refer to himself 
and acknowledged with a military salute. He then entered the 
pulpit in full armour and preached a lengthy sermon in a tone 
which was that of a drill-sergeant giving orders." 

(b) In the Streets and Among the People 

As you walk through the streets it is well to recollect that 
ancient Jerusalem lies buried many feet below, that cities 
have been built on the ruins of their predecessors. ' The streets 
are paved with rough stones and are narrow, and the little 
bazaars on a level with the street crowd one upon another. No 
street has any name written on it, neither are the houses num- 
bered. The Arabs have names for the streets, but they have 
never been translated, except the main thoroughfares viz 
David Street and Christian Street. Jerusalem is quite different 
from other Oriental cities, and probably derives its peculiarity 
from the cosmopolitan character of its inhabitants. It is a 
quaint mixture of ancient and modern, eastern and western 
civilisation, churches, mosques, synagogues, two-storied hovels 
convents, mmarets. and belfry towers jostling each other. Some 
of the ruins that abound date from the time of Solomon or that 
of Titus, others were originally built by the Persians whilst 
many, whatever their exact date, are older than the Cnisades 
No carriages of any kind can circulate, only donkeys cameh 
pomes, sheep, and goats. Exery form of religion summons its 
followers to prayer, and the clang of the Christian bell mingles 
with the plauitive note of the muezzin from the minaret. 



The grandest of the many entrances to the city is the Gate 
of Damascus, sometimes called the Gate of Roses on accoimt 
of the exceeding beauty of its architecture. One need never 
weary of wandering through the streets of the city ; the bazaars 
are amusing, and there are generally some merchants from 
Jericho and Jaffa to watch. Their method of bargaining is 
most interesting, for it usually gives one the impression that 
they are quarrelling, whereas in all probability they are really 
quite calm and polite. While his master is thus trafficking, a 
camel kneels resting outside until the business is transacted. 
Presently a Christian procession will pass by ; perhaps it is 
Friday, and the faithful are "doing" the "Stations of the Cross," or 
perhaps a Patriarch or Archbishop is being escorted to his palace. 
A quaint mixture of different tribes and differing tongues, yet 
it is altogether harmonious, as every visitor discovers in time. 

Sometimes I wondered what Jerusalem could have been 
like in the da3's when the Russians and other foreign pilgrims 
came over in their thousands. The Easter I spent in the Holy 
City was not quiet ; there were fights, and also rumours of 
massacre, which fortunately did not materialise. That Easter 
week, 1920, it v/as like a city of the dead, for it was under martial 
law ; there were no pilgrims, and visitors were omy admitted 
within the walls by means of a special permit, not easily obtain- 

Without doubt, from a Christian point of view, the pilgrimages 
were all to the good, for the perpetual exodus of pilgrims to 
the East, whatever one may have thought of them, must in the 
long run have been good for the purpose of religion. 

A French writer gives an interesting description of a Russian 
pilgrim of the poorest class : " Many of the Russian pilgrims 
flocked to this or that hospice to be fed, washed, and clothed. On 
going out, all the professional beggars of Jerusalem would make 
for them like a flock of swallows to snatch a few sous which 
the poor pilgrims always gave. One evening the pilgrims were 
assailed as usual, and nearly all put some alms into the tin plates 
held out so appealingly. Last of all came a wretched old woman, 
thin and half -starved, with a hard face. When she saw the 
beggar, her face grew harder ; she had not a kopek ; she passed 
on. The professional beggar followed her, crying for alms. 


The old woman stopped, and then with a gesture as of one 
who gives her all, she took from her shawl a morsel of bread, 
the only food she possessed, and as though offering a treasure 
she bestowed it on the beggar. He took it, mocking and shrug- 
ging his shoulders ; she saw nothing, heard nothing, but ran 
on to catch up the others ; her face lit up in ecstasy, so happy, 
all else forgotten, for she knew that she had done it for Christ." ^ 

The city is divided into four quarters. Christian, Armenian, 
Jewish, and Moslem, and on the whole the streets are surprisingly 
clean, excepting the Jewish quarter. But there are great 
schemes in view for the cleansing and purifying of the streets 
and sewers, and possibly before long much of the dirt will have 
vanished. To a Christian the chief scandal is the state of the 
Via Dolorosa, that street above all others the holiest in Christen- 
dom. Between Stations VI and VIII the pestilential smells, 
the garbage, and filth are indescribable ; a Christian native 
summed it up as one long sewer. 

Throughout the Scriptures there rise hymns of praise to the 
glory and splendour of Jerusalem. The psalmist never tires of 
paying homage ; even the prophets, in spite of their warnings 
and frequent denunciations, do not refrain from exalting her. 
No words expressive of her glory and beauty are exaggerated 
if used to honour Syon. Salem means peace ; Jerusalem means 
" Vision of Peace " ; she is also styled the " Daughter of Syon," 
the " Queen of the Hills," the " City of David," the " City of 
Solomon." To a Jew, Jerusalem is the realisation of an earthly 
Paradise : to a Christian she is the type of the Heavenly City, 
New Jerusalem. 

A rabbi once said in days gone by : "Of the ten parts of 
beauty that God has given to the earth, one is for the entire 
world, nine are for Jerusalem." 

(c) The Dominicans and St. Stephen's 

According to the Greeks, and certain of the Latins, the little 
chapel on the right between St. Stephen's Gate and the Tomb 

^Mirnge dc I'Oricnt. L. Bertrand. 


of the Virgin marks the spot where St. Stephen was stoned. 
The Dominicans, on the other hand, claim that the martyrdom 
took place on the spot where the modem church of St. Stephen 
now stands. 

In 1882 the apse and pavement of a small oratory were 
discovered not far from the Damascus Gate. There seems to 
have been a contest for the possession of this place, but ultimately 
the Dominicans obtained it. In 1883 excavations began which 
brought to light considerable debris of mosaics, capitals, and 
marble slabs of the fifth century. The foundations were dis- 
covered in their entirety, and in the court in front of the church 
tombs with inscriptions may still be seen. Human remains in 
large quantities were found, which discovery brought to mind 
the burial of the sixty mart>Ts in the seventh century. Numerous 
indications, together with the style of the church and the distance 
to the city, demonstrate, according to the Dominicans, that the 
Basilica built by the Empress Eudocia, wife of Theodosius the 
younger, in the year 460 a.d., was situated on the spot where 
St. Stephen was stoned. This Basihca was destroyed by the 
Arabs in 637 ; in the eighth century the Greeks built there a 
church and monastery ; the Crusaders found the church in ruins 
and rebuilt it, but it was again destroyed by Saladin in 
1187. To-day, on the site occupied by the former churches, a 
modem Basilica stands, and adjoining it the convent of the 

Many of the Dominicans are men of great learning and with 
a knowledge of Jerusalem and its monuments unequalled in 
the city. They give much help to all who wish to learn more of 
the Holy City by organising visits to the sites of great importance 
Conferences are also held at the Convent on subjects of interest 
connected with the Holy Land. 

(d) The Franciscans and St. Salvatore 

The followers of St. Francis of Assisi are regarded by the 
Roman Catholics as the most important of the religious orders in 
Palestine, for to them is entmsted the Latin guardianship of the 
holy places. It is they who are responsible for the Latin ceremonies 


that take place in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, it is they who 
invariably " take " the Stations of the Cross, and it is at their 
Casa Nova that most pilgrims, including even some Easterns, are 

The Convent of St. Salvatore is an ancient Georgian convent 
acquired by the Franciscans in 1551 after their expulsion from 
the Cenaculum. It is an enormous building, containing a 
library, a museum, an orphanage, and various shops, including 
a printing office. The parish Church of St. Salvatore adjoins 
it, and is attended by European and Arab Christians of the Latin 

It would seem that shortly after St. Francis' visit to the 
Holy Land in or about the year 122 1, the Egyptian Sultan 
gave two of his followers the remains of the Convent of St. Mary- 
on-Syon as a place of residence. This favour was granted to 
them at the request of the King of Sicily, who, as an ancient 
writer tells, "went up to Jerusalem under the Sultan's safe 
conduct, saw and kissed the Holy Places, and then went to 
Egypt to the Sultan, and begged him that he would give him 
the Church of Mount Syon, with the adjoining buildings, the 
Blessed Virgin's Chapel in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
with the adjoining chambers, the chamber of the Lord's Sepulchre, 
the Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the valley of Josaphat, 
and the cave of the Lord's nativity in the Church of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary at Bethlehem with the buildings adjoining to that 
church, for the Minorite {i.e., Franciscan) brethren, whom he 
had already consented should be lodged elsewhere in Jerusalem, 
to dwell m. 

" When the Minorite brethren had received these places, 
they built thereon three convents : the first on Mount Syon, 
where there had been a convent of the Canons regular ; the second 
in the Church of the Lord's Resurrection, by the side of the Blessed 
Virgin's chapel, for the use of the guardians of the Holy Sepul- 
chre ; and the third at Bethlehem." 

Some three hundred years later they were expelled from 
Moimt Syon, and after accepting temporarily the use of the 
Armenian Convent, Deir ez Zeitoimieh, they settled down at 

* Felix Fabri: 1484. 


St. Salvatore, where the Father Custodian has resided ever since. 
The Franciscans also have a convent at the back of the Chapel 
of the Apparition within the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 
It is of great advantage to have a convent so close to the Holy 
Places, and it is used a great deal by those who are responsible 
for the night offices . It has belonged to them since the thirteenth 
century, and in 1869 Francis Joseph of Austria gave them a 
little terrace where they can at least breathe fresh air and see 
the sky. 

(e) The Via Dolorosa 

The name of Via Dolorosa has been given to the road tra- 
versed by our Saviour bearing His Cross from Pilate's judgment- 
seat to Golgotha. As the Franciscans are responsible for the 
devotion of the Way of the Cross every Friday, it seems fitting 
that a description of this route and the ceremony should be given 
here.^ Ten of the incidents which mark the " Stations " are 
mentioned in the Bible, the other four, viz., the two Falls of 
our Lord, the meeting with His Mother and Veronica who wiped 
His face, are traditional. The first nine Stations are localised 
in the actual street, the last five in the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre. The present Via Dolorosa is not expressly mentioned 
until the sixteenth century. 

Two points must of course be borne in mind : firstly, that 
the actual road traversed by our Lord would have been many 
feet below the present path ; and secondly, that the present 
Stations can hardly mark the actual spots where the incidents 
took place. Indeed, from the reports of ancient pilgrims it 
would seem that the sites have often been changed. But that 
the Way of Sorrows led through the crowded streets of the city 
there is no doubt, and so it may be said that the object of 
localising the Stations was to impress upon all men in all ages 
every detail of those suflerings endured by the Founder of 
Christianity at the hands of His own people. Every Friday the 
Franciscan Fathers, followed by a band of devout persons, start 

' See also c'lapter on the Holy Sepulchre. 


the " Way of the Cross," pausing to pray before each one of the 
fourteen Stations. 

The First Station is located in the courtyard of a large building 
formerly the Turkish barracks, and said to occupy the site of 
the Prsetorium. " Christ leaving the Praetorium " has been the 
subject of many an artist's fancy, passing with regal 
dignity down the steps which led to death. These steps, generally 
known as the Scala Santa, were, centuries ago, removed to the 
Church of San Giovanni in Laterano at Rome. 

According to tradition, it was in this courtyard that Pilate 
uttered these words as he washed his hands, " I am 
innocent of the blood of this just Person," and the Jews replied, 
■' His blood be on us and on our children ! " Then the Christ 
descended into the roadway, and the Cross was laid upon His 
shoulders. This is the Second Station, and is marked with a 
white cross on the wall of the Franciscan monastery by the Chapel 
of the Flagellation. 

The route then passes the Convent of the Sisters of Syon, 
where the street is crossed bj^ the so-called Ecce Homo Arch, the 
only relic of the iElia Capitolina of Hadrian . Part of this archway 
is found in the Church of the Sisters of Syon, which is built 
into the rock. Down in the vaults beneath the Church are 
traces of Roman pavement some six to eight feet below the level 
of the road. On this pavement, which may have formed part of 
Pilate's Judgment Hall, are large squares with smaller square 
divisions, said to have been the " board " on which the Roman 
soldiers played their national game. The Sister Superior told 
me that when this was seen by some Indian soldiers they evinced 
great excitement, and said they knew the game well, and often 
played it in their country. 

In the Greek Convent adjoining the Sisters of Syon a flight of 
steps leads to subterranean chambers. Possibly these were 
stables for use of the garrison of Antonia, to be ready in case 
of emergency. The Greeks claim that the lowest of these were 
dungeons, and in one of them can be seen skulls and human 
bones : this was the dreaded robur of the Roman career. Into 
this robur malefactors were lowered to perish in the darkness. 
Close by is shown a small stone chamber, said to be the " prison 
of Christ," where He was placed while awaiting His "trial." 


Holes are shown in which His legs were placed, with eyelets in 
the stone by which to fasten His neck to the wall. 

The Via Dolorosa now descends to the Tyropaeon valley and 
joins the street leading from Damascus Gate. At this junction 
of the two roads, marked by a broken column, is the Third 
Station, which recalls the First Fall of our Lord. The Via 
Dolorosa then follows the street of Damascus Gate for a few 
yards to the Fourth Station, at the Armenian Uniat Church, 
where according to tradition our Lord was met by His Mother. 

It would seem that the soldiery were in great haste to finish 
their appalling task. Passover was approaching, and at this 
Feast there was the danger of a riot on the part of the Jews. 
The strength of the Victim began to fail, and at this moment 
Simon, a native of Cyrene, came from the fields by the Fish Gate 
into the city. Possibly he was a Jewish proselyte, or even a 
follower of Christ. Certainly his sons were well known, for the 
Evangelist speaks of him as the father of Alexander and Rufus.* 
" On him they laid the Cross, that he might bear it after Jesus," ^ 
which may mean that he bore it alone for a while, or that he 
lightened our Lord's burden for a little, thereby relieving His 
aching shoulders. Here an oratory has been erected by the 
Franciscans to the memory of the Cyrenian, which marks the 
Fifth Station. 

From this point the route becomes steeper, the Via Dolorosa 
turning toward the west ; further up the street is an archway, 
and close to it the traditional House of Veronica {V era-icon, the 
"true image") marks the Sixth Station. As the Christ was 
almost fainting with loss of blood and bathed in sweat, a woman 
came forward from her house. It is said that her name was 
Berenice, a Jewess, and that the name of Veronica was given 
her after she became a Christian. Boldly she approached the 
Saviour, and with a linen cloth in her hands, steeped in cold 
water, cleansed and wiped His Face ; and, according to the 
beautiful tradition, as a reward for her courage and devotion, an 
impression of that Face was left upon the cloth. Close to the 
House of Veronica is an oratory placed under the care of the 
Greek Uniats. The top of this street is vaulted, damp and 
gloomy and in an unsavoury condition. 

'St. Mark xv. 21. * St. Luke x.-ciii. 26. 


The Via Dolorosa then crosses the Khan cz-Zeit, where once 
stood the Gate of Justice, now marked by the Chapel of the 
Seventh Station. Here our Lord is said to have fallen for the 
second time whilst crossing the threshold of this Gate as He was 
leaving the city. Passing the Hospice of St. John, about thirty 
paces further on we find a black cross on the wall of the Greek 
monastery of St. Caralombus. This is the Eighth Station. Here 
the Christ is met by a group of women, who are moved to tears 
at the sight of His sufferings. Then the great prophecy falls 
from His lips, for He exclaims : 

Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for Me, but weep for 
yourselves, and for your children. For behold the days 
are coming in the which they shall say. Blessed are the 
barren, and the wombs that never bare, and the paps which 
never gave suck. Then shall they begin to say to the 
mountains. Fall on us, and to the hills. Cover us. For if 
they do these things in a green tree, what shall be done in 
the dry ? » 

The Via Dolorosa proper ends here, for the road is closed by 
buildings, so it is necessary to retrace our steps, and to reach the 
Minth Station we must pass through one of the dirtiest and most 
crowded streets in Jerusalem. The Procession, with some 
difficulty, continues the Way of the Cross through the street 
called by the Crusaders " the street of Bad Cookery " (because 
the food that was sold to pilgrims was cooked here) . The Ninth 
Station, outside the Coptic monastery, recalls the Third Fall of 
our Lord in full view of Golgotha, and the apse of the Basilica of 
the Holy Sepulchre, which can be seen from here, shows that 
there was but a short distance from the Ninth Station to Calvary. 

To reach Calvary it is again necessary to retrace our steps and 
to follow the road between the Russian Convent and the German 
Lutheran Church. At the end of the street a little door leads 
to the Courtyard of the Holy Sepulchre. Within the church 
we rejoin the Via Dolorosa and mount the steps to the Chapel 
of Calvary. A large stone, placed on the ground, marks the 
spot where our Lord was stripped, and where the soldiers cast 
lots for His garments. This is the Tenth Station. The altar on 
the extreme right indicates the place where He was nailed to 

' St. Luke xxiii. 28 


the Cross, the Eletenth Station, and a few yards beyond, towards 
the east, a cylindrical hole lined with silver, under the Greek 
altar, shows the place where the Cross stood, and where for six 
hours hung the Saviour of the world. This is the Twelfth 

Close by stands the Altar of the Stabat Mater, erected by the 
Latins to commemorate the place where the Christ was taken 
down from the Cross and His Body laid across His Mother's 
knees ; this is the Thirteenth Station. Down the steps below is 
the marble slab marking the place where the Body was washed 
and embalmed with myrrh and aloes. Some twenty paces away 
is the Holy Sepulchre, which marks the Fourteenth Station. 
Joseph of Arimathaea had besought and obtained leave of Pilate 
to take away the Body of Christ, and he, together with Nicodemus, 
" took the Body of Jesus and wound it in linen clothes with the 
spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bur>'. Now in the place 
where He was crucified there was a garden ; and in the garden a 
new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid. There laid they 
Jesus therefore because of the Jews' preparation day ; for the 
sepulchre was nigh at hand."^ 

(/) The White Fathers of St. Anne and the Pool of Bethesda 

Close to the Gate of St. Stephen stands the large convent of 
the White Fathers and their seminary founded by Cardinal 
Lavigerie, the Apostle of Africa. The students in the seminary 
are chiefly Sjoians and Arabs and belong to the Greek-Melkite 
(or Greek-Uniat) rite. The White Fathers are chiefly concerned 
with African Missions, and the seminarists are trained to work 
as missionaries in that continent. Their dress is ver^' pictur- 
esque and looks cool under the burning sun, for they wear a 
white habit, and as headgear a red cap almost identical with 
the tarbouche. 

In St. Anne's, the Church connected with the Order, there 
are Altars where the Latin rite is used, but the High Altar is 
reserved for the Greek-Uniat rite, and one Greek Mass is said 

^ St. John xix. 40-2. 


[To face page 58. 


there daily. In Jerusalem there are Greeks, Armenians, Copts, 
Syrians, and Abyssinians of the Uniat or Cathohc rite. The 
Maronites "submitted to the Papacy at the time of the Crusades. 
The Armenian rite differs to a large extent from the others, and 
the ancient Armenian language is used in the Liturgy, though 
it is a dead language which but few modem Armenians would 

There is little difference between the Orthodox and the 
Uniat except upon one very important point, namely, that 
the latter have submitted to the claims of the Papacy. Mcirriage 
of the secular clergy is permitted if before ordination. In 
Palestine there are few married Uniat priests, and none in 
Jerusalem. The Armenian Uniat community, whose Church of 
our Lady of the Spasm is at the Third Station, close to the 
Damascus Gate, is a very small body, consisting of only two 
priests and a handful of the faithful. In most of the Uniat 
confessions the Liturgy is sung, not in the vulgar tongue, but in 
the ancient language of the community. Communion is given 
in both kinds by intincture, and not with a spoon as in the 
Orthodox Greek Church. 

The Church of St. Anne stands on the site of the traditional 
birthplace of the Virgin, and the house of her parents, Joachim 
and Anna, whose tombs are shown in the ancient crypt. There 
would seem to have been a continuity of witness to the fact 
that the Mother of Christ was bom in Jerusalem. About the 
year 530 the deacon Theodosius says : " It is not more than 
a hundred steps from Pilate's house to the Probatica pool. 
There our Lord healed the paralytic man : his pallet is still to 
be seen. Near the pool of Probatica is the Church of the Blessed 
Virgin." Others of the same period state with certainty that 
the Church of St. Mary had been built on the traditional site 
of the Virgin's nativity. 

At the fall of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, it is said 
that when the Saracens approached the city the nuns of St. Anne 
cut off their noses to save their virtue, and a similar act is also 
reported of the nuns of St. Clara at Acre. Saladin transformed 
St. Anne's Church into a college ; after a while the monastery 
became a ruin, but pilgrims were allowed to pray in the crypt 
of the ancient sanctuary on payment of backsheesh. In 1842 


the Turks made certain restorations of no great importance, 
and commenced to build a minaret at the west end of the chuich, 
which was never completed. After the Crimean war the Sultan 
of Turkey first offered the ruined site to the English government 
but, on the offer being refused, he gave it to Napoleon HL, and 
since then it has remained French property. In 1878 it was 
handed over to the care of the White Fathers. 

Close to the Church of St. Anne is the Pool of Bethesda, or 
the " Probatica." The pool was discovered during the excava- 
tions in 1 871, together with the apse of a little church of the 
twelfth century. It is divided into two parts, on account of 
the construction of the twelfth-century church, which is built 
over the southern part. The derivation of Bethesda is said 
to have as its origin a play upon the words Bethesda and Beth 
Hanna, both of which mean " House of Grace." 

The White Fathers have discovered another very large 
reservoir to the west, about sixty feet below the level of the 
Church of St. Anne. The pool of Bethesda was in the vicinity of 
these reservoirs, and there would seem to be reason for supposing 
that this is the pool into which the sick were plunged as soon as 
the angel had stirred the water. 

(g) The Benedictines and the Dormitio on Mount Syon 

The Dormitio, or " Sleep of Death " of the Blessed Virgin, on 
Mt. Syon, is the name given to a somewhat unlovely church built 
on the site where, according to tradition, the Virgin fell asleep. 
The Sultan of Turkey gave the land to the ex-Kaiser of Germany 
on his visit to Palestine in 1898, and the latter handed it over to 
the German Catholic Society of Cologne. This society established 
a monastery here for the Benedictines of Beuron, and the church 
was consecrated in 1910. After the taking of Jerusalem by 
General Allenby in 1917 the Germans were allowed to retain 
possession until some twelve months later, when, owing to the 
discovery of some unfortunate occurrence, they were expelled, 
and the Benedictines of Maredsou (Belgium) were installed in 
their place. ^ 

•The German Benedictines returned to the Dormitio in 1921. 


From the tower of the Dormitio there is a superb view over 
the surrounding country and along the road to Bethlehem. The 
church is built on the foundation of the Crusaders' Basilica of 
Mount Syon, near to the reputed spot of the Death of the Virgin, 
and a chapel in the crypt locaHses the scene. In this chapel are 
nine altars, and seven more in the church, two of the latter being 
dedicated to English Saints, St. Boniface and St. Willibald. 
From the terrace the Cenaculum is seen on the left, and close by 
an arched doorway leading to the self-contained quarter of 
En-Nebi Daud. Below the Cenaculum is a lower room, con- 
taining the supposed tomb of David, into which no Christian 
or Jew is admitted, being shown instead a representation of the 
tomb in a room adjoining the chamber of the Last Supper. 
The Superior told me of a friend who, on one occasion when the 
Moslems had gone on pilgrimage to En-Nebi Musa, was shown the 
Tomb by a caretaker. He found a stone sarcophagus covered 
with a great pall of black velvet having an embroidered fringe 
of great beauty presented by the Sultan of Turkey. Lamps and 
great masses of candles were burning before it. The room was 
described as very small and containing nothing of interest. 

Near the Church of the Dormitio, and close to the gate that 
leads to the excavations of the Assumptionist Fathers, is a group 
of houses with a mosque that to-day replace the House of the 
Last Supper, generally called the Cenaculum. By tradition the 
house of Joseph of Arimathaea stood on this site. A low door 
gives access to a courtyard, where another door is seen which 
communicates with a lower room said to locate the spot where 
Jesus washed the feet of His Apostles. Upstairs is the Cenacu- 
lum, a plain room with vaulted ceiling, divided into two parts 
by two columns in the middle, dating from the period of the 
Crusaders, fifty feet long by thirty feet wide This room is said 
to correspond to St. Luke's description : 

And He said unto them, Behold, when ye are entered into the 
city, there shall a man meet you, bearing a pitcher of 
water ; follow him into the house where he entereth in. 
And ye shall say unto the good man of the house. The Master 
saith unto thee. Where is the guest-chamber, where 1 shall 
eat the passover with my disciples ? And he shall show 
vou a large upper room furnished : there make ready. ^ 

* St. Luke xxii. lo-ia. 


The history of the Cenaculum is full of interest. Here in all 
probability stood the first Christian Church, for it would seem 
that this part of the city was spared in the general destruction 
of 70 A.D. St. Cyril of Jerusalem, about 350 a.d., speaks of the 
" Upper Church of the Apostles where the Holy Ghost descended 
upon them." The Armenian Pilgrim of the fifth century says 
that a great Basilica built on the site of the Cenaculum, which he 
calls "the Church of Holy Syon, contains eighty columns 
united together by arches. There is no upper division, but merely 
a wooden ceiling from which is suspended the crov^Ti of thorns 
which was placed on the head of the Redeemer. To the right 
of the Church is the hall of the Sacred Mysteries, with a wooden 
cupola whereon the supper of the Lord is represented." 

The Basilica referred to was that of St. Helena, who rebuilt 
the Church of Syon in the fourth century, but respected the 
former arrangement, keeping the two floors distinct, as the 
Crusaders did when they rebuilt it a second time after its destruc- 
tion by the Saracens. In the twelfth centur\' the Basilica was 
called St. Mary-of-Mount-Syon, and the Cenaculum the Chapel 
of the Holy Ghost, and they were served by the Canons Regular 
of St. Augustine. In 1219 it was destroyed with other sanc- 
tuaries in the city by order of Melek elMonadhem, but the Cenacu- 
lum, or Chapel of the Holy Ghost, together with the Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre, escaped the general destruction. As related 
elsewhere, the Franciscans were given the charge of the Cenaculum 
about the year 1240, and in 1342 they rebuilt the upper room 
much as it is seen to-day, remaining in charge until their expulsion 
two hundred years later. Since then it has been in Moslem 
occupation, and this, needless to say, is bitterly resented by 
Christians. The Gothic room is bereft of all atmosphere ; it is 
difficult to realise that the greatest gift of the Saviour, the 
Sacrament of Unity, was ever instituted here. The room is 
forlorn, desolate, derelict, bereft of all except the remembrance. 
It is most extraordinary that this sacred place should still be 
retained by Islam and that Christians may not even hold any 
service here. Justice demands that the Cenaculum should be 
restored to Christians for whom alone it is a holy site. 

Here our Lord washed the feet of His Apostles ; here He 
instituted the Holy Eucharist and the Christian Priesthood ; here 


He appeared to His disciples on the night of the Resurrection ; 
here also the great miracle of Pentecost took place, followed by 
the wonderful result of St. Peter's speech, when he convinced 
three thousand people of the Messianic mission of the Risen 
Lord. Certainly, as the first meeting-place of Christians, and 
afterwards the Mother of all the Churches, the Cenaculum should 
be restored to Christianity — not to one sect alone, but to all, 
when it might indeed become a real centre of spiritual unity. 

(h) The Assumptionist Fathers and Notre Dame de France 

Opposite the New Gate and adjoining the French Hospital rises 
the enormous building of Notre Dame de France. This convent is 
under the care of the " Augustins de I'Assomption," who are 
generally known as the Assumptionist Fathers, and whose head- 
quarters are in Paris. It was built originally for the great 
concourse of pilgrims from France that visited Jerusalem twice 
a year up to the beginning of the late war, and it also provided 
for some sixty seminarists besides a few resident Fathers. A few 
days after my arrival in Jerusalem, finding hotel life impossible, 
I was advised to visit the Hotellerie de Notre Dame de France. 
I took the advice, saw one of the Fathers, and was shown a large 
cell with a balcony facing the Mount of Olives, and knew at 
once that I had found a home. It was clean, comfortable, and 
homely, and contained all that the visitor could desire, including 
an excellent library and museum. 

At the time of my visit there were no pilgrims in the usual 
sense of the word, though on two occasions we put up some 
two hundred American sailors on a visit from Jaffa, and not 
infrequently French officers would pay a flying visit from SjTia. 
Part of the convent was given up to a battalion of French soldiers, 
part used by the Fathers, and the rest was a hotellerie. From 
the roof of the convent, which stretches the vast length of the 
building, one can obtain the best view of Jerusalem, at any rate 
from a panoramic point of view, and during the troublous times 
at Easter, when martial law and " curfew " were the order of 
the day, a haven of rest it was indeed. 

Near the Syon Gate, on the eastern slopes of the Mount, th^ 


Fathers possess a large tract of land which is called St. Peter 
in Gallicantu. In the garden itself the Fathers and 
Dr. Bliss have excavated a whole district of the ancient city, 
and claim that no other part of the city of the time of our Lord 
has been so completely revealed. On every side they have 
brought to life interesting remains of the city of the ancient 
prophets and of the town that was contemporary with Christ — 
streets, aqueducts, baths, halls paved with mosaics, sculptures 
and bricks with the stamp of the Tenth Legion. On this 
property a flight of stairs has been discovered going down 
towards the east. This is probably connected with the street 
of the same period of which Dr. Bliss announced the existence 
at the foot of Moimt Syon, to the north-east of the Pool of Siloam. 
The Assumptionists claim that the House of Caiaphas was 
situated here, and not within the Armenian enclosure in the 
vicinity, as is generally supposed. This is a matter of keen 
dispute between the archaeologists, and a very interesting account 
is given in La Palestine of the claim that the House of 
Caiaphas and the Prison of Christ are amongst the ruins 
exposed to view by these excavations.^ 

(i) The Armenians and the Church of St. Jame^ 

The great convent and buildings connected with this church 
are situated in the Armenian quarter, the Haret el Armen, at the 
end of a vaulted street ; the gardens of the Patriarchal palace 
on the right and the entrance to the convent on the left. The 
church is said to have been built on the spot where St. James was 
beheaded in 44 a.d. by order of Herod Agrippa L, grandson of 
Herod the Great. 

About that time Herod the King stretched forth his hands to 
vex certain of the Church, and he kiHcd James the brother 
of John with the sword, ^ 

While in Jerusalem, thanks to tlie Patriarchal Secretary, 

* La Palestine : Guide Hiitonqite pur Ic^ profesifHn dc Notre Dame 
de France. 

* Acts xii. I. 


I managed to see and talk with many of the resident Armenians, 
and on two occasions I had long interviews with the Bishop. 
The last Patriarch died in 1912, and his successor had not then 
been appointed, owing to difficulty with the Turks. Bishop 
Yeghich6 Tchilinguirian was vice-Patriarch, and " President of 
the Administration of the Armenian Patriarchate." * His Grace 
received me in a great salon, the walls of which were covered 
with paintings of former Patriarchs and the dignitaries of the 
Church of Armenia, and as he could speak but little French, and 
I knew nothing of the Armenian language, his secretary acted 
as interpreter. At once he conversed on the subject uppermost 
in his mind, the unceasing massacre of his compatriots by the 
Turks. At one time a large number of priests had been attached 
to this convent, but so many were killed during the war that 
only fifteen remained. I could not but notice the pathos and 
depression visible on all their faces, from the Bishop to the 
lowest cleric. His Grace could not understand why the Armenian 
massacres should have been pemiitted to continue after the 
signing of the Armistice, for surely Great Britain and America 
were powerful enough to prevent the crimes, even if other 
coimtries were indifferent. He did not think that England 
realised that the Turk's one object was to destroy the whole 
Armenian nation. He spoke of Gladstone with the greatest 
respect, and said that he was the greatest friend Armenia had 
ever possessed, and how faithfully the cause had been served by 
him. " Would that he were alive to-day," the Bishop added. 

Turning to religious questions, the Bishop said that the 
Armenian Church was the most primitive of all Catholic Churches, 
accepting no additions to the Faith after the Council of Con- 
stantinople in 381. It was also the most liberal Church of all, 
for it accepted as Catholics the Latin Church, the Greek, and 
other Orthodox Churches of the East, and also the Anglican 
Church. The charge against the Armenians that they were 
involved in the Nestorian heresy was not true. For their 
Church believed in the two Natures of Christ united in one 
Person, and as a matter of fact the Church solemnly anathema- 
tised Nestorianism once a year before Lent. 

* In 1922 Mgr. Elis6e Tourian was elected Armenian Patriarch. 



The Church of St. James is the most beautiful Church in 
Jerusalem, richly decorated with splendid woodwork inlaid with 
ivory and mother-of-pearl. The floor is covered with costly 
Persian carpets. In the north wall is the chapel of St. James, 
on the site, according to tradition, where the Apostle was be- 
headed. This shrine is approached through priceless doors 
richly inlaid with tortoiseshell and nacre. In the porch are 
some curious gongs of bronze and wood of very ancient t>T5e, 
used to call the faithful to prayer. These are reminders of the 
terms of the treaty made with Christians when, in 637 a.d., 
Jerusalem surrendered to the Khalif Omar. The terms forbade 
Christians the use of bells outside their churches, but gongs 
were permitted. In this connection there is a quaint Moslem 
tradition that God commanded Noah to use such a gong in order 
to call together the workmen when building the Ark, therefore 
gongs are f>ermissible. Saladin enforced this regulation again 
after the expulsion of the Crusaders in 11 87, and up to the year 
1823 there was only one bell in Jerusalem, and that was the 
hand-bell used in the Franciscan convent. 

Beyond the church is a wide court surrounded by buildings 
comprising hospices for pilgrims, lodgings for servants, and 
printing offices. Near the museums is the Convent of the Olive 
Tree, or the Deir ez Zeitounieh, inhabited by nuns of the Congre- 
gation of the Holy Angels. Their chapel is said to mark the 
site of the House of Annas, the high priest before whom our 
Lord was first led after His arrest in Gethsemane. 

The Superior of this convent was anxious that I should see 
the olive trees which give the name to the convent, for it is 
beheved that these trees are shoots of the tree to which our Lord 
is said to have been bound when brought before Annas. Then 
he pointed to a stone let into the wall, which was partly split, 
and told me the pictiuresque and thoroughly Eastern legend of 
this stone. When our Lord on His triumphal entry into Jeru- 
salem said to the Pharisees,. " I tell you that if these should hold 
their peace the very stones would immediately cry out," this 
stone at once opened its mouth and spoke. 

Near the Convent of the Olive Tree are boys' and girls' 
schools, which I was asked to visit. Some of the teachers 
could speak fluent French, but they were more anxious 


to hear what England was doing for Armenia than to talk to me 
about their system of education. The children were very 
friendly and happy, too young yet to be obsessed by that 
terror and suspicion which seems to pursue this unhappy 

There is a style about all Armenian things, from their archi- 
tecture to the conical head-dress of the clergy, representing, it is 
said, the cone of Mount Ararat, which is a quaint mingling of 
ancient and modern . This is evident in their religious ceremonies, 
where many Latin customs mingle with Greek, as also in their 
habits and conversation. Possibly it is because in their un- 
fortunate history thej^ have been exiled to so many different 
lands. Their chief characteristics are love for their Church 
and country, devoted family life, and enterprising commeicial 
spirit ; indeed, their essential cohesion and indissolubiUty of 
national character are as strong as those of the Jews. Deprived 
over and over again of political independence, they have never 
been assimilated by their conquerors. Probably no nation has 
ever suffered as the Armenians have done at the hands of the 
Turks and Kurds, deportation, exile, torture, rape and wholesale 
slaughter, hundreds of their villages and cities destroyed and 
their churches desecrated ; indeed, one might say that their 
sufferings have been greater than any known in the history of 
the world. A Serbian Bishop, well known in England, writes, 
" Their history with short intervals has been a Golgotha for a 
period of sixteen centuries." And it is this " Golgotha " which 
is depicted on their faces to-day. 

Close to the Syon Gate, or Gate of David, is an en- 
closure containing the ancient burying-place of the Armenian 
Patriarchs of Jerusalem. The building^ within the enclosure 
are said to occupy the traditional site of the Palace of Caiaphas.* 
On the north, or to the left on entering the court, is the chapel 
called the Prison of Christ— in Arabic Habs el Messieh — marking 
the spot where the Lord was imprisoned from His first con- 
demnation till the morning of Good Friday. But as already 
stated, the exact site of the House of Caiaphas and of the Prison 
is a debatable point. 

1 See II. {h) 


(j) The House of John Mark and the Syrian- J acohiteT. 

Not far from the Armenian Patriarchate is the Convent of 
the Syrian- Jacobites, where their Bishop resides. The church 
inside the court is built on the traditional site of the house of 
Mary the mother of John sumamed Mark. It was here that, 
according to tradition, the episode related by St. Luke took 
place : Peter being a prisoner by the command of Herod, and 
guarded by four quaternions of soldiers, was visited at night by 
an angel, who loosed him from his chains and conducted him 
" to the house of Mary, the mother of Mark, where many were 
gathered praying." ^ The prison was probably within the second 
wall of the city, and in the twelfth century its site was indicated 
by tradition as south-east of the Muristan and marked by a 
chapel, of which there now remain no traces. In the church 
there is a remarkable painting of the Blessed Virgin. The 
Syrians affirm that St. Luke was the artist, and also that the 
Mother of Jesus was baptised in the house ; a little monument 
in the form of a baptistery preserves the tradition. 

(k) The Collegiate Church of St. George and the Anglicans 

The Anglican Church in Jerusalem is a " Collegiate " Church. 
It has the status of a cathedral, but the name is not assumed, as 
the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is the Cathedral of Jerusalem. 
The Anglican buildings, which include the Collegiate Church, 
residence of the Bishop, houses for the clergy, colleges and 
schools, are outside the town at the junction of the Nablus and 
Jericho roads, and almost opposite the entrance to the " Tombs 
of the Kings." The Collegiate Church has its dean, four resi- 
dentiary canons, six honorary canons, and six episcopal canons 
who personate provinces of the great Anglican Communion which 
is represented by the Bishop at the Mother-city of the Faith. 
The Bishop does not use the title " Bishop of Jerusalem," as that 
is held by the Greek Patriarch ; he is known as the Anglican 
Bishop in Jerusalem. The church, its buildings, and its missions 

* Acts .\ii. 12. 


are supported by the " Jerusalem and East Mission Fund," 
whose headquarters are in London. The cathedral, quadrangle, 
college and schools make a noble array of buildings, somewhat 
British in appearance, but a unique opportunity was lost when 
the Church of St. Anne, with its historic surroundings and 
associations, was offered to the Anglican Church and 
refused ! ^ 

The chapel at the north of the High Altar belongs to the 
Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, and the arms of 
the Knights are painted on the walls of the chapel. Up to the 
time of the fall of the last Latin king of Jerusalem, the emblem 
of the Knights was a plain red cross, but after the Turkish 
occupation it was changed to a Maltese cross. Shortly after 
General Allenby had entered Jerusalem in 1917 King George of 
England sent a white flag with a plain red cross to St. George's 
Collegiate Church, and it now hangs in the chapel, as a witness 
to the liberation of the Holy Land. 

The Turk was so hurried in his departure from the city that 
he was unable to leave any souvenir in the way of damage or 
destruction behind him, except in St. George's Cathedral, and 
of this a delightful story is told. The Bishop's chaplain, who 
was showing me round the church, removed the carpet in front 
of St. John's Altar, and, lifting a trapdoor, displayed what 
looked very much like excavations, for the stonework was 
badly damaged. He told me that in the early days of the 
war some Turkish officers entered St. George's Schools, to the 
bewilderment of the boys, who did not know what their visit 
portended. The officers demanded that the church should be 
opened, for they had heard that the Bishop had cannons in the 
Cathedral, and they intended to search for them. And search 
they did, until, striking a stone under St. John's Chapel, which 
sounded hollow, the Turkish officers ordered it to be broken up, 
and, expecting to find guns, began to excavate. Fortunately, 
at this juncture the Headmaster of St. George's School arrived 
on the scene and on learning the nature of the Turkish quest 
explained at length the difference between cannon and Canon. 

In the choir there are special seats for the Greek and other 

* See u. (/) 


Patriarchs or Eastern bishops/ when they attend the services 
in the Collegiate Church, for the present Bishop, Dr. Maclnnes, 
like his predecessor, Dr. Blyth, is very anxious to promote 
friendly relations between the Anglican and Eastern Churches, 
hoping that such relations may eventually lead towards reunion. 

During the war the Turkish Governor of Jerusalem occupied 
the house of the Anglican Bishop as his headquarters, and the 
actual surrender of the city was signed in the Bishop's library 
adjoining the vestry of the church. 

Many years before the Collegiate Church was consecrated 
(1898) the late Patriarch of Jerusalem expressed a wish to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop in Jerusalem that a 
church should be built in order that the services of the Anglican 
Church might be known, with a view to drawing the two Churches 
into closer unity. 

1 It is the custom for the heads of the Eastern Chuiches to pay 
official and ceremonial visits to the Collegiate Church of St. George on 
special occasions. 



(a) The Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 

(b) The Orthodox Greek Church. 

(c) The Schism Between East and West. 

(d) A Short Story of the Crusades and their Failure. 



Christendom's Most Holy Place 

the church of the holy sepulchre 

" Jerusalem has been the representative sacred place of the 
world ; there has been none other like unto it, or equal to it, or 
shall be while the world lasts ; so long as men go on believing 
that one spot in the world is more sacred than another, because 
things of sacred interest have been done there, so long Jerusalem 
will continue the Holy City." — Sir Walter Besant. 

(a) The Church of the Holy Sepulchre 

The two main centres of interest in the Holy City are the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre and the Dome of the Rock, the 
former the most sacred place in Palestine — one might say in the 
whole world — for all Christians, regardless of sect or denomina- 
tion ; and the latter the most sacred place, second only to Meccah, 
for all Moslems. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is the most 
wonderful Church in Christendom for its history, for what it 
contains, and from the fact that it is the Church of six creeds : 
vi2., Greek Orthodox, Latin, Armenian, Coptic, Syrian — Jacobite 
and Abyssinian. To appreciate the wonders of this unique Church 
one should pay many visits and study carefully the plans and 
the history of the building. 

Early in the morning of my first day in Jerusalem on entering 
the Church I found the Franciscans celebrating High Mass in the 
Sepulchre — men and women kneeling within and without the 
ante-chamber, and a semi-circle of monks beyond who formed the 
choir. The people were devout and reverent ; the priests within 



the Tomb could not be seen, but their voices were clear and they 
sang with good effect. A few people in the vestibule made their 
Communions, while the solemn chanting of the monks provided 
an atmosphere pleasing as it was fitting. When the service was 
over a young Franciscan with black curjy hair spoke to me. He 
was the director of the singing, and when I told him that I was 
furnished with an introduction to the Superior, he invited me, 
with much courtesy, to visit the Franciscan Convent of St. Salva- 
tore that morning. 

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is acknowledged by the 
different rites to occupy the site of Golgotha, which, at the time 
of the Crucifixion, was outside the walls of the city. 

Jesus also, that He might sanctify the people with His own 
Blood, suffered without the gate.* 

St. John tells us that the place where Christ was crucified " was 
nigh to the city " ; also that " there was a garden, and in the 
garden a new sepulchre." ^ 

The remains of the second wall, viz., the city wall at the time 
of Christ, were discovered to the south and east of the Basilica, 
and may now be seen in the Russian Church close by. The 
Jewish sepulchre, moreover, with many rock graves, which is to 
be seen behind the Rotunda, furnishes arguments sufficiently final 
to prove that before the third wall was built the site of Golgotha 
could not have been within the city. The wall was not built until 
43 A.D., ten years after our Lord's Crucifixion. If further proof 
were necessary to show that the Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
occupies the site of Calvary, one could point out that the Emperor 
Hadrian, who was determined to found an entirely pagan city 
on the site of the fallen Jerusalem, desecrated the sacred memories 
of Judaism and Christianity alike by the worship of his own gods. 
On Golgotha he built a vast terrace, making the ground level 
by piHng up heaps of stones and rubbish, and then on this 
terrace caused a grove to be planted, and an altar to be erected 
dedicated to the worship of Astarte. 

This profanation is an obvious proof of the authenticity of 
the Holy Places, but it failed in its main purpose, namely, to 

' Hebrews xiii. u. « St. John xix. 20, 41. 

IThe Church of the Holy Sepudghre --Easter. 1920 

[To face page 74. 


obliterate all traces of holy memory, for it kept both Golgotha 
and Ihe Holy Sepulchre secure from injury, until these sites 
were discovered by the Empress Helena. The position of Calvary 
can best be realised by following the Via Dolorosa, especially on 
a Friday afternoon at the weekly " Stations," by climbing the steep 
incline from Pilate's Judgment Hall to the Church of the Holy 

On this sacred spot two churches were founded by Con- 
stantine, that of the Holy Sepulchre and the Basilica of the Holy 
Cross. The atrium of the latter, with the bases of its columns, 
still remains, and there are also remnants of old walls and a 
gateway, belonging to the Basilica in the Russian building men- 
tioned above, and other ruins in the Coptic Hospice. The 
original churches were destroyed by the Persians in the seventh 
century, but, such was the devotion of the period that later in the 
same century Abbot Modesta built two more churches. Alas 
that the Holy Places were so soon to be left desolate again ! A 
few years later a terrible fire destroyed both these churches, and 
it was not until 1055 a.d. that another church was erected in their 
stead. The Crusaders, however, in the days of their power, 
considered that this church was not worthy of such a site, and 
so they raised a magnificent Romanesque building in the early 
part of the twelfth century, the main features of which were 
preserved during the following centuries, in spite of wars, neglect, 
" restoration," and the like, until a great catastrophe occurred 
at the beginning of the nineteenth century. 

The great fire which occurred on September 30th, i8uS, 
marks an epoch in the history of this church, for every trace of 
the medieval character of the Rotunda was obliterated, and most 
of the Crusaders' building was completely destroyed. Fortunately 
the Holy sites themselves escaped damage, but their magnificent 
setting has gone for ever. We cannot be sufiiciently thankful 
that the picturesque Crusaders' tower as well as the stately south 
frontage was saved, and to-day they stand out boldly as the 
only remnants of one of the grandest monuments of medieval 

The Greeks managed to obtain a firman from the Sultan to 
secure to themselves the sole right of restoring the building. 
The beginning of the nineteenth century is not fanu.u^ h 


architectural beauty in any country, so perhaps it is better 
not to be hypercritical, but unfortunately their work stands to 
this day. Instead of a Basilica, they erected a kind of mosque- 
building not uncommon in those days, and also substituted 
heavy and square pillars for the graceful columns of the Rotunda ; 
while in the place of the beautiful Catholikon they built a 
separate church, thus committing an act of vandalism, for it 
completely blocks the stately ambulatory, giving it the dismal 
appearance of a tunnel. Although the present building is not 
much more than a century old, it already shows signs of decay, 
but Turkish restrictions and Christian animosity have hitherto 
made any kind of restoration or repair impossible. In 1870 
the Russians erected the Dome which now surmounts the Holy 
Sepulchre, and since that date nothing has been done to prevent 
the sacred building from falling into decay. Now that the 
Holy Places are freed from Turkish control, the faithful are 
beginning to ask how long this principle of quieta non movere is 
likely to continue. 

In Christian Street (on the west side of the church) is situated 
a very beautiful walled-up doorway dating from the period of the 
Crusades. It was known as St. Mary's Gate, and it opened 
formerly into the tribunes of the Rotunda, close to the Chapel of 
the Apparition. A few yards further on are some shops contain- 
ing various objects of devotion, and passing by these we come to 
the Beggars' Steps, which lead to the courtyard. Along these 
steps and about the walls of the court at festival seasons crowds 
of vendors are to be seen, selling glass bracelets and necklaces 
from Hebron, sacred pictures, sweets, cakes, and lemonade ; here 
also are gathered little knots of beggars, who claim their places 
as a matter of rightful heritage. This court or quadrangle 
forms part of the old Basilica of Constantine ; it is very roughly 
paved, and is surrounded by walls and buildings. In front is the 
magnificent facade of the Crusaders, brown and green with age ; 
on the left the Crusaders' tower, with a peal of bells that jangle 
with Eastern music, barbaric in their joyous triumph on festive 
occasions or on the visit of some notable, ecclesiastic or secular. 

The tower was built in the twelfth century, and originally 
stood detached from the other buildings, according to the custom 
of many churches in the south of Italy, where the campanile 


stands apart, as also in parts of Norfolk and elsewhere in England, 
notably at Evesham, in Worcestershire. The flat top adjoining 
the tower is the roof of the great Greek Convent, from which 
an admirable view is to be obtained of the various functions 
that take place in the courtyard below. The first door to the 
right of the court leads to the Convent of Abraham. On the 
verandah at the top of the staircase is an ancient olive tree, said 
in days gone by to be the thicket in which the ram was caught, 
afterwards to be sacrificed by Abraham in the stead of Isaac. 
A passage leads to the Chapel of Abraham, a twelfth-century 
building, the window of which forms part of the great facade. 
It is a square chamber without architectural character beyond 
some marble and mosaic decorations designed by Mr. George 
Jeffery, architect of the Anglican Cathedral of St. George. On 
the walls of the chapel are many modern frescoes depicting the 
life and story of Abraham and Isaac. 

In 1885 the Patriarch of that day, Nicodemus, assigned this 
chapel to the use of Anglican priests for celebrations of the 
Holy Eucharist. The first priest to whom this concession was 
granted was Dr. Charles R. Hale, afterwards Bishop of Cairo, 
Illinois, U.S.A. Many Anglican clergy of note have celebrated 
here, including Canon Liddon. At the direction of the present 
Patriarch a marble altar was designed by a Greek architect for 
the exclusive use of the Anglican Church. The Patriarch 
provides the bread and wine, and instructs the Greek priest in 
charge of the convent to make all necessary preparations before 
each celebration. The Greek Patriarch is anxious that those 
who use this altar should realise that the chapel adjoins 
Calvary. The chapel does not belong to the Anglicans, and 
permission to use it must be obtained at the Patriarchate. 

The other doors of the courtyard lead respectively to the 
Armenian Chapel of St. James and the Coptic Chapel of St. 
Michael, while from the latter a staircase leads to the Abyssinian 
Chapel, the nearest spot to the Holy Places that this rite possesses. 
The beautiful chapel at the right of the facade, which is reached 
by a flight of steps, is the Chapel of the Agony of Mary, where 
once there was a staircase leading to Calvary. On these steps, 
day by day, may be seen little groups of monks, Coptic, Armenian, 
and Greek, basking in the sun, gossiping and smoking 


cigarettes. On the left of the court are the Chap)els of St. James, 
St. Thecla, St. Mary Magdalene, and the Church of the Forty 
Martyrs, generally called to-day the Church of the Ointment 
Bearers, all of which churches belong to the Greeks, the last- 
named being set apart as the parish church of the Greeks in 
Jerusalem. A little to the right of the main entrance is the grave- 
stone of the English Crusader, Philip d'Aubigny, recently restored. 
On entering the church one suffers a shock. On the left 
is situated a small vestibule, fitted with a lounge covered with 
cushions and Persian rugs : it is the place of the door-keeper, 
where he may be seen most of the day, talking to kindred 
spirits and smoking cigarettes. The Turkish guards mentioned 
in every guide book published before the war are no more ; for- 
merly they were to be seen on all sides, especially during the 
Easter ceremonies, when large numbers of them were stationed 
within the church to keep the peace. At least, that was the idea, 
but it is alleged that they were more often than not the cause of 
friction between the different sects. To-day the church is free of 
them, but, curious as it may seem, the door-keeper of the chief 
Christian Church in the world is a Mohammedan. When General 
Allenby entered Jerusalem, and was received by the heads of the 
religious bodies, included in his proclamation was the proviso that 
the hereditary custodians of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 
who had always been Moslems, should continue in their office. 
Thus a Moslem to-day holds the great key of the church and 
none can enter until it has been opened by him, and by him 

It is said that the origin of this curious custom was " in 
remembrance of the magnanimity of the Caliph Omar," to whom 
the Patriarch of that day " surrendered the city in 637 : for Omar 
spared the city and the lives of its inhabitants and secured the 
Church of the Holy City from damage or occupation." The 
story is that when the Patriarch brought the Caliph to the Church 
at the hour of prayer, the latter asked where he might kneel, and 
the Patriarch bade him pray where he was. The Caliph refused, 
and instead spread his mat outside the Basilica. " For had I 
prayed within the church, my people would have said, ' In this 
place Omar prayed, and here too we will pray,' and you would 
have lost your church." And close to the Church of the Holy 


Sepulchre stands the Mosque of Omar, built in memory of his 
visit and of his prayer. 

Immediately within the main entrance is the " Stone of 
Anointing," and here the people first bow low, crossing themselves 
and then kneel and kiss the sacred spot. If they are Easterns 
they will cross themselves from right to left three times, if they 
are Latins they will content themselves with one crossing in 
the western manner and then kiss the stone. This is said to mark 
the place where our Lord's Body was anointed before being 
laid in the Tomb, after it was taken down from Calvary. It is 
not the original stone, for, according to the Greeks, this was 
carried away to Constantinople by the Crusaders ; but, on the 
other hand, tlie Latins say that it lies buried beneath the church, 
probably close to Calvary. To the left is a small stone with a 
railing, which marks the spot where Mary and the holy 
women stood during the anointing. This part of the church is 
international , that is to say, it belongs to all Christians, though 
actually in the charge of the Greek, Latin and Armenian con- 
fessions. Just beyond the Stone of the holy women a staircase 
leads to the Armenian quarter, with its chapels and various 

On entering the Rotunda the first impression received is one 
of disappointment, square pillars supporting a clumsy dome are 
not exactly what one expected to see. The walls are stained 
and covered with mildew and the whole place strikes one at 
first as being in the last stage of decay. The Rotunda itself 
is some 67 feet in diameter, encircled by eighteen of the square 
pillars, which support both the clerestory and the dome, built 
in 1870 by the Russians. Above the pillars and resting on them 
are three galleries, the topmost one and the lowest belonging to 
the Greeks, while the middle gallery is divided between the 
Armenians and the Latins. In the centre of the Rotunda stands 
the building which covers the Holy Sepulchre itself, which was 
erected by the Greeks in 1810, and took the place of a monument 
of great beauty destroyed by the fire. " This little edifice is 
rectangular in shape, terminating, to the west, pentagonally. 
It is 24 feet long, 15 feet wide, and as much in height. The 
lateral walls are adorned with sixteen pillars and crowned by a 
balustrade of somewhat short and stunted columns. The little 


terrace is surmounted by a kind of dome in the Muscovite style, 
intended to represent an imperial crown. The front is adorned 
with four twisted columns and ornamented with three paintings, 
each having a lamp ; one of these, the upper one, belongs to the 
Latins, the second to the Greeks, and the third to the Armenians. 
It is the same with the great candlesticks placed at the entrance." ^ 
In front of the Sepulchre is a kind of ante-chamber with marble 
benches and candlebra, from which a low door opens into a 
vestibule called the Chapel of Angels, commemorating the angel 
who sat on the stone after it had been rolled back from the 
Sepulchre, 2 and a fragment of the stone is inserted in the pedesta 
in the centre of the chapel. An arched door not more than 4 feet 
high admits to the Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre itself, which is 
about 6^ feet long and 6 feet wide. The actual tomb is encased 
in marble dating from the reconstruction of the church, for the 
great fire had laid the rock tomb bare ; it is fitted up as an altar, 
and Mass is said on it daily. Flowers, real and imitation, stand 
in vases on the ledges above, candles and lamps hang around, 
both these and the flowers being the property of the three con- 
fessions respectively. A Greek or Armenian monk is perpetually 
on guard : he stands motionless as a statue, while fixing 
his eyes upon you and watching your every movement. 
People come inside, cross themselves, kneel and kiss 
the marble covering of the Tomb and then go out. It 
is not possible for more than two people to be inside 
the enclosure at the same time. Some will enter with their 
faces streaming with tears, others will bring a cross, a rosary, or 
some other object of devotion, and lay it for a moment on the 
Tomb, others again will come just out of curiosity. But it is 
not often that the tiny chamber is empty, and the sacred place is 
rarely neglected ; old and young, women and men, girls and 
boys, clerics and laymen, beggars and wealthy, soldiers and 
civilians, all ages and all nations, they come to bring the spices 
and myrrh of their devotion to the rock-hewn Sepulchre. . . . 

And Joseph bought fine linen, and wrapped Him in the linen, 
and laid Him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of a rock, 

and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre.* 

* Franciscan Guide to the Holy Land. -St. Matthew xxviii. 2. 

' St. Mark xv. 46. 


• . . Once this church was called the Church of the Resurrection, 
a title most appropriate, for over this Tomb might be inscribed 
the words, Non est hie : surrexit enini. " He is not here : He is 
risen." On all other graves it is written. Hie jacet, but on 
this, Non est hie. 

The three great confessions hold their services within the 
Sepulchre night after night. The Greeks commence about 
midnight, they are followed in the early hours of the morning by 
the Armenians, while the Latins say their first Mass soon after 
4 a.m., and their last, a high Mass, is sung at a quarter before 
seven. No other body has the right to celebrate their office in 
this Holy Place, but the Copts own a tiny chapel, a sort of annexe 
to the Holy Sepulchre, which has been in their possession since 
the year 1573. Opposite the Copts' chapel is the chapel of the 
Syrians, very small and gloomy, without any attempt at decora- 
tion, which is reached by passing between two of the great square 
pillars. Here there is a narrow door leading into a rocky chamber, 
which tradition assigns to the tombs of Joseph of Arimathaea 
and his family, and also Nicodemus. These tombs are im- 
portant, for they are Jewish sepulchres, and constitute a proof 
that Golgotha was outside the wall of the city in the time of 
our Lord, for the bodies of the dead could not be buried within 
the city. 

The next point of interest is the Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene, 
called the Noli me tangere ; this is said by tradition to be the 
place where Mary Magdalene met the risen Lord, not 
recognising Him, but mistaking Him for the gardener. This 
sanctuary belongs to the Latins. Close by is the Chapel 
of the Apparition, the principal church of the Latins, where 
the Franciscans say their offices night and day. It is called 
the Chapel of the Apparition because it is said to mark the place 
where Jesus appeared to His Mother after the Resurrection. 
In the chapel on a side altar is preserved a small portion of the 
colunan to which our Lord was bound at His scourging, and it is 
the custom of the faithful to make use of a stick that lies 
on the altar and with it touch the column, then to kiss the stick 
and cross themselves. On the Wednesday in Holy Week I saw 
this column exposed, and hundreds of people flocked to venerate 
it. It is a fragment of porphyry about two and a half feet high, 



said to have been brought to this sanctuary from the House of 
Caiaphas at the time of the Crusaders. According to Latin 
tradition, the whole of this part of the church is said 
to occupy the site of the garden of Joseph of Arimathaea, but 
this tradition is not accepted by the Greeks. 

Near this chapel is the Sacristy through which one passes 
to the Franciscan Convent. This is called the Sacristy of the 
Holy Land, for it possesses various relics connected with the 
Crusaders. Close to the sacristy a gallery some fifty feet long 
and formed of seven arches called the Arches of the Virgin, 
possibly because of their proximity to the Chapel of the Apparition, 
leads to a very low chapel, divided into two compartments and 
quite dark. This is called the " Prison ot Christ," and belongs to 
the Greeks. According to tradition, Christ was imprisoned here 
until the arrangements for the Crucifixion were complete. On 
leaving this chapel one enters the once splendid ambulatory of the 
ancient Basilica, at one time a nave of the choir, but owing to 
the building of the modern Greek Catholikon, now reduced to 
the condition of a dark passage. 

Here there are three chapels, two of which belong to the Greeks 
— namely that of St. Longinus, the soldier who pierced the side 
of our Lord after His death on the Cross and who afterwards was 
converted ; that of the Division of the Garments, where the 
casting of lots for our Lord's clothing is commemorated ; and 
that of the Holy Winding Sheet, which chapel belongs to the 
Armenians. All these chapels have the appearance of being 
derehct and no longer used for their original purpose. Between 
the second and third chapels, twenty-nine steps lead to the Chapel 
of St. Helena, sometimes called the Church of the Holy Cross, 
which once formed the crypt of Constantine's Basilica. In all 
probability the Holy Cross was venerated here in the early days 
before it was carried away by the Persians in the seventh century. 
This chapel is cut out of the rock, and has six quaint-looking 
monolithic columns with magnificent capitals. The two alt irs 
are dedicated to St. Helena and St. Dismas the penitent thief 
respectively. Originally the chapel belonged to the Abyssinians, 
but now it is the property of the Armenians. From this chapel 
a flight of thirteen broken, worn, and irregular steps leads to the 
rocky cavern called the Chapel of the Finding of the Cross- 


Here were dug up the three Crosses, the Crown of Thorns, the 
Nails, and the Inscription, by command of the Empress Helena, 
and with the assistance of Macarius. Bishop of Jerusalem- 
According to a popular tradition, the true Cross was made known 
by the instantaneous recovery of a dying woman from the mere 
touch of it. 

About the year 325 a.d. the Emperor Constantine determined 
to find the site of the Crucifixion and Resurrection of our Lord 
and there to build a church. The desire to recover the Holy 
Sites originated in the mind of the Empress Helena, but the plan 
was conceived long before it was carried into execution. 

The Church of the Holy Cross was built by a grant from the 
Imp)erial Treasury, and in the thirtieth year of the reign of 
Constantine the Great, 335. the solemnities of the Dedication 
of the Basilica were attended by prelates from all the provinces 
of the Eastern Empire. The historian Eusebius, 314-340 a.d., 
a contemporary of Constantine the Great, expresses no surprise at 
the recovery of the sites in his account of the circumstance ; his 
remark that. " contrary to all expectation," the venerable and 
hallowed monument of our Lord's Resurrection " was rendered 
visible by the clearance of the superincumbent soil," is a rational 
expression of astonishment at the preservation of the Tomb during 
so many years and has no reference to a miraculous discovery." ^ 
An English clergyman who travelled much in the Holy Land 
wrote : " There are fifteen different spots in Jerusalem and its 
neighbourhood which have been suggested by various writers in 
the last two centuries as the true sites of Calvary and the Holy 
Sepulchre, in opposition to that which has been accepted by the 
tradition of sixteen hundred years. There is no doubt that 
Christian opinion never wavered from the fourth to the eleventh 
century in pointing to the spot where the church now stands as 
the actual site, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that when 
Macarius, Bishop of Jerusalem, was asked by the Emperor 
Constantine to point out the place where our Lord was crucified, 
he had good reasons for selecting the spot where the church now 
stands in preference to any other. More particularly so, as it 
was within the walls as they then existed, and the ground was so 

' Golgotha and the Holy Sepulchre. Sir C. W. Wilson. 


broken and rocky as to require an immense amount of levelling 
before a church could be built upon it."^ The Chapel of the 
Finding of the Cross is a place full of a charm that tells its 
own story, the bare rock unchanged since the Great Tragedy 
which transformed the world. It belongs to the Latins, 
and over the altar, which was presented by the Emperor 
Maximilian, stands a life-sized bronze statue of St. Helena on a 
pedestal of serpentine. On more than one occasion when I 
visited this grotto, the Franciscan daily procession, wending its 
way through the chapels and galleries, came down the thirteen 
broken steps, chanting a verse of Vexilla Regis, ^ the hymn of 
the Holy Cross. Every afternoon the friars have a short service 
in the Chapel of the Apparition and then visit each of the Holy 
Places in turn, carrying tapers in their hands, and chanting 
hymns as they walk in slow procession. 

The Chapel of Calvary, on the site of Golgotha, is reached by 
a double flight of stairs, its pavement being some twelve feet above 
the level of the church. To the right is shown the spot where our 
Lord was stripped of His raiment, which is the Tenth Station 
of the Cross ; close by is the Latin altar commemorating the 
Nailing to the Cross, the Eleventh Station ; next it is the Latin 
altar, Stabat Mater, where the Virgin received the Body of 
Christ after It was taken down from the Cross ; and beyond 
again, the Altar of the Crucifixion, the Twelfth Station, which 
belongs to the Greeks. Under this altar is a silver disc with 
an opening in the centre, which covers the place where the Cross 
of our Lord was fixed. One has to bend very low to get beneath 
the altar and kiss the sacred spot, but although there seems to 
be nothing but marble, it is possible by lowering the hand into 
the cavity to feel the rock into which the Cross was fixed. On 
each side of the altar a black disc marks the place where the 
crosses of the two thieves crucified with our Lord are said to 
have stood,^ Dismas, the penitent thief, on the right, and Gesmas 
on the left. 

Close to the altar there is a long metal slab, and by raising it 

* The late Canon Cooke Varborough. 

* " The royal banners forward go." 
•St. Luke .\xin. 39-43- 

Chl-rch of the Holy Sepulchre : '■ Crusader's Toa-er." 

[To face page 84. 


one can see a great cleft in the rock. This cleft is seen to better 
advantage in the Chapel of Adam, where it appears seven feet 
from top to bottom. On more than one occasion when I was in 
this chapel the Franciscan procession approached, singing 
Vexilla Regis, followed by Crux Fidelis} The officiating 
priest censed the altars of the Eleventh and Thirteenth Stations, 
which belong to the Latins, and afterwards the Greek altar 
over the place of the Crucifixion, a Greek priest standing on 
guard, watching lest his Latin brother should go beyond the 
hmit allowed. The Latins may cense this altar and hold a ser- 
vice at it on Good Friday, but they may not say Mass there on 
any occasion. Almost immediately after the Latin procession 
there followed another procession, this time of the Copts, a 
dozen men wearing crowns, and two deacons censing everything 
they passed. Their movements were very rapid and the hymns 
they sang were set to lively tunes. 

Calvary is the most sacred spot in the whole world, the 
Holy Place at which were enacted the last scenes of the Passion^ 
so faithfully told by the four Evangelists. Surely what Chris- 
tians of all nations have believed for centuries is sufficient wit- 
ness to the truth, and thus we may be content to accept as 
true that the small round hole beneath the Altar of Calvary 
marks the spot, or at any rate the locality, where the Cross was 

It is of interest to note that when the Patriarch of Jerusalem 
officiates at Calvary he lays aside his crown. 

Below Calvary is the Chapel of Adam, a vault entered by a 
dark and narrow passage. According to tradition, the skull of 
Adam was buried on Calvary, and this may perhaps account for 
the symbolical representation of a skull at the foot of the Cruci- 
fix, as is not infrequently seen. The altar in this chapel 
is dedicated to Melchisedek,^ King of Salem, a type of 
Christ. At the entrance to the Chapel of Adam is a stone seat 
on the right taking the place of the tomb of the great Crusader, 
Godfrey de Bouillon, the first Latin King of Jerusalem, and on 
the opposite side another seat marks the tomb of his brother 

' " Faithful Cross above all other." 
* Psalm ex. 4. 


Baldwin L, successor to the throne. These tombs were de- 
stroyed at the time of the great fire. On the surface of Godfrey's 
tomb was this inscription : 

Hie jacet inclytus 

Godfridus de Bouillon 
Qui totam istam terram 

Acquisivit cultui Christiano, 
Cujus anima regnet cum Christo. Amen. 

The CathoUkon belongs exclusively to the Greeks ; it is the 
largest church within the Holy Sepulchre, and is generally sup- 
posed to be the great nave of the building of the Crusaders. 
The Patriarch's throne is on the right side, and the corresponding 
one on the left is occupied by one of the Archbishops of the 
Patriarchate when required, and is not, as stated in some guide- 
books, the throne of the Patriarch of Antioch. The Ikonastasis 
or screen which separates the altar from the nave is covered 
with paintings in the Byzantine style. Under the dome stands 
a small white marble column, which, according to a tradition 
as old as the eighth century, is said to mark the centre of the 
world. This tradition was founded on a verse from one of the 
psalms : " For God is my King of old, working salvation in the 
midst of the earth." ^ The Archbishop of Jordan, pointing to 
this curiosity, remarked that it was not more extraordinary 
than the oak-tree between Warwick and Leamington which is 
said to mark the centre of England. 

Whatever may be said about the architecture of the Church 
of the Holy Sepulchre, whatever objections ma}' be raised to its 
decorations and its disappointing interior, the Christian will 
always enter and leave this most wonderful temple in Christen- 
dom with a feeling of gratitude and joy that, through vU the 
turmoil of the ages, these Holy Places, which are rehcs of all 
that matters most in this world, have been preserved intact to 
the present day. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre must for 
ever be unique ; Jerusalem saw Christ, like the rest of Judea 
she heard His words and witnessed His miracles, but Golgotha 
now enclosed within the church, alone has seen Him die, through 

^ Psalm Ixxiv. 12. 


which it has been consecrated above all other churches in the 

(b) The Orthodox Greek Church 

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre has been such a centre of 
religious disputes throughout the ages that some description of the 
religions that find a place in this church may be of interest. 
The Moslems and the Jews are dealt with elsewhere in detail ; 
here, as regards the latter, it is only necessary to say that since 
the destruction of Jerusalem in a.d. 70 Jews have had no part 
or lot in the Holy Sites. To this day no Jew may 
enter the courtyard, much less the Church of the Holy Sepulchre ; 
to do so might mean death, it certainly would mean rough treat- 
ment. Nor can they, like everyone else, take the short cut 
across the court from the Muristan to Christian Street. I heard 
a custodian on one occasion speaking with unnecessary lack of 
courtesy to a harmless-looking Englishman, who as I passed by 
appealed to me for protection. He was a very ordinary cockney 
and the custodian apologised for the misunderstanding. Mr. 
Wright, formerly chaplain to the Anglican Bishop, referring to 
this subject in his book,^ says that on Maundy Thursday he 
saw a Jew who had ventured into the courtyard hoping to 
escape attention, but, having been recognised, he had to be 
surrounded by Moslem soldiers or he would probably have been 
murdered." And again at the Easter Eve ceremony, " I saw 
two Jews from the House of Industry unrecognised in the crowd." 
On the other hand, Moslems come and go as they like. 

Without doubt the Greek Church is the Church, and to this 
day the Latins are looked upon as intruders except by their own. 
adherents. For the moment I will not comment on this atti- 
tude, because the work of the Franciscans and their guardian- 
ship of the Holy Places is dealt with elsewhere. From the year 
451 Jerusalem has possessed a separate Patriarchate of its own, 
there being four ancient Patriarchates of the Orthodox Church 
in the East, viz., Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and 

• Round About Jerusalem. Rev. J. E. Wright. 


During the Crusades, although there were a succession 
of Patriarchs throughout that period of some one hundred 
and fifty years, the Greek Church occupied a very inferior 
position, their clergy holding a secondary place while the Latin 
kingdom of Jerusalem lasted, and the Greeks naturally felt 
this position very keenly. During most of this time, viz., 
1096-1270, the Patriarch of Jerusalem resided at Constantinople. 
As a matter of fact, except for a somewhat irregular residence 
from the fourteenth to the beginning of the seventeenth century, 
the Greek Patriarchs were non-resident until 1867, when Kyrillus 
n., the one hundred and twenty-eighth Patriarch, in the twenty- 
third year of his rule, came to take up his abode in Jerusalem. 
The present Patriarchate, extending north and south from 
Phoenicia to the Red Sea and from the Mediterranean to the 
Great Desert on the east, embraces all the country described by 
the ancient name of Phoenicia — Palestine, Galilee, Samaria, 
Judea, Idumaea, and Arabia Petrae. The full official title of the 
Patriarch is : ' The Most Blessed and Holy Patriarch of the Holy 
City Jerusalem, and All Palestine, Syria, Arabia beyond Jordan, 
Cana of Galilee, and Holy Syon.' " ^ 

The occupant of the See to-day is Damianos, the one hundred 
and thirty-second Patriarch. He was bom in the island of 
Samos, where as a layman he acted as secretary to the Court of 
Law, and is now seventy-seven years old.^ 

The greater part of each year the Patriarch resides at his 
official residence, opposite the great Greek Convent, but he 
spends most of the summer months at the Greek Convent of 
Viri GalilcBt on the Mount of Olives. 

An organisation called the Monastic Brotherhood of the 
Holy Sepulchre was founded at the time of the building of 
that church in the reign of Constantine the Great. It con- 
sists of members of the Greek clergy, all ranks being represented. 
It governs the whole Patriarchate, and elects its Patriarch 
and Archimandrites. The chief function of this body is the care 
of the Holy Places, and the Patriarch is ex officio President of 
the Brotherhood. Most Greek convents seem to be troubled 

• The Oiihodox P itriarchate of Jerusalem. Theodore Edward Dowling, 
D.D., Archdeacon in Syria. 

* In igzo. 


with political questions, and as a result of politics the monks of 
the Greek Convent deposed Damianos, owing, it is said, to 
personal disagreement. This event happened some years ago, 
and the Patriarch appealed to the Sultan (!), who declared the 
deposition void. In 1916 the Turks ordered the Patriarchs of 
the various confessions to leave the Holy City, and the Greek 
Patriarch and his suite went into exile at Damascus. During 
his absence the monks again deposed him, but on returning to 
Jerusalem, after the Turkish dlhdcle, he appealed to General 
Allenby, who supported his claims, and thus he remains Patriarch 
to this day, though internal troubles still continue. 

It is of interest to record that the great St. Cyril of Jerusalem 
(351-386) was deposed by his monks no less than thirteen times. 

The Liturgy of St. James is the earliest of all existing Litur- 
gies, and from it came the Liturgy of St. Basil the Great, still 
used in the Greek Church at certain seasons, and from it again, 
the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, which is now the ordinary 
service of the Greek Church. The most striking feature in every 
Greek Church is the Ikonastasis, a great screen of stone or wood 
built across the entrance to the sanctuary, dividing it from the 
nave and choir, and making it a " holy of holies." As the name 
denotes, it is covered with ikons, or holy pictures, which are used 
throughout the Eastern Church, images not being permitted. 
It is usually surmounted by a cross, and sometimes by three 
pictures on pedestals, representing the Crucifixion, with St. Mary 
on the right and St. John on the left, bearing some resemblance 
to the Rood Screen used in Western Christendom. In the centre 
there is always a double door, called the Royal Door, which is 
opened at the time of service, but covered with a veU or curtain 
at certain parts of the Liturgy, so that the altar is completely 
hidden from view. There are also two other doors, on the right 
for the deacon, on the left for the servers to pass in and out when 
performing their various functions connected with the Liturgy. 
Beyond the Ikonastasis is the sanctuary, or the Holy Bema ; the 
whole space within the screen is called the altar, the actual 
altar itself always being called " the Holy Table " in the rubrics. 
This is covered with a white cloth, reaching down to the ground 
on every side, and called the Katasarkion, because it is a symbol 
of the burial cloth in which our Lord's Body was wrapped. 


Over this there is placed generally another cloth, called the 
endyton, representing Christ's robe of glory. On the Holy Table 
is placed the Book of the Gospels, the Cross with which the priest 
gives the blessing, and the Tabernacle in which the Sacrament 
is reserved. Behind the Altar there is generally a large cross, 
on which the figure of our Lord is painted, and a seven-branch 
candlestick, and on the altar itself, at the Holy Liturgy, two or 
more lighted candles. 

There is only one altar in a Greek Church, because not more 
than one Liturgy is celebrated each day in any church. Excep- 
tion is made to this rule in such places as the Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre, and the Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem- 
Behind the Holy Table is the throne for the Bishop, and on 
the wall of the apse are seats for attendant clergy who con- 
celebrate with the officiating Bishop or priest. The practice of 
concelebration (i.e., celebrating with the officiant) is usual not 
only in the Orthodox Greek Church, but also among Greek 
Uniats, as it is not the custom for priests to celebrate daily as 
in the Western Church. On the left of the Holy Table is the 
Prothesis, where the preparation of the offerings, an elaborate 
ceremony, is performed. Here the holy vessels with the Obla- 
tions remain imtil the " Great Entrance," a very important part 
of the service, when they are carried in solemn procession through 
the servers' door into the body of the church, and then through 
the Royal Doors to the Holy Table. The use of organs, or in- 
deed of any musical instrument, is imknown ; the music there- 
fore consists entirely of unaccompanied singing, chiefly plain- 
chant. The effect is extraordinarily beautiful, and at times, 
where there is a good choir, almost ethereal. 

The structure of the Liturgy is not easily followea until one 
is accustomed to it, when it will be realised that it far exceeds in 
beauty any of the Western Liturgies, and that the congregation 
have greater opportunities for taking an intelligent part in the 
service than is the case in the Latin Church. Incense is used 
freely throughout the Liturgy, but the times for its use are not re- 
stricted by hard-and-fast rules. Communion is given in " both 
kinds," to the laity with a spoon, the two species together, but 
to the clergy the species are given separately. Leavened bread 
is used, and hot water is poured into the Chalice after the 


Consecration. The Greek jUniats or Catholics, who also give 
Communion in " both kinds," dip the species of Bread into the 
consecrated ^^'ine.^ 

One thing I could not help noticing was the great difference 
between the "religious" and "secular" Greek clergy. The 
monks with whom I talked were for the most part educated men, 
any of whom could converse in European languages. They 
were pleasant companions, very friendly, and keenly interested 
in the question of reunion with the English Church. On the 
other hand the secular or parish clergy are often illiterate and 
entirely lacking in culture. They are for the most part Arabs. 
The rule of compulsory marriage has much to do with this state 
of things : the secular priest is badly paid, and has the greatest 
difficulty to make ends meet. The poorest incumbent or curate 
in England is rich in comparison. In the Latin communion 
celibacy is enforced on all in orders, including the subdiaconate, 
though this rule is relaxed for clergy of the Eastern Churches, 
who make their submission to Rome and become Uniats. " The 
present Eastern rule dates from before the ' schism ' between 
East and West. A parish priest must be married, but he must 
have married before receiving the subdiaconate. The practice is 
for those who are to be ordained to marry during their ' reader- 
ship,' the lowest of the minor orders according to the Greek 
Church ; nearly all the clergy are the sons of clerics, so they be- 
come a complete caste. The rule at present is that if a priest's 
wife dies while her husband is in charge of a parish, he must 
resign his charge and enter a monastery. The Bishops, on the 
other hand, nmst be unmarried, and are therefore taken from 
the ranks of the regular clergy, i.e., the monks." ^ 

When a Greek monk takes the final vows, portions of his hair 
are cut off from the four sides of his head, but there is no regular 
tonsure. The vows he takes are of "chastity and obedience," 
but not of poverty, for each monk may keep his own money 
though at his death his money must be given to the monastery. 

The Orthodox Greek Church is sometimes accused, chiefly by 
Protestants, but also by members of the Latin Church, of not 

' Farts of the description of tlie Greek Liturgy, etc., are suggested by 
The Liturgy of the Eastern Orthodox Church. H. H. Maughan. 
- The E istein Orthodox Church. R. W. Burnie. 


carrying on any mission work among the Moslems in Palestine, 
and it would certainly seem that, of all Churches, to the Orthodox 
Church of the East belongs the duty of mission work ; but the 
fact remains that under Turkish rule they were not allowed to 
engage in missionary operations. The chief problem of Church 
politics in the East has been its relation to Islam, and the rules 
against proselytising members of that faith have always been 
most stringent. Possibly the Greek Church will now be able to 
rise superior to her enforced inaction, and fall into line with 
other missionary agencies, for she has a great future before her. 
The late Dr. Benson (Archbishop of Canterbury), who was a 
keen enthusiast on the subject of reunion with Eastern Christen- 
dom, once said : " I do not think we sufficiently realise the im- 
portance of the Eastern Churches for the Christianity of the 
future. . . . We sons of Japhet are not the people who will bring 
back the people of Islam. I beUeve they must be brought back 
by Oriental Christians, and we must have closer touch with 
Oriental Christians — who regard us with favour and affection, 
and who in many respects are weak, oppressed and downtrodden 
— and give them a fraternal hand. ... It is in this direction 
that I see the Old World restored to Christ." In this connection 
it may be of interest to mention that on the Greek Feast of St. 
Geoige, which is observed on our sixth of May, I paid a visit to 
the Greek Church of St. George on Mount Syon. Arriving rather 
late, I found the little church quite full, men being in a majority, 
and everyone taking a great interest in the service. The Archi- 
mandrite who celebrated the Mass sent a priest to conduct me to 
a seat near the Ikonastasis, so that I could follow the ceremony 
more e?sily. The Greek Consul, attended by his Kvass, arrived 
shortly after, and a special seat was given him. 

At the conclusion of the service I was invited to a reception 
in the salon of the Superior's house, which adjoined. Here I 
found a gathering of some forty people, including the Greek 
Consul and his entourage, together with many clergy. We sat 
round the room forming a semi-circle, and presently a pudding 
was served, of which everyone ate a very small portion in memory 
of the dead. Then the pain bSni was given to all present instead 
of in church as is the French custom, and afterwards a tr?y con- 
taining cups of Turkish coffee and liqueurs was handed round. I 


was introduced to the Greek Consul, a very intelligent man who 
spoke French fluently. His first remark was about reunion, 
on which subject he was not only well informed, but most en- 
thusiastic, saying what a boon it would be if the Orthodox Greek 
Church could be brought into communion with the Anglican. 
The Greek Consul is one of the leaders of the reform movement 
within the Greek Church, and he believed that co-operation with 
the Church of England would have much influence for good, 
both on their clergy and the people generally. I spoke to several 
of the monks present , and found that they were keenly interested 
in this subject, asking me about the attitude in England to the 
Greek Church, and whether there was a real desire for reunion 
among Anglicans generally. 

The next morning I had the honour of being received by the 
Patriarch. We entered the great reception room, the walls of 
which were covered with paintings of former Patriarchs, the 
room being crowded with heavily-gilded chairs and tables covered 
with rich rose-coloured damask. His Beatitude Damianos soon 
came into the room, and I was presented to him. He is tall, 
with long flowing white hair and full beard, very dignified and 
very virile. Coffee and cigarettes were brought in, and then 
we talked, the .\rchimandrite being interpreter, on the topic of 
reunion. The Patriarch was cautious and reserved, but spoke 
with great courtesy of the Anglican Church and of the future of 
the two Churches. Most undoubtedly he was anxious for 
reunion — his frequent attendances at the English Cathedral 
were a proof of this ; but in the Greek Church there are two 
parties aniong the hierarchy— the Conservatives who are for 
isolatioi, and the Progressives, who realise that it will only 
be through the reunion of the Church that the Gospel will be 
spread. In proof of his friendliness, the Patriarch told me that 
he was sending a letter of goodwill to be delivered to the Lam- 
beth Conference ^ by the Anglican Bishop, and also that he 
hoped that a gathering of Anglican Bishops would visit Jerusalem 
after the Conference, in which case he would invite them to join 
in a solemn Te Deum at the Holy Sepulchre. ^ After I had 

* IQ20. 

^ This was before the official recognition of Anglican Orders by 
the Patriarchates of Constantinople and Jerusalem. 


promised to convey a message of greeting to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury and the Bishop of London, the Patriarch gave me 
his blessing, and the interview concluded. 

One of the most famous of the many Greek Convents in and 
around Jerusalem is the famous convent of St. Sabas, the patron 
saint of Serbia, commonly known as Mar Saba, situated in unique 
grandeur in the wilderness of Engaddi, near the Dead Sea. " From 
the fifth century it has been the most renowned settlement of 
Greek monks in Judea. It was in 493 that St. Sabas erected this 
convent, which has retained his name." ^ One great interest 
attached to this church lies in the fact that here St. John Damas- 
cene lived and died ; here he wrote the office which the Orthodox 
Greeks chant at every burial, and here also he composed nearly 
all the hymns which the Greek Church use in their festivals. 
Some of the hymns that are sung in English churches were 
composed in this monastery by St. Andrew of Crete, St. John 
Damascene, and others. According to Dr. W. H. Frere, ^ these 
hymns are mostly of the seventh, eighth, and ninth centuries, and 
were translated and adapted by Dr. Neale, e.g.. Christian, dost 
thou see them : The Day of Resurrection ; Come, ye faithful, raise 
the strain; Those eternal bowers; Art thou weary, art thou lan- 
guid ; Stars of the morning, so gloriously bright. The rule at this 
convent is very severe ; there is only one authorised meal each 
day, and that is in the morning. Meat is never eaten, not even 
on feast days. 

The convent of St. Theodosius — Deir Dousi — is close to the 
Moimt of Temptation (Quarantana), and at the time was of 
greater importance than that of Mar Saba. The situation is very 
weird, which may perhaps have given rise to the mistake made in 
some guide-books that this convent (and that of Mar Saba) are 
used as places of punishment for Greek priests. Disciplinary 
measures may certainly be necessary at times, but both these 
convents are in the first instance places of retreat and prayer, and 
also for carrying out the monastic rule. For instance, the rule 
of St. Basil the Great is followed, which insisted on industry ; 
and the motto of St. Theodosius, the patron of this convent, 
was, " Let no one lazy come in." 

1 The Orthodox Greek Patriarchate of Jerusalem. Dr. T. E. Dowling- 
« Bishop of Truro. 

'*?•,■,■,;. ^-^.^97■'^■ .■■;»,v-- .••..'--,.-- *^^ 

F:.v/A^::-- i^i;! 


-^^'-'^v'^^ --^H- ^' '^^"^ ^-''--' ■*--.-.. ^?^ 


The Brook Cherith and the Monastery of Saint George 

\_To face page 94. 


The Convent of St. George is built against the cliff on the 
north side of the valley known as the Wadi Kelt, thought by 
some to be the valley of Achor/ and by others the brook 
Cherith.' This convent stands on the foundations of the 
ancient Monastery of St. John of Couziba, and is still some- 
times called the Convent of Couziba. The view from the 
road to Jericho {see chapter on Jericho) across the valley is 
magnificent, and reminiscent of the wilder parts of Switzerland. 
There are some hundred Greek convents in Palestine which 
are subject to the Patriarchate of Jerusalem. 

(c) The Schism between East and West 

The conflict between Eastern and Western Christendom and 
its causes is a matter which cannot be explained in a sentence. 

Both Churches accept that which is recognised as the true 
Faith once delivered, and the differences between them lie rather 
in terminology than in actual doctrine. Yet these two great 
religions are still at variance with one another, resulting in 
infinite damage to the cause of Christianity. The Latins in- 
variably call the Orthodox Church "the schismatic Greeks." 

From very early times jealousy has been at the root of the 
conflict, and this was evident in past centuries in the quarrels 
between the claims of the old monarchical Empire of Rome, 
and the New Rome of Constantinople. In 451 the Fourth 
Ecumenical Council decreed: "The Fathers rightly granted 
privileges to Old Rome, because it was the imperial city. The 
one hundred and fifty most religious Bishops {i.e., at the Second 
Council of Constantinople), actuated by the same consideration, 
gave equal privileges to the most holy .throne of New Rome, 
rightly judging that the city which is honoured with the 
Sovereignty and the Senate, and enjoys equal privileges with the 
Old Imperial Rome, should in ecclesiastical matters also be mag- 
nified as she is in rank next after her." Six hundred bishops 
signed this decree, which was repudiated by the Pope of Old 
Rome, who insisted that Constantinople had no right to its 
claim, in that it was not an Apostolic See. 

* Joshua XV. 7. * 1 Kings xvii. 3-5. 


After this, as was natural, although most unseemly, the Popes 
of the West and the Patriarchs of the East huried anathemas and 
excommunications at each other's heads. The State interfered 
first on one side, and then on the other, and the Kingdom of 
Heaven was frequently transformed into a kingdom of this 
world. It would indeed be difficult for an impartial observer, 
one who was neither Latin nor Greek, to say which party was 
more to blame. " A strong-willed Patriarch is contesting against 
a strong-willed Pope ; Roman Imperialism, inherited from the 
Caesars, as against the Eastern contempt for 'outsiders,' a 
standpoint not easy to grasp, though perhaps these words of 
Peter of Antioch to the Patriarch of his day afford an insight of 
the Eastern standpoint : ' Be patient with the barbarians. They 
are our brothers, although rude and stupid ; we must not expect 
too much of them.' " ^ 

The date of the actual schism is generally given as 1054, 
though events during the centuries before had gradually paved 
the way for it. Few people reaUse the damage done to Christi- 
anity by this schism, namely, the bringing of the Turk into 
Europe in the stead of the greatest Empire known in Christendom . 
For a while Rome was like a sick man, when Constantinople had 
reached her zenith of fame. Then positions were reversed. 
Gregory VII. began to reform the Western Church and rouse his 
clergy from the decay into which they had fallen ; a great spiritual 
development followed, while on the other hand Constantinople 
rapidly decayed. 

In 857 Photius, a layman, became Patriarch of Constantinople, 
at the time when Nicholas the Great was elevated to the Papacy. 
It is said that Photius was consecrated six days after his ordina- 
tion to the diaconate and priesthood. The saintly Patriarch 
Ignatius had been deposed and banished to a remote island 
by an imperial edict, because of his condemnation of a scandalous 
act committed by a member of the Emperor's household. A 
synod of Bishops had been brought together to declare Ignatius 
deposed as unworthy, another instance of the kingdom of this 
world invading the kingdom of Christ. Rome condemned 
Photius as an intruder, and in revenge Photius issued a judgment 

i T/u Eastern Orthodox Church. R. W. Burnie. 


of deposition against Pope Nicholas. On this occasion Old Rome 
seems to have gained the Emperor's goodwill, for the latter, who 
had just ascended the throne, deposed Photius and restored 

After the death of Ignatius, Photius once again became 
Patriarch of Constantinople, and it is worth while to notice the 
chief point of the encyclical at once issued by him. It was 
altogether anti-papal, denying the Pope's pretensions to primacy 
and the superiority of the Roman See over that of Constantinople. 
It denounced the interpolation into the Creed of Nicaea of the 
Filioque clause, though this point was left entirely in the back- 
ground at the time of the actual and final schism. It denounced 
also — though these points to-day would hardly strike a modem 
mind as important — the Western custom of fasting on Saturdays ; 
condemnation by Rome of married clergy ; and the refusal to 
acknowledge the vaUdity of Confirmation bestowed by priests. 
Even at this moment Rpme stiU seems to have had hopes of 
coming to some agreement, for in 879 Pope John VIII. sent 
Legates to an Ecumenical Council held at Constantinople, at 
which the See of Constantinople was declared to have primacy 
over Rome, and to this all the Legates subscribed. 

There was great anger in Rome, and every attempt was made 
to nullify the decisions of this Council, but without effect. Photius 
was deposed shortly after, but for quite other reasons, and died in 
retirement. The next Patriarch remained out of communion 
with Rome, the Easterns refusing to abandon their position. 
' ' The tenth century was a sad age for the West, the Papacy sank 
to its lowest depth of degradation and moral infamy, while the 
Eastern Empire was renascent and triumphant. A large part of 
Syria, after three centuries, had been re -taken from the Saracens. 
Since 968 Antioch had been once more Imperial and Christian." ^ 

The reforming zeal of Hildebrand and the Pontificate of 
Leo IX. brought about a revival of the Western Church, but the 
Patriarch Michael Cerularius, who was more powerful than the 
Emperor, in 1053 organised an attack on the West, mainly 
because of their use of unleavened bread in the Holy Commimion, 
and fasting on Saturdays. The question of the Filioque clause 

1 Tht Eastern Orthodox Church. R. W. Burnie. 


no longer held an important place. " The Pope sent Legates to 
Constantinople . . . the Emperor received them with courtesy, 
but the Patriarch, for his part, would have none of them. On 
July i6th, 1054, the Legates, trusting to Imperial protection at 
least, marched up the great Church of the Holy Wisdom and 
deposited a ' bull ' on the altar, excommunicating the Patriarch. 
The Emperor provided for their safe return to Rome. But 
Michael Cerularius, in reply, anathematised the West." ^ It was 
thought that the schism would pass, as so many other schisms 
between the two great Sees had passed before. But this time, 
using the word in a temporal sense, the schism was final. It is 
true that two later attempts were made at conciliation, but both 
of them failed. 

The first of these were made at the Council of Lyons, in 1274, 
over which Gregory X. presided. The Greek Patriarch sent 
ambassadors, who acknowledged the Papal supremacy, and 
recited the Creed with the Filioque clause inserted. A year later 
all their doings were repudiated. Then came the Council of 
Florence in 1439. The old Empire was in an almost dying 
condition, and the Emperor Augustus, desiring Western help to 
save it and himself, came to the Council of Florence with the 
Patriarch and other Eastern Bishops. Great pressure was 
brought to bear on the latter, who capitulated to the Papal terms, 
with the exception of Mark, Bishop of Ephesus, who refused 
submission. But the story of Lyons was repeated ; once the 
Bishops left Florence, where they had been treated as prisoners, 
and returned to Constantinople, the Easterns repudiated all the 
promises that had been made. 

In 1453, the Turks destroyed Constantinople, and the Church 
of the Holy Wisdom was turned into a mosque of Islam, neither of 
which tragedies would have happened had there been no schism. 
Thus for close on nine centuries the schism between East and West 
has lasted ; neither does there seem to be any immediate prospect 
of healing the breach between these two great religious confessions. 

Many people imagine that the question of the Filioque clause 
{i.e., the words " and from the Son " added to the Nicene Creed) 
was the main clause of the schism. Although all Easterns to-day 

1 The Easttm Orthodox Church. R, W. Burnie. 


regard this question as important, it was small matter then 
compared to the strife for mastery between Rome and Con- 
stantinople. The addition of this clause was first made in Spain 
at the Council of Toledo, 589, and it spread throughout the 
West, but it was not introduced into the Creed in Rome until the 
year 1014, and by that time the schism had begun. The objection 
on the part of the Greek Church was not so much to the actual 
words, but to making any addition whatever to the Creed, such 
additions having, they alleged, been forbidden by the Council of 
Ephesus, 431. To-day it is considered doubtful whether that 
Council did prohibit all additions, especially as it was concerned 
entirely with the condenmation of the Nestorian heresy and 
defining the dogma of the Theotokos. At the same time, it is 
doubtful whether the Western Church had any right to add the 
clause without Ecumenical consent. 

(d) A Short Story of the Crusades and their Failure 

The story of the Crusades is interwoven in the history of the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and therefore it is fitting that a 
place for it should be found in this chapter. 

The Crusading ideal was intended to bring succour to the 
oppressed Christians in Palestine, and to recover the Holy Places 
in Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Nazareth for Christendom. Un- 
fortunately there were only a very few who kept this ideal before 
them in any of the Crusades ; the original object was rapidly lost 
sight of, and the very word " Crusading " ultimately became a 
synonym for conquest, bloodshed, and greed. The Crusades have 
left their mark behind in the architectural glory of that period 
and also in the building of hospitals and the founding of Orders 
to this day. But, on the other hand, " the evil that men do 
lives after them," and it cannot be forgotten that the result of 
the Crusades was first the breaking-up and then the destruction 
of the Eastern Empire, the bringing of the Turk into Europe, the 
widening of the gulf between Eastern and Western Europe 
and — most terrible of all — by cruelty, bloodshed, and vice, 
making the very name of Christian a byword of mockery 


throughout the length and breadth of that Holy Land the 
Crusaders came to recover. 

Peter the Hermit of Picardy was the first to conceive such a 

movement. He had visited the Holy City as a pilgrim and 

witnessed the condition of the Christians under the Seljuk Turks. 

On his return to Europe he excited the feelings of Christians to 

such an extent that preparations were made for an expedition to 

the East, which led to the First Crusade in 1096. At the outset 

the Crusaders were invited to Constantinople, for the schism was 

still new, and Gregory VIL, the former Hildebrand, summoned 

the Western rulers to join the Eastern Emperor against the 

Turk. Probably the Easterns soon regretted their invitation, for 

a rabble of some sixty thousand men and women, caring but little 

as to how the end could be attained, insisted that Peter the 

Hermit should lead them to Jerusalem . Imagine countless hordes 

of undisciplined men and women passing through civilised lands 

filled with splendid cities, though even they were preferable to the 

Turk at first. In vain the Emperor recommended Peter to wait 

at the Bosphorus imtil the more disciplined Crusaders should 

arrive. Peter crossed into Asia, fought against the Turk, and it 

is said that a very large number paid the penalty with their lives. 

When Peter returned to Constantinople with his few remaining 

men he found that fresh Crusaders had arrived, and that these 

were of a very different caUbre. Among them was the great 

Godfrey de Bouillon, together with his brothers Baldwin and 

Eustace, and many others whose names were known throughout 

Europe, and by the end of the year 1096 over six hundred 

thousand Crusaders had reached Constantinople. 

After terrible disasters, in which probably more than half 
their numbers were killed by the sword or disease, they reached 
Jaffa in 1099 ; then they turned inland to Ramleh, not more 
than sixteen miles from Jerusalem. On the Mount of Olives, 
where now the Russian building stands, Tancred pitched his 
camp in the month of May ; a month later three towers were 
built in preparation for an attack on the north wall. On July 
14th the first assault was delivered, only to prove a failure, for 
one of the three towers was destroyed by the besieged. During 
that night, however, the towers were rebuilt and re-erected 
close to the wall by the gate now known as Herod's Gate. On the 


following day the attack was successful, and Godfrey de Bouillon 
himself, hrst of the Crusaders, claimed the city as his own. 

It is said that in imitation of the fall of Jericho, the Crusaders 
marched round the walls of the city singing hymns during the 
day preceding the final assault, and that the Saracens on the 
ramparts mocked their devotion by throwing dirt upon the 
crucitixes. For this insult they paid a terrible penalty. As soon 
as tiie Crusaders entered the city they massacred everyone they 
met, men, women and children alike, and in the Haram enclosure, 
whither the Moslems had fled in terror, so many were killed that 
the Crusaders rode through a veritable sea of blood. The Jews 
wlio were taking refuge in their synagogue were burnt alive, and 
day after day for a whole week there was an orgie of massacre, 
pillage, and butchery, until scarce a Jew or a Moslem remained 
alive in Jerusalem. After this the chronicles inform us with 
pathetic simplicity that the Crusaders having changed their 
garments, proceeded to the Holy Sepulchre. " Bare-headed and 
bare-footed, clad in a robe of pure white linen, in an ecstasy of 
joy and thankfulness mingled with profound contrition, Godfrey 
de Bouillon entered the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and knelt 
at the Tomb of our Lord." ^ Autres temps, autres mceurs ! The 
tragedy of that awful week appears to us to-day as an unspeakable 
atrocity, but in those days life was not considered precious ; the 
Crusaders doubtless considered that in slaughtering Jews and 
Moslems they were destro5dng God's enemies — just as the majority 
of the Moslems would have done in contrary circumstances. But, 
live hundred years before, the Cahph Omar had entered 
Jerusalem as a conqueror, had knelt outside the Basihca of 
Constantine in prayer, had spared the lives of all the Christians, 
and saved the buildings from destruction. Godfrey de Bouillon 
was elected ruler of Jerusalem, refusing to take the title of king, 
and the choice was ratified by the people, who conducted him in 
solemn procession to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, where 
he swore to be a just ruler and maintain the laws. 

A new Patriarch was chosen, one Dagobert, Archbishop of 
Pisa and Papal Legate, and thus the Greek Church was put on one 
side by the Latins, and only held a secondary place so long as the 

^ The Crusades O. W. Cox. 


Latin Kingdom lasted. Godfrey de Bouillon died after a short 
illness at Jaffa in iioo ; he was buried in the Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre/ and a sword is shown to this day 
in the Latin Sacristy which is said to have been the sword of the 
greatest of the Crusaders. Baldwin L was chosen as second 
ruler of the Latin kingdom, and reigned for eighteen years, 
extending his kingdom beyond the Jordan and building the 
strong castle of Montreal at Shobek in the land of Moab. He 
was succeeded by his cousin Baldwin IL, in whose reign was 
foimded the Order of the Temple, composed of a body of nine 
knights, whose chief duty seems to have been to protect pilgrims 
on their way to Jerusalem. These knights were given the 
Mosque of Aksa as their residence, and the Dome of the 
Rock, now converted into a church and called the Temple of 
the Lord, as their church ; and thus this body of knights took 
the name of Knights Templar. 

Baldwin H. also estabhshed the Order of the Hospital, based 
on the Hospital of St. John, which was originally intended to 
provide accommodation for pilgrims, but ultimately became 
a miUtary order. The knights who belonged to it wore a 
black mantle, with a white eight-pointed cross embroidered 
upon it, which is generally known to-day in connection with the 
ambulance work carried on by the British branch of the Order. 
The Knights Hospitallers already possessed buildings in the 
Muristan, but these were enlarged under Baldwin H. John 
of Wurzburg, who saw their buildings in 1170, says : " Over 
against the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, on the opposite side 
of the way, is a beautiful church built in honour of John the 
Baptist, annexed to which is a hospital, where in various rooms is 
collected an enormous number of sick people, both men and 
women, who are tended and restored to health daily at great 
expense. . . . The same Order also maintains, in its various 
castles, many persons trained to all kinds of military exercises. 
for the defence of the land of the Christians against the invasion 
of the Saracens." 2 

This hospital was originally founded by rich merchants from 
Amalfi, then the greatest sea-port in the south of Italy, for 

^ See P. 85. 'Jerusalem. Sir C. M. Watson. 


pilgrims and the care of the sick. It was placed in the south part 
of the district known as the Muristan ; the original church still 
exists, as it forms the Greek Church of St. John the Baptist in 
Christian Street. To-day there is a hospital devoted to the 
treatment of ophthalmia, that curse of Eastern countries, 
established by the British branch of the Order of St. John of 
Jerusalem, in a healthy situation outside the town, not far from 
the railway station. The chief work undertaken during the 
reign of Baldwin II. was the foundation of the new Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre, designed to gather into one body all the various 
Holy Places and Chapels that had up to that time stood in and 
around the central open court which separated the Holy Sepulchre 
from the Chapel of St. Helena. Baldwin IL died in 1131, and 
was succeeded by Fulk of Anjou, who in his turn was succeeded 
by his son Baldwin IIL He being only a lad of thirteen, his 
mother Millicent was appointed Regent, and they were crowned 
together in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Owing to feuds 
between the Christian princes of Antioch and Edessa, the Sultan 
of Aleppo, Zenghi, took the opportunity of attacking the latter 
principality, with the result that after a terrible siege Edessa 
was captured and its inhabitants slain, amidst scenes of bloodshed 
and cruelty almost as appalling as those that had taken place at 
the conquest of Jerusalem. Christendom in the East being in a 
state of decay, an appeal was made to the religious enthusiasm 
of Western Christendom, a Second Crusade resulting in the 
year 1148. 

Of this, Bernard, Abbot of Clairvauxin Champagne, was the 
Apostle, and he, following the example set by Peter the Hermit, 
made a tour of Europe, calling upon all good Christians to go to 
the assistance of their brethren in the East. He must not be 
confused with Bernard de Morlaix, monk of Cluny, who was 
probably a contemporary of the Abbot of Clairvaux, and is 
famous throughout the world for his magnificent poem known as 
De Conlempiu Mundi and beginning Hora novissima tempora 
pessima sunt, vigilimus ! 

The efforts of Bernard, Abbot of Clairvaux, were at first 
successful, for Louis VII. of France and Conrad III. of Germany 
took the Cross, and bands of Crusaders from all parts of Germany 
and France hurried across Europe to Constantinople. Bernard 


was a man of great personality and vehement eloquence, and 
when his mind was once fixed on an enterprise there could be 
no rest imtil such enterprise was attempted. Disaster at the 
hands of the Turks in Asia Minor and the outbreak of plague at 
Antioch, both of which diminished the numbers of the Crusaders, 
did not damp the ardour of his fiery enthusiasm. Ultimately, in 
1148, part of the crusading army, with Conrad and Louis, 
arrived at Acre (Akka), and there met Baldwin IIL, the Patriarch 
of Jerusalem, and the Knights Hospitallers, to discuss what steps 
could be taken to assist the kingdom of Jerusalem. It was 
decided to take Damascus, but the attack was not well managed, 
and the Christians were put to flight. Shortly afterwards the 
Turks captured Antioch, the army retreated to Jerusalem, and 
King and Emperor returned to Europe. Thus ended the second 
Crusade, a disastrous failure, for, in spite of a vast expenditure of 
money and loss of life, it had done nothing to assist the kingdom 
of Jerusalem. Bernard, its apostle, also returned home, to be met 
with cries of anguish from the relatives of the slaughtered 
Crusaders, who, they said, were sent forth on an errand which 
had been altogether fruitless, ending in wretchedness and dis- 
grace. He died in the Monastery of Clairvaux in 1153, having 
been Abbot since its foundation in 11 15. 

To return to the Holy Sepulchre ; the new building seems to 
have been some twenty years in course of construction. " This 
magnificent church, founded by Baldwin II., was erected during 
the reign of Fulk of Anjou and completed during the minority 
of Baldwin III. The Second Crusade, in which the French 
interest was chiefly concerned and in which Louis VII. and his 
Queen, Eleanor of Guienne, took part, was in 1148, and the 
consecration ceremony of a distinctly French piece of architecture 
was therefore appropriately witnessed by no fewer than four 
reigning sovereigns of French nationahty." ^ 

Baldwin III. died in 1162 and was succeeded by Amaury, 
Count of Jaffa. Owing to trouble in Egypt, King Amaury made 
an expedition and besieged the Sultan Seljuk of Damascus, but, 
being completely defeated by the Sultan, returned to Jerusalem. 
The Latin kingdom being once again in great danger, an embassy 

^ The Holy Sepulchre. George Jefiery. 


was sent to Constantinople to implore help. With this embassy 
the King went himself, and was received with honour by the 
Emperor Manuel Comnenus , but no help was given to him . Three 
years of war followed, and in 1174 Amaury died, just at the time 
when Saladin, who had taken possession of Damascus, became the 
most powerful ruler in the East. Amaury 's son, who succeeded 
his father as Baldwin IV., was unfortunately a leper, and Ray- 
mond, Count of Tripoli, acted as Regent. Baldwin died in 
1 186, and Guy de Lusignan, who had married his sister, became 
king. He was a weak man, and Saladin, realising that his 
opportunity had come, set out on an expedition against the 
Christian kingdom, and crossed the Jordan in June, 1187. 

Defeats of the Christians followed in great rapidity. First at 
Tiberias, where Guy de Lusignan and the Grand Master of the 
Templars were captured, and where also the relic of the true Cross, 
which had been erected on a hill close by to encourage the 
Christians, fell into the hands of the infidels. Then fell Berytos, 
Acre, Cesarea in Palestine, and Jaffa : Ascalon was offered an 
honourable peace and accepted it. Once again Jerusalem was 
besieged. The city was crowded with inhabitants and refugees ; 
but the soldiers were few and far between, for the armies which 
should have defended the city were fighting elsewhere. Saladin, 
like Omar before, seems to have behaved in striking contrast to 
Godfrey de Bouillon and his companions, for he made an honour- 
able offer to the besieged. " He had no wish," he said, to defile a 
place so hallowed by its associations for Moslem as well as 
Christian, and if the city were surrendered he pledged himself 
not merely to furnish the inhabitants with the money they might 
need, but even to provide them with new homes in Syria." ^ 

This offer was refused, but a fortnight later the siege ended, 
for Jerusalem could hold out no longer. Seeing that their 
position was hopeless, the inhabitants craved for mercy. Saladin 
did not offer them the original terms that they had refused, but 
there was neither bloodshed nor massacre ; the greater part, 
including all the women and children, went free, though a large 
number of men were sold into slaver^'. History repeated 
itself frequently during the Crusades ; warning after warning was 

* The Crusades. G. W. Cox. 


given ; but the Christians had forgotten the object of their coming 
to Palestine and their ideals. They weakened their position by 
perpetual strife and factions, giving way to lust, greed, and 
bloodshed, of which the chroniclers of that period speak in no 
measured terms. On October 2nd, 1187, Saladin made a tri- 
umphal entry into Jerusalem and took possession of the Haram. 
The great Cross on the top of the Dome of the Rock was hurled 
down and replaced by the Crescent, and every trace of Christian 
occupation was removed. The Moslems wished to destroy the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre, but Saladin would not countenance 
such a desecration, and ordered it to be closed until he had decided 
on its future use. The Hospital of St. John was turned into a 
Mohammedan hospital, the Church of St. Anne into a mosque, 
and many other such changes were made. 

The Third Crusade was started at the instance of William, 
Archbishop of Tyre, and was supported by Pope Clement HL and 
Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury. Great preparations were 
made, in which Frederick, Emperor of Germany, Richard the 
Lion-Hearted of England, and Philip Augustus, King of France, 
took part, raising armies for the expedition to Palestine. Only a 
few thousand ever reached Tyre, their companions having been 
slain by battle or the pestilence. The old crusading spirit had 
almost entirely evaporated, and the men who composed the 
armies of Frederick, Richard, and Philip Augustus were for the 
most part adventurers and miscreants, to whom intrigues of the 
basest sort and wanton crimes meant nothing, if only their greed 
and lust were satisfied. 

The fiery zeal of the First Crusaders, together with their 
enthusiasm for recovering the Holy Places from the infidel, 
might to a certain extent redeem their savage brutalities, but 
in the Third Crusade there was scarcely any redeeming quality 
to reheve the monotony of broken promise, betrayal, rape, 
murder, and other infamies. Considering his courage and 
quality for leadership, it is not amazing that a halo should 
surround the head of Richard Coeur-de-Lion, or that history 
should speak of him with such enthusiasm. But in this Crusade, 
accoiding to the chroniclers of that period, he came near to Alaric 
the Goth and Attila the Hun in the abominations he permitted 
and probably encouraged. 


The first result of the Third Crusade was the capture of Acre 
on July I2th, 1191, the garrison surrendering on condition that 
their Hves and property were spared. In spite of this, King 
Richard ordered the massacre of three thousand of the prisoners 
after the surrender, with the result that Saladin gave orders that 
all Christians taken prisoners were in future to be killed. Frederick 
of Germany being dead, and Philip Augustus, who had tired of 
crusading, having returned to France, Richard was left in sole 
command of the Crusading forces, and between him and Saladin 
many proposals for peace were made, without effect. Conrad 
was now King of Jerusalem, but shortly after his accession was 
assassinated, and Henry, Count of Champagne, a friend of 
Richard, succeeded him. 

At last negotiations for peace were recommenced, and, after 
nmch discussion, a truce was decided upon, to last three years 
and eight months from September, 1192, during which time each 
party was to hold the country then in its possession ; there 
should be free and peaceable travelling for all persons, and 
pilgrims should be allowed access to the Holy Sepulchre. Shortly 
after the truce had been arranged, King Richard handed over the 
command of the army to Henry of Champagne, embarking for 
Europe in October, 1192, having failed altogether to accomplish 
the work for which he had come, namely, the recovery of Jeru- 
salem. On his return through Austria he was captured and held 
prisoner until a huge ransom was paid for his release in 1194. 
Wliile Richard was still a prisoner, Saladin was attacked by fever 
and died after a short illness in February, 1193. He lies buried 
close to the great Mosque of Damascus, where his tomb is still 
shown and much visited by the Moslems. Saladin was probably 
the greatest of all the leaders of Islam, saving perhaps the Caliph 
Omar. He was a born leader and generalissimo, strong and firm, 
but at the same time merciful and chivalrous. After his death, 
however, the fabric of his empire soon showed signs of decay. 

" After Richard's failure to capture Jerusalem, Acre became 
the capital of the Latin kingdom, and there the titular king had 
his court, the grand masters of the three Orders their palaces, and 
the Latin Patriarch his residence. Acre was, in fact, a replica of 
what Jerusalem had been, and continued to be the capital for 
nearly one hundred years, until the Christians were finally 


expelled from Palestine in 1291."^ In spite of disasters, the 
mockery of the Latin Kingdom still continued. Henry of Cham- 
pagne died in 1197, and he was succeeded by Amanz H., brother 
of Guy de Lusignan. 

The Fourth Crusade was led by Henry VL, Emperor of 
Germany, in 1197, and ended in disaster for the Crusaders. The 
Fifth in 1198, for which Pope Innocent III. was responsible, 
never reached Palestine at all ; the leaders contented themselves 
with the capture of Constantinople, where they dethroned the 
Greek Emperor Alexius, and set up Baldwin, Count of Flanders, a 
Latin Emperor, in his stead, thus widening the gulf between 
Greek and Latin Christians. 

The Sixth Crusade was to a great extent the result of sermons 
preached by Pope Innocent III. before the fourth Lateran Council. 
Andrew, King of Hungary, landed with a large army at Acre in 
1216, but no attempt was made to take Jerusalem, and after an 
unsuccessful attack on Mount Tabor, the King had enough of the 
undertaking and returned to Europe. 

John, Count of Brienne, the successor to Amaury III. as 
titular king of Jerusalem, then took command of the army, 
aiming at the recovery of Jerusalem through Egypt. The siege 
of Damietta commenced in 12 18 ; thanks to the reinforcements 
sent by Pope Innocent III., the city fell on November 5th, 1219, 
and a few days later th*2 Crusaders entered the city in solemn 
triumph. Then the discipline of the army gave way completely, 
the greater part succumbed to the lust of greed, gain, and slaughter 
and the ordinary decencies of warfare were openly disregarded. 
Francis of Assisi greatly desired to assist in this Crusade, for his 
enthusiasm had long been aroused by the glory of chivalry and 
devotion which symbolised to him the adventure of his own 
vocation. Unfortunately, very soon after joining the Christian 
camp at Damietta, he found that, although there were a few 
Crusaders who would die for the Cross, to the vast majority the 
Cross was merely a battle-cry, and the vision that beckoned the 
Crusader was but a love of adventure, or lust of plunder and crime. 
The shameless vice in the Christian army was to him a horrible 
sacrilege, and he did all that was possible to stem its flood, but 

' Jerusalem. Sir C. M. Watson. 


without success. There is a tradition that at one time when the 
Christian army was in a bad way, negotiations for a truce were 
opened between the leaders of the Crusade and the Sultan, and 
during this time Francis set common prudence at nought and 
went over to the Sultan's camp. When arrested by the Moslem 
guards he asked to be taken to the " Soldan," telling them his 
purpose, namely, to preach the gospel of Christ. This de- 
claration might have meant death, but by the Sultan, who was a 
curious mixture of ferocity and chivalry, it was received with 
good-humoured toleration. Although nothing came of the 
attempt made by Francis to convert him, the Sultan, it is said, 
begged the intrepid Saint not to cease from praying for him, and 
eventually, bitterly disappointed at what he considered a failure, 
Francis was with much courtesy conducted back to the Christian 
camp. He remained with the army till the city was captured, 
and then, horrified at the appalling excesses committed by the 
Crusaders, he turned his back on the Crusades and crossed the 
sea to Acre. With him there went a number of clerics from the 
suite of the crusading prelates, anxious to leave scenes that caused 
them such horror, and desiring to enter the fraternity.^ 

From Acre, it is said that Francis set out on a pilgrimage to^ 
the Holy Places of Palestine, " his heart uplifted with joy at 
being able to visit the land which had been trodden by the feet 
of the Saviour." It is also said that Francis in visiting Palestine 
founded a branch of his Order in Jerusalem on Mount Syon. 
WTiether this is actually the case or not is difficult to say, but, 
at any rate, in 1228 the " Sons of St. Francis " had established 
themselves in Jerusalem , as is seen by the papal bull of Gregory 
IX.. dated February ist, 1230, and when in 1309 Bibars II. 
granted them a firman by which he confirmed the privileges 
given to them by his predecessors, they are described as the 
" Friars of the Cord, of the Convent of Syon." " 

In 1229 Frederick II., grandson of Barbarossa, Emperor of 
Germany and son-in-law of King John of Jerusalem, after raising 
an army under great difficulties, owing to his excommunication 
by Pope Gregory IX., proceeded to Acre with the object of regain - 

> Most of the stories of St. Francis in Egypt are founded on mediaeval 

- New Guide to the Holy Land. Meisterinann. 


ing the Holy Places. Jerusalem was then in such a parlous 
condition, badly provisioned and only moderately fortified, that 
the Sultan Melek el Kamel made a treaty with him to surrender 
the city, provided that he would not rebuild the walls and that 
the Dome of the Rock was retained by the Moslems. Frederick 
agreed, but was met by bitter opposition on the part of the Latin 
Patriarch, his clergy, and the Grand Masters of the Orders. 
Frederick .however, could do nothing, and, proceeding to Jerusalem^ 
entered the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. There, as none of 
the clergy would take any part in the ceremony, he crowned him- 
self, a singular performance, imitated centuries later by Napoleon 
at the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris. 

The situation was amazing. After contests lasting many 
years for the possession of Jerusalem, and the killing of thousands 
of innocent people, a Christian monarch entered the Holy City 
without shedding a drop of blood, while all the Christians refused 
to have anything to do with him because the Pope had no part 
in the transaction . The Emperor, anxious for reconciliation , went 
so far as to inform the Pope of the recovery of the Holy Places, 
asking for absolution and the removal of the interdict. The 
Pope, however, refused, and, indeed, called upon the European 
subjects of Frederick to rebel against him. Whereupon, hearing 
that his possessions in Europe were in danger, he decided to 
return home at once, leaving Jerusalem in the charge of a German 
Governor. At Acre he learnt that a proposal had been made to 
establish a new Order of Knights, and immediately proclaimed 
that no one, without his consent, should levy soldiers within his 
dominions. Summoning all the Christians within the city to the 
broad plain without the gates, he spoke his mind freely about the 
conduct of the Latin Patriarch and the Templars, and all who 
aided and abetted them, insisting that all pilgrims, having now 
paid their vows, should return at once to Europe. On this point 
he was inexorable. His archers took possession of the churches ; 
two friars who denounced him from the pulpit were scourged 
in the streets, the Latin Patriarch was shut up in his palace, and 
the commands of the Emperor were carried out.^ 

On his return to Europe, Frederick, although the Pope had 

^ The Crusades. G. W. Cox. 


been doing all he could to stir up rebellion against him, sent an 
embassy to Gregory to ask once more for the removal of the ban 
and once again the Pope refused. Frederick never returned to 
Palestine, and was the last Christian king to reside in Jerusalem ; 
his son-in-law also ceased to have any connection with the 
Holy Land, as he was elected Latin Emperor of Constantinople. 
Others in after years called themselves kings of Jerusalem, but 
the title really lapsed on the day that Frederick departed from 
Palestine. So ended the pathetic story of the man who had done 
more towards the re-establishment of the Latin kingdom in 
Palestine than had been done by any other monarch, and had 
achieved it with clean hands and without shedding a drop of blood. 
Had he broken his promise with the Sultan el Kamel, captured 
the Dome of the Rock, and allowed his people to wallow in the 
blood of the unbelievers, the interdict would probably have been 
withdrawn, and he would have been proclaimed the saviour of 
the city. Preferring to spare the lives of men, by safeguarding 
the Christian Places in Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Nazareth, 
and allowing the Moslems also to keep what they considered to be 
their Holy Sites, he was denounced by Rome as a traitor, an 
apostate, and a robber. Thus once again a great opportunity 
was lost for Christendom. 

In spite of the Emperor's enemies the ten years' truce was well 
kept, and Jerusalem remained at peace for a time, although the 
Christians feared that the Moslems would revolt against the 
Governor left in charge by Frederick. Ten years later the 
Korasmians, a people from the remote wilds of Tartary, invaded 
Palestine, plundering the country and murdering the inhabitants. 
They were indifferent whom they slaughtered. Christians or 
Moslems, and, having captured Jerusalem, burned the Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre. 

The havoc wrought by the Korasmians, a havoc equal to 
the terrible slaughter at the time of the First Crusade, was the 
reason given by Pope Innocent IV. for sending forth another 
Crusade. With this, the Eighth Crusade, was associated Louis 
IX., King of France, known as St. Louis. On June 12th 
1248, Louis set out from France, and the first stage in this 
Crusade resulted in the total defeat of the Crusaders in Egypt, 
King Louis and the remainder of bis army being taken prisoners . 


A few months later the king was released, and proceeded to Acre 
in 1250. While in Palestine he rebuilt the coast towns of Sidon, 
Cesarea, and Jaffa, but made no attempt to capture Jerusalem, 
and would not even visit it as a pilgrim, although the Sultan 
offered to grant him safe conduct.^ 

This fact is the more extraordinary considering the King made 
a prolonged sojourn at Nazareth ; the chroniclers tell us that as 
soon as he came in sight of the holy town he left the saddle and 
threw himself on both knees in prayer. Then in all humility he 
proceeded on foot and entered the Holy Place of the Incarnation , 
Possibly the arrogant attitude of the Grand Masters, who by this 
time lorded it over the other Christians in Jerusalem, may have 
kept him from visiting the Holy Places in that city. The Knights 
Templar were frankly wearied by the presence of so saintly a 
king, telling him that they did not see that his sojourn in Palestine 
could be of any benefit to Jerusalem ; wherefore they advised 
him to proceed to Acre in the coming Lent and prepare for his 
return to France. Meekly Louis obeyed, and sailed for Acre in 
1254. His is a pathetic story. The only really pious and honest 
Crusader king, denied the sight of the Holy Sepulchre, the dearest 
longing of his heart, returned to France, humbled but not dis- 
honoured — rather having won that serene renown which was 
soon to place his name in the long Kalendar of the Saints. 

So ended the Eighth Crusade. Some fourteen years later the 
Sultan Bibars marched from Egypt into Palestine with a great 
army and swept the country of Christians, some seventeen 
thousand of the latter being, it is said, massacred or sold into 

Then for the last time an appeal was made to Europe. King 
Louis once again answered the appeal, but got no further than 
Tunis, where he died in 1270. In 1272 Prince Edward, afterwards 
Edward I. of England, took command of the army, and with 
some 7,000 men captured Nazareth, but his force was too small to 
proceed to Jerusalem. 

Nothing more could at present be done in Palestine, and 
Edward, knowing that his presence might become indispensable 
in England, made a peace with the Sultan Bibars to last ten years, 

' Jeruia!$m. Sir C. M. Watson. 


ten months and ten days, the last period of peace enjoyed by 
Christians in Palestine. The new Pope, Gregory X., tried to stir 
up still another Crusade, and a Council held at Lyons supported 
him ; but the Pope died in less than two years after the Council, 
and the visions of renewet conquests of Palestine died with him. 
Affairs in the Holy Lar i were going from bad to worse. Claims 
to the titular kingdom of Jerusalem were still being made ; one 
Hugh HL of Cyprus was crowned at Tyre as King of Jerusalem. 
The Templars and the Hospitallers fought amongst themselves ; 
the Grand Master of the Templar pleaded before Pope Nicholas 
IV. the wrongs of the Latins, which could only be avenged by 
the blood of the Saracens. All to no purpose. The ancient 
crusading spirit had gone : the spell was broken. 

The last struggle was made at Acre in 1291 ; the siege 
lasted forty-three days, the Knights Templar put up a splendid 
resistance, but the attack was made with great fury and the 
Christians lost heart. Acre was captured, Tyre, Sidon, and the 
other coast cities surrendered, and the Egyptians took possession 
of the whole country. Thus the ill-fated Crusades came to an 
end, when Acre, the last Christian stronghold and remnant of 
the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, fell. 

There are many monuments in Jerusalem to the memory of 
the Crusaders, but none more noble than the Belfry and the south 
west facade of the most renowned temple in Christendom — the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 




(a) The Latin Holy Week and a Memorable Easter 

(b) The Greek and Armenl\n Holy Week 

(c) The Ceremony of the Holy Fire 





" Three Pilgrims from the Holy Land ; 

Three glittering scallop-shells they bore ; 
And as the good ship crossed the strand 

They crossed themselves ; and sprang ashore. 

"Thank God for Creed, for Mass, for song ; 
For all the wonders they had seen : 
The bright blue lake of Galilee, 
The glories of Mount Tabor green. 

" They kissed the Holy Sepulchre : 
They prayed in sad Gethsemane ; 
And one brought back a soft green bough 
Pluck'd from the Saviour's olive tree. 

" And one brought back a milk-white stone, 
Whereon, 'twas said. He once did lie ; 
And one brought back a broken heart 
For all the sins that made Him die." 

— Elizabeth Harcourt Mitchell. 

(a) The Latin Holy Week and a Memorable Easter 

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is, as has been said before, the 
most wonderful church in all Christendom, and during Holy Week 
it seemed as if the religious life of the whole world was centred 
in it. And not only within, but also without, for on the 
Beggars' Steps and round the court were crowds of vendors 
o^ objects of piety, together with cakes and candies, and 
various forms of native refreshment. Arabs were there, 
Maronites from Lebanon, Bedouins and Egyptians, Anglican 
padres, Enghsh and French soldiers, with a sprinkling of Italian, 


Syrian , Greek and Latin priests , Armenians , Copts , and Abyssinians . 
Only Turks and Jews were absent. This year (1920) there were 
two Holy Weeks, that of the Eastern Churches falling a week 
later than the Western, and the crowd at the Greek ceremonies 
was certainly greater than that of the Latin functions. 

Early on Palm Sunday morning I saw from my window the 
sun rising behind Mount Olivet, casting a glow of roseate pink 
over that sacred hill, and seeming to bathe the whole earth in 
its glory. The bells of the Holy Sepulchre began to ring as though 
to herald in the one great earthly triumph of the Saviour of 
mankind. At 6.45 a.m. I made my way through the crowds in 
the courtyard and entered the church already filled with an 
exf)ectant throng awaiting the arrival of the Latin Patriarch 
of Jerusalem. Presenting mj'self at the Sacristy, I was welcomed 
by the Padre Presidente of the Franciscans, who conducted 
me to the Tribune immediately over the Holy Sepulchre. The 
Latin Patriarch and his assistants had just arrived, and the 
blessing of palms began at once. It was a scene of joyous and 
radiant colour, the Patriarch with his deacons of honour in 
vestments of purple and gold ; carpets and tapestries of many 
colours were much in evidence, and on either side of the Sanctuary 
a great crowd of all nations was assembled, surging and swaying, 
trying their utmost to obtain a view of the ceremony. At the 
back of the Sepulchre, in and around their tiny chapel, the Copts 
were holding a service of their own, singing with slow monotony, 
not discordant, but just part of a beautiful and symbolic tableau. 

The palms were blessed, and then the clergy and religious 
advanced one by one to receive their palms at the hands of the 
Latin Patriarch, who sat outside the entrance of the Holy Tomb. 
Then, with much excitement, came the people — English, French, 
Italian, Palestinian, Arab officers and men, civiUans with their 
womenfolk in every variety of dress — and after them the little 
children, every one of whom with great reverence received their 
palm from the Patriarch's hand, kissing his ring as they knelt 
before him. For the most part the congregation consisted of 
local Oriental and European people, with a few devout visitors 
from the hotels and hospices. The crowd was very Eastern in 
its behaviour, pushing, jostling, and chattering ; but when some- 
one later on spoke of " irreverence and unseemly behaviour," I 


thought of another crowd, which on that first Palm Sunday 
shouted Hosannahs, running along the road, tearing off garments 
and cloaks, crowding together, pressing close up to the Messiah, 
as He rode slowly and with divine dignity towards the Holy City. 
On the evening of Maundy Thursday, I was invited by 
the Superior of the Benedictines to join in their procession to 
Gethsemane. The experience was beautiful in its simplicity. 
There were not more than a dozen people — English, French, and 
Belgian, together with three or four monks — who took part in it. 
We started from the Dormitio,^ the headquarters of the Benedic- 
tines of Maritsou, the Father Superior leading the way. The 
night was perfect, still and warm, the whole country bathed in 
moonlight, and even every tree and every stone was clearly 
outlined. The Rosary was said as we walked by the Cenaculum 
and thence down Mount Ophel, Mount Syon being on our right 
and beyond it the Mount of Evil Counsel, where, it is said, the 
chief priests took counsel to kill Jesus. Then followed a 
rough and stony descent to the Pool of Siloam. Presently we sat 
down on the rocks while the Father Superior read to us some 
verses from St. John xvii., those words of high priestly sacrifice 
which our Lord addressed to His Father on the way to Gethsemane. 
Later on, just before we crossed the ffidron, the Father Superior 
repeated the first and second verses from St. John xviii. : 

When Jesus had spoken these words. He went forth with His 
disciples over the brook Kidron, where was a garden, into 
which He entered, and His disciples. 

After crossing the brook, we passed an open space where a crowd 
of Moslems were engaged in practising a weird dance in prepara- 
tion for their festa, the Nebi ]\Iusa, on the morrow. We then 
skirted the village of Siloe, climbing the rough stony path, 
passing the Egyptian remains which, as the Father Superior told 
us, our Lord must often have gazed upon ; and now, looking 
across the Valley of Jehoshaphat to the Holy City \vrapped in 
moonlight, we continued our walk in silence till we reached 
Gethsemane. Here a number of people were assembled, priests 
and religious, praying or wrapped in meditation ; an Arab 

* The Dorniitio is now inhabited bv the Benedictines of Beuron. 


Protestant community were engaged in singing hymns, and in 
the upper part of the Garden, in the Russian enclosure, members 
of the St. George's Cathedral congregation had gathered. Our 
little party, avoiding the crowd, went to a quiet corner where 
the Father read some words from the Gospel according to St- 
Matthew : 

Then cometh Jesus with them unto a place called Gethsemanc, 
and saith urito the disciples, Sit ye here, while I go and pray 
yonder. And He took with Him Peter and the two sons 
of Zebcdee, and began to be sorrowful and very hea\ y. 
Then saith He unto them. My soul is e.xceeding sorrowful, 
even unto death : tarry ye here and watch with Mc.* 

After this we walked toward the open space where now 
stands a modem Basilica until we reached the stone that marks 
the spot where the Saviour prayed in agony with His face towards 
the Golden Gate. Here we knelt and prayed in silence. 

And He went a little farther, and fell on His face and prayed, 
saying, O My Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass 
from Me : nevertheless not as 1 will, but as Thou wilt.* 

The Father then gave a short discourse dwelling on the fact that 
of all the sufferings our Lord endured that of desertion must 
have been the most terrible. We gazed at the place where the 
Apostles slept and where Judas betrayed the Saviour and after a 
few moments' silence we left the Garden. Different indeed was 
the manner of commemorating this solemn night among those 
present in the Garden, yet all seemed to realise the solemnity of 
their visit and after the hymn-singing was finished there was 
perfect silence. Many branches of the Christian religion were 
represented and one felt the presence of a perfect spirit of 

Having followed the path our Lord trod with His disciples to 
the Garden, we returned by the way He walked with His captor> 
to the House of Caiaphas. Crossing again the brook Kidron wc 
made the steep ascent to the Syon Gate, and thus wc arrived on 

'St. IMatlliiw x.wi. 36-38. 
2 St. Mattlicw xx\ i. 3<j. 

In the Garden of Gethsemane 

\To face page 120. 


Mount Syon at the " House of Caiaphas," parts of which have 
been excavated under the supervision of the Assumptionist 
Fathers. The priest-in-charge was waiting for us. and showed a 
well, said to be the prison in which our Lord was placed whilst 
under the charge of Caiaphas, a chapel now marking the spot. 
Here our Lord would have been kept until the early hours of 
Good Friday morning, when He was taken to Pilate's Judgment 
Hall. All this part, together with the steps He must have 
ascended now exposed to view, was within the City walls at 
the time of our Lord. 

So ended a memorable evening. The walk, the silence, the 
reading, the garden in the moonlight — all of it was to me by far 
the most impressive event of this Holy Week. 

The next day being Good Friday, I assisted at the Stations 
of the Cross along the Via Dolorosa. On leaving the Holy 
Sepulchre in the morning I met a great procession of Moslems 
at the entrance to the Street of David. It was a marvellous 
sight in the blazing sun, Arabs, and Bedouins, in all kinds of 
native apparel shouting, gesticulating, screaming. In the 
midst of them a man, said to be a descendant of the prophet, 
was performing a weird dance, and around him was collected a 
crowd of men with sticks, striking at each other without inflicting 
any damage, furious in face and gesture, but probably mild at 
heart. Behind this group were borne aloft a number of flags, 
one of which was the famous green flag of Meccah . Then followed 
a band of Dervishes waving their swords at one another, and just 
as it seemed that someone must be killed, they separated and 
began stalking round as if searching for someone they had lost. 
I managed to find a convenient retreat within a doorway, but 
only just beyond the rim of the crowd, as the street was narrow. 
Presently a woman from above dropped a coloured handkerchief 
and cried out some words in Arabic. One of the Arabs picked 
it up, touched the Meccah banner with it, after which all who 
could get within reach proceeded to kiss it, and then it was 
handed back on a long pike to the owner. The whole company 
proceeded very slowly and with much noise to the Haram esh 
Sherif, where many speeches were made in Arabic and English 
and the procession started on its pilgrimage to En-Nebi Musa, 
or the reputed burial-place of Moses, for the Moslems claim that 


by a vision the tomb of Moses was discovered on a hill close to 
the Dead Sea. The Bible says : 

Moses the servant of the Lord died there in the land of Moab, 
according to the word of the Lord. And he buried him 
in a valley in the land of Moab, over against Bethpeor : but 
no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day.* 

But the Moslem vision obviously appeared in later times. 

At En-Nebi Musa the Moslems encamp and hold a feast 
lasting the whole week : the observance of the festival seems to 
have been instituted some centuries ago in order to ensure 
a sufficient number of Moslems in Jerusalem at a 
time when pilgrims are most numerous, lest the latter should 
suddenly seize the city. The route of the pilgrimage is through 
the Gate of St. Stephen, down the valley of the Kidron, by the 
Garden of Gethsemane, and along the Jericho road past the 
village of Bethany. 

To return to the Way of the Cross : at two o'clock I found a 
crowd gathered on the site of Pilate's Judgment Hall or Prae- 
torium, which till 1917 was used as the Turkish Barracks. Every 
Friday this procession takes place, but the number of followers is 
small compared to that on Good Friday. To-day the crowd 
included the Latin Patriarch, a Polish Bishop, priests and members 
of the various religious orders, many Franciscans, British and 
French officers and men, civilians of all nationalities. A Belgian 
Franciscan gave the addresses, a tall man with a long beard 
and a powerful voice, and what he said was uttered with great 
simplicity. We passed along the Via Dolorosa, spanned by the 
so-called Ecce Homo Aich, each Station being marked by a 

The Padre finished his discourse at the Fourteenth Station, 
namely, the Tomb, having first asked us to remember that we were 
" Christians living in a non-Christian town, governed by rulers 
who were not Christians, and in the midst of people who mocked 
and despised Christ." The whole experience was most impressive 
and especially so at the Twelfth Station, the Crucifixion, when all 
present sang with fervour : 

1 Deuteronomy xxxiv. 5, 6. 


O Crux avc, spes unica, 
Hoc passionis tempore 
Piis adauge gratiani, 
Reisque dele criinina. 

On Easter Eve I arrived at the Church about 6.30 a.m., to find 
the ceremony of the Blessing of the New Fire about to commence. 
The fire was kindled and blessed at a table placed close to the 
Stone of Anointing, after which there was a procession to a tem- 
porary altar outside the Sepulchre, and a triple candle was lit 
from the New Fire, while the priests chanted three times the words, 
" Lumen Christi." Then followed the elaborate Blessing of the 
Paschal Candle and of the five grains of incense representing the 
Five Wounds. Lights and lamps were lit as the words " Let 
there be light, oh truly blessed light ! " were sung. 

It is Easter Sunday afternoon, hot and breathless after weeks 
of bitterly cold winds and. rain. It has been an eventful Easter 
Day, one long to be remembered. 

There are outward and visible signs this sunny afternoon that 
something unusual has happened. The streets outside the city 
are deserted save for an occasional military motor-car that rushes 
past at full speed, covering one with the whitest of white dust- 
Inside the city no one knows what is going on, for every gate is 
guarded by English soldiers with fixed bayonets, and none may 
enter or leave the city. The Arab caf^s by the Jaffa Gate are 
crowded with men smoking their hookahs, talking in low voices 
and looking discontented. 

Early this morning I went to St. George's Cathedral, the only 
peaceful moment during the day, and later I made my way to 
the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. By. the kindness of the 
Franciscans I had the entree to their gallery all the week whence 
I could see everything and take part in peace in all the interesting 
ceremonies of Holy W^eek. On reaching my alcove I noticed that 
the Latins had just finished their Easter Mass, and that a priest 
was reading the story of the Resurrection from the four Gospels 

The Latin Mass is over, the Latin Patriarch has left the 
church ; the altar, throne, hangings and carpets, all the property 
of the Latins are cleared away, for nothing must be left, and 
place is now given to the Greeks. The gates of the Catholikon 


are opened, the Greek Palm Sunday (for the Latin Easter this 
year is the Greek Palm Sunday) procession emerges and makes 
the tour of the Rotunda three times. At the conclusion, the 
Greek Patriarch of Jerusalem, Damianos, sits on a temporary 
throne facing the Sepulchre, while a deacon reads the story of the 
Passion in Greek. This service is soon over, and shortly after- 
wards the Patriarch and his entourage leave the church and the 
bells are pealed to announce their exit. 

Then another procession is formed, this time consisting of 
Armenians, Copts, and Syrians. The Syrians lead the way, carry- 
ing six banners ; they are dressed in red gowns with green collars 
and cuffs, and one carries an enormous branch of olive. Their 
Bishop wears a curious headgear that completely hides his face, 
a cloth-of-gold cope, and carries a very small staff. The Copts 
follow, the assistants and clergy all wearing crowns, their Bishop 
a great white crown like that of the Greek Patriarch ; he blesses 
the people with a small cross. Then follow the Armenians, a 
larger and more imposing company, boys and men in red robes 
with blue collars and cuffs, the men wearing crowns like the Copts. 
The Armenian Bishop, Monseigneur Tchilinquirian, who takes 
the position of Patriarch (the late Patriarch died nine years ago, 
and no one had yet been appointed), wears a cope and mitre 
somewhat like the Latins, carries a pastoral staff, and blesses 
the people in Western fashion. Each separate procession has 
several crosses and censers, and all carry branches of palm or 

I remained in the courtyard for a short time afterwards, and 
saw each several procession, conducted by a " Kvas," march off 
to its respective quarters. 

A few yards away, at the Jaffa Gate, a great fight had just 
taken place between Moslems and Jews. A disturbance had 
been expected for days, but no precautions had been taken. 
The English troops were at the Garrison Church and had to be 
called out in the middle of service . A large contingent of Moslems 
from Hebron had arrived in Jerusalem en route for En-Nebi Musa, 
and Jews in great numbers were waiting for them at the Damascus 
and Jaffa Gates. There were differences of opinion as to how the 
fight began, but it was quite sudden ; the Moslems used their 
swords and sticks, and the Jews their firearms, but, amazing to 


relate, only a few on either side were killed, though many were 
wounded. Some of the Arabs were shouting, " With the sword 
we gained the land, with the sword we mean to keep it ! " I went 
on to the balcony of the Grand Hotel — soldiers were guarding the 
entrances to all the streets, Jews went by with their heads badly 
cut, the tumult was dying down very slowly, and the shops 
outside the Jaffa Gate had suffered badly. For several days after 
the city was under martial law, and people could neither enter nor 
leave the city without being examined by sentries, in case they 
carried firearms or other weapons. 

An English soldier, quite a lad, said to me, " What would 
people in our little village at home think of ail this ? Easter 
Sunday spent in rioting! British and Indian troops in readiness 
lest there should be another fight ! Machine-guns and martial 
law ! " 

(b) The Greek and Armenian Holy Week 

During the early part of the Greek Holy Week the churches 
and city were almost deserted as no one could enter without a 
pass, and everyone must be within doors by six o'clock. How- 
ever, by Thursday matters had become somewhat more peaceful' 
and the Easter ceremonies of the Orthodox Church were per- 
formed with accustomed pomp and circumstance, though with 
fewer people attending them. Early on Thursday morning I 
went to see the " Washing of the Feet," and was given a room 
overlooking the court. Every inch of the courtyard, every 
comer of the roofs and terraces, was crowded with people, a gay 
spectacle of Eastern splendour. The sky was of the brightest 
blue, and even at this early hour the sun was scorching. We 
had a long time to wait, for in the East " time is only made for 
slaves." At last, about 8 a.m., a great procession issued from 
the church ; incense, crucifix and candles, choir, priests and 
archimandrites, and then followed the Patriarch clothed in 
gorgeous apparel, a great jewelled crown upon his head. 

For a moment the procession halted, while the sun blazed 
on the Patriarchal crown, making it shine with resplendent 


glory ; behind him the splendid background of that magnifi- 
cent facade, in front one mass of crimson and gold. Then 
a way was made for the procession through the serried ranks of 
the crowd to an improvised platform placed in the middle of the 
court. On to this platform climbed twelve archimandrites, in 
copes of cloth of gold representing the twelve Apostles, and with 
them the Patriarch. A priest read the story of the " Washing of 
the Feet " from St. John's Gospel, after which the choir sang a 
long and elaborate Kyrie Eleison. 

The ceremony was like an old mystery play, as in fact are most 
of the Greek ceremonies. After the Gospel had been read the 
Patriarch laid aside his crown and vestments, and then, clad in 
a white alb, girding himself with a towel, he proceeded to wash 
the feet of his clergy, touching one foot with water, anointing it 
with oil, and wiping it. Every detail of the Gospel story was 
carried out, Peter first protesting and then submitting. After 
this more prayers and singing, then the Patriarch with three 
of his clergy descended from the platform, the "three" re- 
clining on the ground, and the Patriarch, representing Christ 
in the Garden of Gethsemane, went apart to pray. Twice he 
rose ; came to the " three " and found them sleeping ; at the 
third time he woke them, they rose, the procession was re-formed, 
it returned to the church, and the ceremony was over. It is a 
wonderful pageant, teaching the old story in a way that cannot be 
forgotten and giving it that meaning which our Lord's action 
gave to the Apostles. 

That same morning, Thursday in the Greek Holy Week, I 
visited the Armenian Church of St. James, the most beautiful 
church in Jerusalem, in order to attend their special Maundy 
Mass. There are no seats in this church, the faithful just stand 
or " squat " — there is no other word — on the floor. Many also 
follow the Moslem custom of removing their boots and putting 
on slippers. I was given a chair next to the Vice-Patriarch, and 
he handed me a copy of the "Liturgy of the Holy Apostolic 
Church of Armenia " done in English ; it is not an easy service to 
follow, but the Bishop explained difficult points from time to 
time. The altax is raised on a dais some three feet above the 
level of the floor ; there is no " Ikonastasis," as in Greek churches, 
but a curtain is drawn in front of the altar at certain parts of the 


service. It was a very long service, but most dignified, and the 
singing, though somewhat barbaric, was in keeping with the 
rest of the proceedings. During the Mass the pain beni was 
distributed as in the French churches, and the Bishop, after 
receiving his portion, broke a piece off and gave it to me. 
Although it was close on midday there were a great many com- 
municants ; they came and stood beneath the dais, while the 
celebrant knelt to give them communion, dipping the Host in 
the Chalice. 

That same afternoon, and at the same church, I attended the 
ceremony of the " Washing of the Feet " for the third time — 
Latin, Greek, and Armenian ; and for dignity and simplicity I 
should give the palm to the Armenians. On this occasion chairs 
were placed just below the sanctuary for European visitors. As 
for the rest, they squatted on mats, and children played and 
frolicked about the church. The curtain was drawn back, and 
the Vice- Patriarch in full pontificals was revealed, with twelve 
of his clergy round him. The vestments they wore are only used 
on special occasions and are of great beauty and value. Below, 
seated on the ground, was a choir of young girls in picturesque red 
and blue dresses, and the singing was indeed beautiful. Their 
notes were clear, liquid, and perfectly produced without any 
trace of affectation. Each of the clergy in turn read a chapter 
from the writing of one of the fathers of the Church, beginning 
with St. Chrysostom, and as it was read in the Liturgic Armenian 
I do not suppose that anyone present, with the exception of the 
clergy, understood one word. After this the " Miserere " was 
chanted and many prayers were said, and then the Bishop, after 
divesting himself of his robes, girded himself with a towel and 
washed one foot of each of the twelve priests, anointing it with 
oil. The Anglican Bishop in Jerusalem was present at the 
ceremony, and at the conclusion of the " Washing," he was 
vested in the Patriarchal cope and mitre and then escorted to 
the dais, where he read the gospel story of the Washing of the 
Feet from St. John and afterwards, standing next the Armenian 
Bishop, gave the blessing in English. A splendid and practical 
illustration of the spiritual unity of the Church, which came as a 
fitting conclusion to one of the most beautiful services to be 
witnessed in the Holy City. 


(c) The Ceremony of the Holy Fire 

The most important ceremony of the Greek Church takes 
place on Easter Eve, namely, the Ceremony of the Holy Fire. 
This function enjoys a great reputation all over the Eastern world 
and up to a few years ago thousands came from afar to witness 
it. In the days of the pilgrimages the church would swarm 
with Russian pilgrims, who encamped round about the Holy 
Places in readiness for what was to them nothing less than a 
miracle. They would be admitted to the Holy Sepulchre 
about 6 p.m., and remain there all night, reclining on the pave- 
ment and using their bundles as pillows, others crouching in 
doorways, on the floors of the galleries, or inside the various 

In days gone by there would have been some fifteen hundred 
Turkish soldiers to keep order, and even then the task must have 
been somewhat difficult. This year, for many reasons, the 
crowd was small compared to those days, and easily controlled 
by a handful of English soldiers and Jerusalem police. It was 
a cold and windy morning as I made my way through the narrow 
streets, which were almost deserted, but I found the courtyard 
full of people waiting to enter the church. At 8 a.m. the doors 
were opened, and immediately about a hundred people who had 
spent the night within the church issued forth, carrying with 
them rugs and other coverings, together with all sorts of devices 
for cooking food during their long vigil. Inside the church there 
was not more than a couple of hundred people, and these had also 
probably spent the night there. Martial law was still in force, 
owing to the riots a week before, and no officers or women were 
allowed to enter the city without a special permit. 

For nearly three hours I remained in the Franciscan gallery 
or wandered about the gallery to the spot where the Armenian 
" quarter " joins the Latin. Here there hangs a picture of the 
Pope with his head turned towards the Latin portion of the 
gallery his hand raised in blessing the Franciscans, while beyond 
it is a picture of Christ with uplifted hand, turned towards the 
Armenian "quarter," and blessing them. On the floor of the 
church, matting was spread for those who wished to sit on the 


ground. Close by, men were engaged in selling bunches of 
candles ready for the Fire, others were walking about, 
talking loudly and greeting their friends, as though they were in 
the street or market-place. There were Syrians, Bedouins, Arabs, 
Copts, Armenians, Greeks, Abyssinians, a handful of Russians, a 
few Europeans, and soldiers. Children ran hither and thither, 
played with their friends, or sat in niches in the walls, only to 
be dragged down by some priest or custodian. 

There were so few Europeans present that I seemed to be 
almost the only person without any headgear, nearly everyone 
was wearing a cap, tarbouche, or other headdress. All the while 
the Jerusalem gendarmerie, most of whom were Moslems, stood 
as guards around the Holy Sepulchre, and one wonders when it 
will be possible for Christians to guard their own holy 
places ! People sat on the floor in little groups, family 
circles, enjoying themselves as if they were at a picnic : others 
with Oriental patience were ready to wait for hours if necessary. 
It was difficult to realise that these same people would be yelling 
at the top of their voices a few hours hence. 

Soon after ten o'clock various personages begin to arrive, and 
first of all, headed by two Kvas thumping their maces on the 
ground, comes the Coptic procession, with the Bishop, a little dark 
man with piercing eyes, and only a pectoral cross to distinguish 
him from his clergy. He stands surrounded by a small group of 
his people, all of whom kiss the ring on his right hand. Half an 
hour later the Haut Commissaire de France arrives with his 
suite, and is conducted to his place in the gallery. Almost 
immediately afterwards come the Armenians, arriving in great 
numbers. These are not content to go direct to their quarters, 
but first march right round the Holy Sepulchre. The Syrian 
Bishop, who follows with bis assistants, not to be outdone, also 
makes a lengthy tour to reach the tiny quarters that appertain 
to his flock. 

The excitement now increases, and the church is full, though 
not overcrowded as in days gone by. The majority present 
are men, mostly Greeks and Syrians. Suddenly in the distance 
we hear shouting and singing, and presently a crowd of Greeks 
and Syrians march through the Catholikon, most of them 
grasping bundles of candies. One man is carried aloft on the 



shoulders of the crowd ; he is very excited and sings at the top of 
his voice, while presently those round him clap their hands and 
dance. Then the crowd take up the singing, and all shout in 
chorus. I ask someone sitting near me what they are singing ; 
he writes it down in French, and this is an excerpt : 

" We hold in our hands candles sacred, 

To glorify the Risen Christ. 
May Providence prosper the Greek Church. 
May the Saviour ever give the Christians the victory. 
We are the children of our Patriarch Damianos ! 

Long live the Patriarch and his clergy ! 
Christ has redeemed us by His Blood." 

Then the Syrians, during a pause, in their turn shout rather than 

" O St. George, 
We have come to pray at the Sepulchre 1 
We, we are the Christians, 
With candles in our hands ! " 

At last, close on midday, there is a pealing of bells, more 
shouting and clapping of hands, and tlie Patriarch's procession 
appears. They, too, are singing ; it is difficult to catch the words 
of their song, but ever and anon one could hear : 

" Kyrie Eleisou ! Kyrie Elelson ! " 

Six Kvas lead the way, beating the ground with their staves, 
Jerusalem police follow, together with a few British soldiers. 
The great cross is carried by a deacon, torches on either side, 
followed by singing boys dressed in violet and white, six banners, 
priests in great numbers in their black habits. Bishops (and 
priests) in splendid vestments. The Patriarch in his golden 
crown, wearing vestments of white satin and gold, and carrying 
his staff, blesses the people as he passes. He looks just like the 
Bible pictures of Aaron, with long white beard and vestments 
like the " linen ephod." Behind him follow a bodyguard of the 
faithful to prevent the crowd from pressing too close upon him. 
Thrice the procession perambulates the Holy Tomb, and at the 
third time a deacon leaves the procession and almost fights his 
way through the serried mass of frantic people to take up his 
stand by the circular hole through which the holy fire will shortly 


be passed. The procession is over ; all attempts at dignity is at an 
end and confusion reigns supreme. The priests and choir dis- 
appear, and only the Patriarch and a few of his clergy remain. 
The Armenian, Syrian, and Coptic Bishops join him at the 
entrance to the Tomb. For a moment there is stillness in that 
great throng, a stillness that can be felt ; the Patriarch divests 
himself of his crown and gorgeous robes, and enters within the 
Holy of Holies ; the other Bishops wait in the outer room known 
as the Chapel of the Angels. The delay is very short, and with a 
shout the deacon on guard at the circular hole withdraws his 
arm and holds up a bunch of flaming candles. As he does so the 
whole church simply bursts into shouts and cheers, 

" Long live our Patriarch Damianos I " 

At this moment the Patriarch comes quickly out of the Holy 
Sepulchre, holding a flaming torch in his hand, followed by a 
crowd of people contesting for the honour of lighting their candles 
from his torch, and he is almost carried through the Catholikon. 
While the fire is being distributed to the Greeks on one side at 
the hole, on the other side Copts, Syrians, and Abyssinians light 
their candles, and the Armenian Bishop hastens to carry the 
fire to the Armenian quarter. 

By this time the whole church is one great blaze of light ; fire 
seems to encircle the Rotunda, three tiers of flame. It is all one 
mass of flame and smoke, noise and heat, and several times it looks 
as if the galleries would catch fire. All the lamps are lit and the 
bells peal out, and then, if possible, the tumult becomes even 
greater. A space is cleared between the people round the 
Sepulchre and another procession appears, this time composed 
of Armenians, Copts, and Syrians, Round through the glare it 
wends its way, each religion singing a different hymn, to a different 
tune, in a different language. The Greeks no longer walk with 
them, nor do the Abyssinians ; the latter just look on and watch. 
Then it is all over— procession, shouting crowds, and clanging 
bells, and we are out in the courtyard under the brilliant blue 
sky. People are running through the court into the narrow 
streets and to their houses, carrying the sacred fire, and there is 
probably not one house of an Eastern confession that has not some 
part or lot in that holy fire. ... I look at my watch and see that 


it is 1.30 p.m. — six hours since I first entered the church — and, 
beginning to feel the pangs of hunger, hasten off to enjoy the 
hospitality of Notre Dame de France. 

It is often asked, " Do these crowds believe that what happens 
inside the Holy Sepulchre is a miracle ? Do they believe that fire 
descends from Heaven at the prayers of the Patriarch ? Or do 
they understand that the ceremony is merely symbolical ? ' ' 
I have discussed this matter fully with members of the Greek 
Hierarchy and they have told me that imdoubtedly there were 
some, mostly Russian pilgrims, who believed that the fire was 
miraculous, but the Greek Church in no way claims a miracle. 
In fact, except that such pageantry means more to Eastern folk, 
the actual ceremony, though much more elaborate, differs very 
little in fact from the universal Western custom of blessing the 
New Fire on Easter Eve. 

In days gone by, immediately after the Holy Fire was dis- 
tributed, men would ride off to Bethlehem, Nazareth, and other 
towns, also to Jaffa, where there were steamers waiting, so that 
the fire might be carried to such distant places as Alexandria, 
Cairo, and even Constantinople. Until a few years ago a tele- 
gram was always sent to Constantinople to report whether or 
no the ceremony had passed off peacefully. 

That evening I went to see the Abyssinian Easter service. It 
is held in their courtyard on the roof or dome of the Chapel of 
St. Helena, a spot that figures in many paintings and sketches. 
There they had erected a small tent, at the entrance of which 
were men beating drums. Inside the tent was the Abbot with 
his priests, dressed in radiant colours, and after a long pause they 
came out in procession. Very quaintly they moved, or rather 
swayed from side to side, singing the quaintest of tunes. Three 
times they perambulated the Dome, the idea being that they were 
searching for the Body of Christ, but could not find out where It 
was laid. The procession then returned to the tent and finished 
their service within. On entering the Church I witnessed the 
Midnight Mass of the Greek Church, which was thronged with 
worshippers, everyone canying a lighted candle. The music was 
exquisite and plaintive, the people were quiet and reverent — a 
contrast to the morning. At the conclusion the Patriarch walked 
lowly and with great dignity into the Sepulchre, and there was a 


great silence. Very soon he reappeared, and, turning to the 
people, cried out with a loud voice, " Christ is risen ! " And 
everyone replied as with one voice, " He is risen indeed ! " All 
the bells rang out and a wave of great enthusiasm spread through- 
out the church, and one did not feel, but knew, that it was indeed 
Easter morning ! 

One of the most beautiful ceremonies of the Orthodox 
Greek Church is that which is held late on Easter 
Sunday morning. It consists only of a procession and a very 
short service, but it is dignified, stately, and reverent. At 
noon the Patriarch leaves the great Greek Convent in solemn 
procession with all the Bishops and priests connected with 
the convent. Slowly the procession moves through the 
narrow sun-baked streets. The courtyard is crowded 
with people in every possible kind of garment — there is 
nothing but joy and colour. With some friends I secured a 
place on a balcony overlooking the " Beggars' Steps " and 
the courtyard beyond. As the procession draws near the bells 
begin to clang and the choir sing. Very softly does the cadence 
rise and fall, very plaintive is the appeal ; Kyrie Eleison ! Christe 
Eleison ! Kyrie Eleison ! Then the sound of those wonderful 
bells — there are no bells like them in the world, I am sure ! 
Deep, booming, harsh, barbaric, thrilling, never-to-be-forgotten I 
Close to me are men and women weeping tears of joy : 
they embrace one another ; they sign themselves repeatedly 
with the Cross. " Christ is risen," one says, and another 
replies, "He is risen indeed." And so the procession begins to 
enter the courtyard. There are the Kvas in blue, red, and gold ; 
a deacon carrying a tray full of rose-leaves, which he scatters 
on either sid^j to the people as he passes ; Bishops and priests 
in gorgeous vestments of pale yellow and gold, holding lighted 
candles. Walking in the midst of them is an Archimandrite 
bearing a picture of the Agnus Dei with the flag of Victory framed 
in a halo of flowers. Last of all, the Patriarch, with his crown and 
staff, and in his left hand a jewelled picture of the Risen Christ. 

For a moment the procession stops, the singers are silent, 
and there is a hush among the crowd. The Patriarch holds 
aloft the picture of the Risen Christ, cries out, " Christ is risen I " 
and everyone makes the response, with Eastern fervour, " He 


is risen indeed." Then the bells clang out once more, the pro- 
cession enters the darkness of the church, the Patriarch kneels 
to kiss the Stone of Unction, and is conducted to his throne 
in the Cathohkon. The Gospel story of the Resurrection is 
read by seven priests, each taking up a paragraph, one after the 
other, in seven different tongues ; Greek, Latin, Arabic, Old 
Greek, English, French, and Russian, after which the service 
concludes with the singing of Te Deum Laudamus. The great 
crowds melt away, but the bells go on proclaiming their message : 

" Christ is risen : He is risen indeed ! " 

The ceremonies of the Orthodox Greek Church are quite 
different from those of the Latin . The latter are stately, dignified 
and impressive. But the Greek services are more like mystery 
plays, enacting the Gospel stories which they commemorate. 
They are not only impressive, but beautiful and picturesque. 
That these services appeal to the Eastern there can be no doubt 
and his enthusiasm is most inspiring. The ceremonies of the 
Orthodox Greek Church hold a wealth of meaning which cannot 
be realised or imderstood until one has assisted at them, and 
after all, the Orthodox Church is obviously the spiritual home of 
the Oriental Christian. 



{a) The Mount of Olives. 

(6) The Valleys. 

(c) The Home of John the Baptist. 




(a) The Mount of Olives 

Jerusalem is indeed a " city set on a hill " that cannot be hid, 

and the country around is a " land of hills and valleys." From 

almost every point of view the Holy City is prominently situated : 

facing south, it terminates on the crest of an extended hill, 

bounded on all sides, except the north, by valleys. On the 

Eastern hill, the Jewish Zion, once stood the city and palace of 

David. This crest and that of the Mount of Olives, which is 

somewhat higher, are two of the highest points in Palestine, 

being approximately 2,528 feet above the sea-level. On the 

summit of this mountain crest the Holy City was built, and 

crowning the heights of Mount Moriah and Mount Zion would 

be the Temple of King Solomon. From the Temple heights 

down to the Valley of Jehoshaphat the rocks appeared like a 

solid wall, and in the time of our Lord, when the valley was 

untouched, any traveller going towards Jerusalem from the 

south would see before him the broad stretch of the valley, the 

rugged heights of the mountain wall, and above this, on the left, 

a collection of towers and columns marking the royal buildings 

on Mount Zion, and on the right the Temple platform cresting 

Mount Moriah, and above all, in its radiant beauty, the upper 

part of the Temple "covered with beaten gold," "that latter 

house " which was the proud boast of every good Jew. 

The Mount of Olives is steeped in memories of our Lord, for 

it was His continued presence on its slope that made it a holy 

Mount. It may be that He never slept in Jerusalem, for He 

would spend the night in retreat on the side of the Mount or in 

the happy peace and calm of Bethany. Two of the most im- 



portant incidents in His ministerial life are specially connected 
with the Mount of Olives : first the wonderful procession down 
the mountain side, across the brook Kidron, through the Golden 
Gate into the city, and then, on the night before His death, the 
real Via Dolorosa, which began in the Garden on the slopes of 
the Mount and ended on Calvary'. From the Mount of Olives 
He went daily during the last week of His life to the Temple : 
"He came to His own " in that beautiful Temple on Mount 
Moriah, where by a mysterious coincidence the Holy of Holies 
was empty, " and His own received Him not." 

In spite of the disfigurement of its beautiful slopes, the Mount 
of Olives retains a strong and yet indefinable impression of the 
tremendous events of which it was the scene. The paths leading 
to it are rough, uneven, and steep, and therefore many people 
prefer to drive by the road ; to appreciate the mystic atmosphere 
of the Mount it is certainly better to proceed on foot. 

Near St. Stephen's Gate is to be seen the Greek enclosure 
which is said by some to mark the spot where St. Stephen was 
stoned. The road crosses the Valley of the Kidron, and on the 
left there stands a church into which descent is made by a long 
and steep staircase to find the Tomb of the Virgin. On this spot 
it is said the Mother of Christ was buried by the Apostles, and 
the tradition goes on to relate that Thomas alone of the Apostles 
being absent, on his return he expressed great desire to look upon 
the Virgin Mother once again. The Tomb was opened, only to 
find it empty and flowers growing within ; hence the tradition 
from early days of the Assumption of the Virgin. Mary's 
parents, Joachim and Anna, are said to be buried here, and also 
St. Joseph, whose mortal remains were transferred from the 
Church of St. Anne in the fifteenth century. In this chapel, 
which belongs to the Greek rite, there are Masses and other 
services almost without ceasing, and in the little grotto of the 
Madonna, where once the body was laid, people are ever praying. 
At one time Moslems, who have a great reverence for the Virgin, 
shared the privilege of access to this sanctuary — a prayer-recess 
for them is still shown— and Omar himself is said to have prayed 
here on one occasion. Abyssinians, Copts, Armenians, besides 
the Greek and Latin rites, have their altars here. 

Close to the Tomb of the Virgin is a chapel, commonly called 


the Grotto of the Agony, or the Grotto of Gethsemane. Accord- 
ing to some early writers, this chapel marked the spot where our 
Lord often rested with His disciples, and probably the Grotto 
was at one time part of the Garden. A short distance from this 
Grotto, across the road and up a narrow lane leading to the Mount 
of Olives, the pilgrim must turn off along a pathway in order to 
reach the Garden of Gethsemane. The tradition concerning this 
site dates from the fourth century. The Franciscans entered 
into possession of this part of the Garden in 1681, and for a long 
while left it, as one would much prefer to see it to-day, an un- 
cultivated field surrounded by stone walls. In 1848 they seem 
to have found it necessary to safeguard the property by en- 
closing it in a square of some eighty yards, and to-day it is a 
conventional Italian garden, with flowers of all kinds and well- 
kept paths. The great olive trees alone remain, eight of them, 
to tell of their predecessors from whose roots they sprang and 
who gave shade and rest to the Saviour of the world. 

Large sweet-smelling violets grow in profusion, and the 
friar in charge delights in making little nosegays for the visitor 
to take away. One peculiarly gnarled and ancient tree he 
points out as marking the actual spot where our Lord rested in 
the cool shade, and the old friar often plucks a branch of olive, 
giving it as he says, " Come ricordo del Nostra Signore Genu 
Chnsto." Outside the Garden is a mass of rock, where it is said 
that our Lord left the Apostles before His Agony, and told them 
to " Watch and pray " — a column at the end of the wall is said 
to mark the spot of His betrayal by Judas. Next to the Garden 
there was until recently an open space, in the centre of which 
in a prominent position lay a large white stone. Here it is said 
that our Lord knelt in prayer on that first Maundy Thursday 
night. It is sad to relate that the Franciscans have now erected 
a large and unsightly church on this spot which completely 
destroys the beauty of the quiet little garden as one remembers 
it of old. 

The path to the Mount of Olives ascends by the upper part 
of the Garden, wild and beautiful and belonging, together with 
the Church of St. Mary Magdalene with its golden cupola, to 
the Russian Church ; beyond on the right is the Dervish monastery, 
enclosed in which stands the Chapel of the Ascension. St. Jerome 


tells us that the original church was round in form and open to 
the sky. In the centre was a court which covered the sacred 
well near which our Lord ascended. The Crusaders turned the 
church and its porticoes into a convent for the Canons Regular 
of St. Augustine. To-day the sacred spot is surrounded by a 
girdle of Arab houses. The chapel in the centre of the court 
was built by the Crusaders, an octagonal building comprised in 
a circle some twenty-three feet in diameter. The Moslems have 
walled up five sides of the chapel and built a new cupola without 
any opening in the centre. " In the interior a frame of white 
marble surrounds the rock bearing the impress of the left foot 
of our Lord, the print of the right foot having been destroyed 
by time. St. Jerome and St. Paula kissed the sacred stone. It 
was here that our Lord, when His divine mission was ended, 
blessed His Apostles for the last time, and gave them the supreme 
conunand related by the Evangelists : ^ 

Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptising them in the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost ; 
teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have 
commanded you : and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto 
the end of the world. '^ 

The chapel and its enclosure belong to the Moslems, and 
Christians are only allowed there on sufferance. Once a year, on 
the Feast of the Ascension, the Latin clergy celebrate Mass within 
the chapel from midnight to midday, the Greeks and Armenians 
set up their altars in the court, other Christians come also, and 
the Feast of the Ascension is thus observed on the spot itself by 
all the Christian rites of Palestine. Let us hope that before 
long this chapel, as well as the Cenaculum, may be restored to 

At the top of the mountain is the village of Kafr-el-Tur, and 
close by are the Russian buildings. In the Garden, at the end of 
a long shady avenue, is the modem Russian Church, whose 
campanile is a landmark for all the surrounding country. It is a 
long climb, some two hundred and fourteen steps, to the topmost 
platform of the campanile, but it is well worth while. The eye 
takes in almost at one glance the entire city of Jerusalem — 

* Franciscan Guide to the Holy Land. Fr. Barnabas Meistermann. 

* St. Matthew xxviii. 19. 

Tlic Glutei of tl^ Asceii6iciv 

[To face page 140. 


surrounded by the valleys of Jehoshaphat and Gehenna — the 
mountains of Judah and Ephraim, and the Dead Sea and 
the Jordan beyond, evoking everywhere wonderful memories 
of the history of the Israelites. The atmosphere was so 
clear one day when I made the climb that the Dead Sea ap- 
peared to be within a few miles, whereas the distance was at 
least sixteen, and the sea was no less than 3,900 feet below 
the tower on which I stood. Beyond arose the distant moun- 
tains of Moab, looking blue in the haze that covered them ; toward 
the south-east was the road to Jericho, and to the left the village 
of Bethany ; whilst far away in the distance to the south could 
be seen the " Frank " mountain, with the heights of Bethlehem 
and Tirkoah. . . . 

The ground all around is strewn with crimson anemones, the 
almond tree is blossoming, and the fig-tree just putting forth its 
tender leaves. ... It is very beautiful, around and beyond, and 
nothing on Olivet is so impressive as the magnificence of the 
prospect which evening after evening must have disclosed itself 
here to the eyes of Majesty and Love incarnate, when, in the glow 
of the setting sun, He rested with His disciples after the day's 
labour in Jerusalem. 

A pathway leads from the Russian buildings through delightful 
scenery to Bethany, a pleasing walk of about three-quarters of 
an hour, to the place of retirement and blissful retreat that Christ 
loved so well. 

Not far from the Residence of the High Commissioner, 
formerly the German Hospice, ^ is the Greek convent called since 
the thirteenth century Viri Galilcei, built in memory of the words 
spoken by " the two Men in white apparel " to the Apostles after 
the Lord's Ascension : 

Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven ? * 

Near the Carmelite Convent is the Church of the Pater. Ac- 
cording to tradition, Christ taught the disciples the Lord's Prayer 
a second time on the Mount of Olives. A church was built here 
before the days of the Crusaders, but it was destroyed by the 

* The building will shortly be restored to Germany. (1928.) 
' Acts i. II. 


Saracens, and the place remained deserted until about forty 
years ago, when a French woman founded a Convent of Carmelite 
Nuns, with its Church of the Pater. The nuns are cloistered, and, 
following the strict rule of Theresa of Avila, pray unceasingly, 
and are never seen by the outside world. The courtyard is filled 
with beautiful flowers, and round the walls of the cloister is 
written on great panels the " Our Father " in thirty-six different 
languages. Close to the Convent of the Pater is the crypt of the 
Credo, once an ancient cistern, then transformed into an oratory 
called the crypt of the Credo owing to a doubtful tradition that 
here the Apostles composed the Creed before dispersing. It is 
far more probable that the Apostles drew up a profession of 
faith in the Cenaculum after the Descent of the Holy Ghost. 

On leaving the Carmelite Convent a steep and rocky path 
descends to the Valley of Jehoshaphat, on the left a French 
Benedictine Convent. After walking two hundred yards, the 
traditional site where Jesus wept over Jerusalem is reached . This 
is known as Dominus Flevit, and it is said that once a church stood 
close to the spot, but was turned into a mosque, under the name 
of El Mansouriyeh, the Conqueror, and to-day it is only a ruin. 
The Franciscans have now built a small chapel on the southern 
side of this same path in commemoration. 

Before passing from the glories of the Mount of Olives we can 
reconstruct the way of that procession in which the " Dominus 
flevit " was an interlude. The procession was pre-arranged. It 
was symbolic of the King coming to His own, and His own refusing 
His claims. It was symbolic also of another great coming, when 
He would visit the whole world, after which time would be no 
more. It was also a fulfilment of prophecy ; it was done, one 
might say, that the Scriptures might be fulfilled : 

Rejoice greatl}-, O daughter of Zion ; shout, O daughter of 
Jerusalem : behold, thy King cometh unto thee : Ho is 
just, and having salvation ; lowly, and riding upon an ass, 
and upon a colt the foal of an ass. ' 

It had become the habit of multitudes to flock to Bethany from 
the city, attracted by the culminating miracle of the raising of 
Lazarus and desirous of seeing the Conqueror of Death and the 

' Zechariah ix. 9. 



restored villager himself. It was the week before the Feast of 
the Passover, and there would be a general excitement among 
the people, looking fonvard to the festivities and to the visits of 
friends coming from the country to take part in the feast them- 
selves. Many of these had heard of the return of the " Prophet " 
of Galilee, that probably He would to-day enter the city, and 
so they determined to give Him an ovation. To them would be 
added the crowd of pilgrims coming to the feast from the Jordan 
valley ; and all of these were about to fulfil an ancient prophecy 
by forming a truimphant bodyguard for the entrance of Zion's 

The Lord despatched two of the disciples to Bethphage. 
the village that occupied a ridge of the Mount, in order to fetch 
" an ass, and a colt the foal of an ass." The disciples hastened 
away to fulfil this duty, and without any remonstrances, and on 
the sole plea addressed to the owners that " the Lord hath need 
of them," they execute His commission. The owners evidently 
were followers of the Master, though perhaps secret ones, and the 
two animals are handed over and led to the spot from whence 
the procession would start. Crowds of people, happy in the fresh 
spring morning, with the country bathed in sunshine, excited to 
be near the Man Who had healed their sick and had sf)oken as 
none other did before, flocked in crowds to make the triumphal 
progress one that should not be forgotten. Little did those 
present imagine that this scene would be commemorated year by 
year in every part of the world where Christians foregather ! 

Yet the central object of attraction and homage in this en- 
thusiastic crowd is a lowly Pilgrim of Galilee, undistinguished by 
any outward badge of dignity — no purple, no warrior's sword, no 
conquering chariot, and certainly no crowTi had He. How easily 
He might have converted that hour of popular acclamation into 
an hour of triumph, or worked on the passions of those thousands 
that now crowded around Him ! 

And then the wonderful scene, so Eastern, so full of enthusiasm 
and lack of reserve ! Around the route of the triumphal progress 
are palms and olive-trees, gardens and groves, and devoted 
people cutting down branches of these and other green boughs 
and strew them along the path of the Conqueror, whilst others. 


who cannot wait, in their eagerness tear their outer garments 
off, throwing them Hke saddle-cloths on the back of the colt ; 
others, again, spreading them as a tribute of loyalty and homage, 
to be trodden on by the Great Prophet. 0\'er this leafy carpet, 
composed of these symbols of rejoicing, rides Zion's King, His 
one and only earthly triumph, while shouts of victory, of 
Hosannahs, wake the echoes of Mount Olivet — those cries of 
welcome so soon to be changed to the yells of execration, " Crucify 
Him ! Crucify Him ! " 

" Even so, the world is thronging round to gaze 
On the dread vision of the latter days. 
Constrained to own Thee, but in heart 
Prepared to take Barabbas' part : 
' Hosanna ! ' now, to-morrow, ' Crucify ! ' 
The changeful burden still of their rude lawless cry. ' 

The locality accords in a remarkable manner with the descrip- 
tion given by the Evangelists of this drama. Shortly after 
leaving the home of Mary and Martha, a turn in the road would 
bring the procession to the valley of Bethany, a wild, picturesque 
and sequestered ravine. Here the path turns to the right, as it 
must have done then, avoiding the deep depression of the ravine, 
thus skirting the southern slope of Olivet. 

The first time I walked from Bethany, along the slope of the 
Mount of Jerusalem, it was at this point, with its first glimpse of 
the city, that the words of the Evangelist seemed to fit so well : 

And when He was come near. He beheld the city, and wept 
over it. 

For just as they descended to the sharp and steep angle, the 
crowd would suddenly have caught the first glimpse of Jeru- 
salem. Just a glimpse, and no more, but that glimpse would 
have been suggestive, because it revealed the citadel and what was 
once the palace of David, and therefore the holy Mount of Zion. 
Imagine the scene ! A solemn pause ; the Lord had reined in 
the humble animal on which He rode : 

And when He was come near, He beheld the city, and wept 
over it, saving, If thou Imdst known, even thou, at least in 
this thy day, the things which belong unto thy peace ! 
but now they are hid from thine eyes. 

' Keble : Christian Year. 


The procession would then cross the brook Kidron, that brook 
that would see Him a few days hence being brought a captive to 
Jerusalem, now a King, then a Criminal ! They climb the slope 
of Mount Zion, the holy city of David, the cries becoming more 
vociferous as the city is approached. The Pharisees are jealous — 
such honour had never been paid to them ; it must be stopped 
before the Temple is reached. " Master, rebuke thy disciples." 

" / tell you, ij these should hold their peace, the stones would 
immediately cry out," 

is the answer they receive. The Temple courts are reached 
and the triumphal march is over. 

(b) The Valleys 

Jerusalem is encircled by a vast cemetery : Jewish and Moslem 
tombs. Walk where you like, in the valleys or on the hills, and 
you will walk among graves. The Valley of Jehoshaphat is one 
great cemetery. The slopes of Mount Moriah down to the Kidron 
is covered with Moslem tombs, and the south-eastern side of the 
Mount of Olives is literally paved with the graves of Jewish dead. 
According to Moslem tradition, the Valley of Jehoshaphat will 
part asunder at the Last Day, to make room for the multitude 
when at last they rise from death and come to judgment. 

Quite in keeping with these surroundings, the British military 
cemetery, containing the graves of those who fell in the war, is 
situated on the slopes of Mount Scopus, in full view of the holy 
city on one side and the mountains of Moab on the other. On 
the Nablus road, close to the Anglican buildings, and about 
three-quarters of a mile from the Gate of Damascus, are the 
sepulchre vaults known as the Caverns of the Kings. Neither 
labour nor expense has been spared in the creation of these 
sepulchres, as their magnificence plainly shows. The excavation 
is immense, and must be at least six hundred feet below the level 
of the Bethesda quarter. Sir Charles Watson speaks of them as 
"interesting sepulchres, although there is no evidence that kings 
were buried here." ^ They are interesting, for they remind us 

' Jtruiulem. Sir C. M. Watson. 



that the poor at the time of our Lord were buried in the earth, 
while the rich were laid in sepulchres hewn out of the rock. 
Joseph of Arimathaea was a rich man, and gave to the Lord of the 
best, a tomb hewn out of the rock in which no man before had 
been laid. A visit to the royal tombs shows us the kind of 
sepulchre given to our Lord, for in front of one great cavern is 
seen a large round stone which once closed the door of the 
sepulchre, but is now " rolled away " — so heavy that it would 
require several strong men to move it. 

Josephus in his description of Jerusalem calls these tombs 
the Royal Caverns, and it is generally believed that they are the 
sepulchres of Helena, Queen of Adiabene, a country situated on 
a tributary of the Tigris, who with her son Izates was converted 
to Judaism in the year 44 a.d. The latter had many sons, which 
explains the vast area of the caverns. An ancient tradition 
referred to these caverns as tombs of the early kings of Judah ; 
hence the name most commonly in use to-day, " The Tombs 
of the Kings." 

Not far from the Gate of Damascus, and along the Nablus 
road close to the Basilica of St. Stephen, a path leads to an 
enclosure in which a Jewish tomb is shown, said to have been 
inhabited by an anchorite who traced the form of a cross on one 
of the interior walls. The enclosure is a very beautiful garden, 
kept in perfect condition by an English lady who made the little 
cottage in the garden her home. The property belongs to 
British trustees, who keep it in order by means of an endowment 
fund and voluntary contributions. Some German and English 
authorities in the year 1882, together with General Gordon, 
claimed that the hill above the enclosure was the true Golgotha, 
seeuig in the formation of the great rock the similitude of a 
skull. The sepulchre is generally called " The Garden Tomb," 
and the adjoining hill " Gordon's Calvary." Some time before 
1882 Fergusson and then Conder attempted to eradicate a belief 
held from time immemorial, but their theories have never been 
acceptable to Palestinians, for it certainly needs more than 
British originality to contest seriously the authenticity of Calvary 
and the Holy Sepulchre. It is related that General Gordon once 
laid his claim to what is now called " Gordon's Calvary," as the 
true site, before Queen Victoria. The Queen heard him patiently, 


and when he had finished she remarked, " I think that on the 
whole I prefer the opinion of my royal sister, Queen Helena." 

The Gate of Damascus, as it is called to-day, is the Neapolitan 
or Nablus Gate of the fourth century. It was called the Gate of 
St. Stephen in the twelfth century, but the Arabs called it Bab el 
Amud, Gate of the Column, because of a forum which Hadrian 
had built at its entrance, whence a street adorned with porticoes 
went to Mount Syon. The Damascus Gate is quite the most 
beautiful of all the gates of the city, and in its present form dates 
from the sixteenth century. The next gate along the Valley of 
Jehoshaphat is that of Herod, in Arabic Bab es Sahireh ; near it 
is the ruined church el Ades, which name would seem to be a 
corruption of the Greek " Herodes," the church, it is said, being 
built on the site of the house of Herod Antipas, the Tetrarch, who 
with his men of war mocked our Lord when Pilate sent Him to 
his palace. " This gate has a further interest, as it was at this 
point that Godfrey de Bouillon, after a hard struggle, was the 
first of the Cnisaders to enter Jerusalem in 1099. but the wall and 
gate have been rebuilt since his time. The original wall built by 
Herod Agrippa has almost disappeared, but here and there are 
traces of the foundations of this magnificent line of fortifications, 
that, as Josephus says, was ' all of it wonderful.' Soon after 
passing Herod's Gate some rising ground is seen on the right, 
supposed by some modern writers to be the site of the Crucifixion, 
but for this there is no historical evidence, and the cutting through 
the hill, followed by the road, was probably not made until 
Agrippa had built the third wall." ^ 

The Gate of St. Stephen opens into the Valley of the Kidron ; 
the natives call it Bab Sitti Miriam, the Gate of the Lady Mary, 
owing to its proximity to the tomb of the Virgin. The gate 
corresponds to the ancient Gate of the Sheep. Close to this gate 
is the road leading from Jerusalem to Bethany, passing through 
the Valley of the Kidron, or Jehoshaphat. The Valley of the 
Kidron, which to-day is quite dry, begins near the Tombs of the 
Kings ; there it passes the base of Mount Scopus, and turning 
southwards separates Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives. 
According to tradition, it is the valley where the mysterious 

^Jerusalem. Sir C. M. Watson. 


Melchizedek, King of Salem, met Abraham returning from his 
victory over the five kings. 

And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and 
wine : and he was the priest of the most high God. And he 
blessed him, and said, Blessed beAbram of the most high 
God. possessor of heaven and earth : and blessed be the 
most high God, which hath delivered thine enemies into 
thy hand. And he gave him tithes of all. * 

Passing St. Stephen's Gate, it is a short walk to the Golden 
Gate. This is a double gate of Roman construction and its arch 
is beautifully decorated with palm-trees. The Moslems declare 
that the Prophet will sit here at the last day to judge the world. 
Before him all who have lived will be assembled on the Mount of 
Olives, and between that Mount and the Golden Gate will be 
stretched a bridge as fine as a razor's edge, over which the faithful 
will pass safely into Paradise ; but the others trying to do the same 
but being heavily burdened with their sins, will fall — lower than 
the Kidron. Here, where the southern wall of the Temple 
ended, comes down the Tyropaean Valley, the deep cleft which 
divided ancient Zion from Mount Moriah. That valley was 
spanned by a bridge which enabled Solomon to pass from his 
palace on Zion to the Temple on Mount Moriah. 

The Valley of Jehoshaphat contains four sepulchres of great 
and ancient interest. They are called the tombs of Absalom, 
Jehoshaphat, St. James, and Zacharias, but the authority for the 
names is rather doubtful. What is far more interesting is the 
fact that without doubt our Lord must have passed and gazed on 
these monuments when He walked along the valley. The 
names seem to have been changed at different periods, for at one 
time they were taken for the sepulchres of Ezekiel, Isaiah, and 
Simeon. Isaiah, according to a trustworthy tradition, was mar- 
tyred in the Valley of the Kidron and buried there. St. James the 
Great, called the brother of the Lord, was thrown from a pin- 
nacle of the Temple and also killed in this valley. The " Tomb 
of Jehoshaphat " is said to belong to the Jewish type of tomb, 
as is also that of St. James. Those of Absalom and Zacharias 
are altogether different, and are more like memorial monuments 
than sepulchres. 

* Gencbis xiv. i8. 


The next gate along the wall of the city is the Dung Gate, or 
Gate of the Maugrabins (Moslems of Moghrib, in the west of 
Africa), in Arabic, Bab el Mugharibeh. Here we are on Ophel, the 
eastern hill of Jerusalem, in ancient days the site of the royal 
City of David, which sloped down towards the Pool of Siloam, the 
Valley of the Kidron being on the east. 

Beyond the " Tomb of Zacharias " the ground is one vast 
cemetery of Jewish graves spreading over the slopes of the hill 
commonly known as the Mount of Scandal, on the summit of 
which a Convent of French Benedictines is situated. Here 
Solomon built temples, altars, and high places to Ashtaroth, 
Molech, Chemosh, and Milcom, for the daughter of Pharaoh and 
his other " strange wives," causing grave scandal. For centuries 
they remained, until the youthful reformer, King Josiah, in one 
swift hour of retribution swept them away, ^ breaking the images 
and groves into fragments, and hurling them into the valley of 
the Kidron. Generations of the Israelites would have seen them ; 
some ruins may have remained so late as the days of our Lord. 
To all good Israelites these stones were for generations an 
"offence," and to this day the old site retains a name of evil 
memory — " the Mount of Scandal." 

On the slopes of the Mount of Scandal are scattered the houses 
of Kafr Silwdn, the village of Siloe. It is said that most of the 
houses of the village are built in front of ancient Jewish sepulchres 
cut in the rocks. For hundred of years these caves served as cells 
for hermits and solitaries, and some were turned into chapels. 
To-day Siloe is a typical Moslem village. To the north of the 
village are the remains of an Egyptian monument, said to be of the 
period of King Solomon. 

Because the Virgin was buried at Gethsemane, the Arabs gave 
the name of Sitti Miriam to the whole valley, and the Fountain 
of the Virgin they call Ain Sitti Miriam. This fountain has an 
intermittent spring ; twice a day in winter, less often in summer, 
by the action of a natural syphon, the spring comes with a 
gush. The waters bubble up and the pool is agitated, and even 
to-day there are invalids who come to the pool and step into 
the water in the expectation of a cure, so I was assured. The 

' i Kings x.xiii. 12. 


Fountain of the Virgin is the only inexhaustible spring of fresh 
water near Jerusalem. From this fountain it is a pleasant walk 
to follow the brook to the Garden of Siloe at the bottom of the 
valley, "The Garden of the King" referred to by Josephus. 
" A narrow underground channel cut in the well of the Temple 
mount runs from this fountain to the Pool of Siloam some six 
hundred yards in length. This channel was discovered by Dr. 
Robinson, who was the first explorer to traverse it from end to 
end. The channel is three feet, but in some places only eighteen 
inches in height, and he had to squeeze through it on his stomach, 
a perilous adventure, for had the waters chanced to flow the 
consequences would have been serious. Two other explorers, 
Captains Conder and Mantell, passed through this conduit a 
second time, entering at the Pool of Siloam and coming out at 
the Fountain of the Virgin. They wrote their names on the 
rock at mid-channel, so that if one should doubt the fact of their 
having crawled through it, he has it in his power to satisfy himself 
by ocular inspection." ^ 

Continuing along the path mentioned above, we reach the 
Birket el Hamra, known as the Lower Pool of Siloam. Near here a 
hill with an ancient mulberry tree at the top marks the traditional 
site of the martyrdom of Isaiah. Tertullian, St. Jerome, and 
others relate that, at the beginning of the reign of Manasseh, the 
prophet was, by order of the King, sawn in two with a wooden 

The Pool of Siloam is without doubt that described in St. 
John's Gospel, where our Lord worked the miracle of opening the 
eyes of a man born blind, although in those days the pool was 
much larger and was surrounded with a covered portico. 

When He had thus spoken. He spat on the ground, and made 
clay of the spittle, and He anointed the eyes of the blind 
man with the clay, and said unto him, Go, wash in the 
Pool of Siloam (which is, by interpretation, Sent). He went 
his way therefore, and washed, and came seeing.* 

North of the Pool Dr. Bliss discovered the remains of a church, 
probably built by the Empress Eudocia in the fifth century, 

1 Over the Holy Laud. J. A. Wylic. 
'•' St. John i.\. 6. 


destroyed by the Persians in 614. The Pilgrim of Piacenza, in 
570, says that he " met a church there dedicated to our Saviour, 
Light of the World." The foundations of the church are about 
twenty feet underground.but near the site a minaret has been built 
apparently to show that the place is regarded as sacred to Moslems 
and this prevents any attempt on the part of Christians to rebuild 
the church. 

The Valley of Hinnom opens out at the south-west angle of 
the Birket el Hamra : Ge Hinnom, or Gehenna, which in Syriac 
is the equivalent of Hell. This valley is celebrated in the Bible 
for the worship of Baal and Moloch set up there by idolatrous 

The children of Judah have built the high places of Tophet, 
which is in the valley of Hinnom, and burn their sons and 
daughters in the fire, which I commanded them not. ... It 
shall no more be called Tophet, nor the valley of Hinnom, 
but the valley of slaughter.^ 

St. Jerome says that the famous high place of Tophet was in the 
most fertile part of the valley and nearest to Siloe. Above the 
Valley of Hinnom is the hill called the Mount of Evil Counsel, on 
account of a tradition, dating from the time of the Crusaders, 
which places the country house of Caiaphas on its slopes. Here, 
it is said, the chief priests and other leaders of the Jews met 
to take counsel whether they might destroy Jesus. ^ Pompey 
encamped on this mountain when he came to besiege Jerusalem, 
and Titus carried his wall of siege over it. The side of the Mount 
of Evil Counsel opposite Mount Syon is full of sepulchres or cave 
tombs of the Jewish period and also of the Christian era, and 
many Greek inscriptions in which the words " of Holy Syon " are 
repeated show that at some early date a necropolis of the monks 
of Syon was in this place. Josephus indicates the position of the 
monument of the high priest Annas here, one of the many 
monuments which abounded in these parts, the vestibule of which, 
adorned with a Doric frieze, was transformed into an oratory. 
This in later days was turned into a church by the Greeks and 
dedicated to St. Onuphrius, the celebrated hermit of Egypt. A 
fifteenth-century tradition tells how some of the Apostles who fled 

* Jeremiah vii. 31. *St. John xi. 47. 


from the Garden of Gethsemane at the time of the arrest of their 
Master hid in these sepulchres. West of the Church of St. 
Onuphrius is the " Potter's Field, " which was bought by the chief 
priests "to bury strangers in " with the price paid to Judas for 
betraying his Master. 

The city gate next to the " Dung Gate " is Bab en-Nebi Daud, 
also called the Syon Gate, Bab Sahwun. This gate is said to 
have been built in 1540 a.d. by Suliman IL On the slope of 
Mount Syon, overlooking the Bethlehem road, are innumerable 
burial-places of Latins, Greeks, Armenians, and other Christians. 
In the vicinity is Bishop Gobat School, and both here and also 
in the adjoining Greek Convent of Mount Syon are many remains 
of ancient fortifications. From the balcony of the school are 
visible traces of the walls of David and Solomon, and their restora- 
tion by Nehemiah. Close by, and also within the house, are 
several old cisterns. The dining-room stands upon part of a rock 
which served as a foundation for the tower at the corner of the 

The Greek Convent of Mount Syon, which was built in 19 13, 
is a handsome structure with delightful gardens. Here one is 
shown remains of houses, said to have belonged to the Jebusites, 
whose city is believed to have been on Mount Syon before the 
time of David. There have also been excavated ruins of the 
Christian era, remains of an underground church, a baptistery, 
and catacombs for the early Christians in the time of the perse- 
cutions. At the far end of the garden can be seen a portion of 
what must have been some great stone building with a piece of 
mosaic flooring. This is claimed to be the foundations of the 
first church built on Mount Syon by the Empress Helena- 
Opposite the Greek Convent and across the Station road is the 
great pool or reservoir, called to-day the Birket es Sultan, re- 
ferring to Suliman II., who restored the basin in the middle of the 
sixteenth century. From the Sultan's Pool the Bethlehem road 
leads in a few minutes to the Jaffa Gate, the west entrance of 

Some way up the Jaffa road, where crossroads meet, a turning 
to the right brings you to a collection of modern buildings, massive 
stone erections. Close together are the Convent of the Dames 
Reparatrices, the French Hospital of Saint-Louis, and th 



H6tellerie de Notre Dame de France and (within the walls) the 
great Convent of St. Salvatore at the top of the street leading to 
Damascus Gate. Nearby is the gate used most of all, the 
New Gate, or, as it is called in Arabic, Bab Abdul Hamid, for it 
was built in honour of that Sultan of most unpleasant memories. 
To the north-west are the Russian Buildings, a vast block of 
establishments once used for the accommodation of p.lgrims, 
but now turned into law courts ; and near here, it is said, Titus 
pitched his camp when he besieged Jerusalem in 70 ; also the camp 
of Tancred and his followers at the time of the siege of Jerusalem 
by the Crusaders, ^ while still nearer the city was the place where 
Rabshakeh and the Assyrian army encamped and defied both 
Hezekiah and his God. ^ The north-west comer of Jerusalem and 
the neighbourhood of the New Gate is full of interesting historical 

(c) A in Kdrim, or the Home of John the Baptist 

One of the most romantic stories in the Gospel is that of the 
visit of the Virgin Mary to Ehzabeth, told, like most of the events 
coimected with the life of the Madonna, by Luke the Evangelist. 

And Mary arose in those days and went into the hill country 
with haste, into a city of Juda ; and entered the house of 
Zacharias and saluted Elizabeth.* 

On a glorious afternoon in brilliant sunshine, albeit with a cold 
and biting north wind, I walked to the home of John the Baptisti 
known as Ain Karim, or St. John of the Mountains, some five 
miles from Jerusalem. After following the Jaffa road as far as 
the Israelite asylum one crosses the charming Wadi el Moussalib 
to Karim. The tnise en scene is delightful and refreshing — a 
picturesque valley with a clear view of undulating hills for miles 
around. The valley is covered with great rocks, for the path lies 
through stony groimd, though here and there are little plots of 
bright green grass. Everywhere, even among the rocks, the 

' " When Godfrey led the foremost of his Franks 

And young Lord Raymond stormed Jerusalem." — Hilaire Belloc. 
*2 Kings xviii. 30. • St. Luke 1. 39. 


landscape is brightened with the " rose of Sharon, the lily of the 
valley," the orchid, the scarlet poppy, the cyclamen, and countless 
other spring flowers, for ar^ there not some three thousand 
varieties of flowers in the Holy Land ? Soon, in the distance can 
be seen on the extreme left the stately Convent of the Cross, while 
to the right appears a village with pleasure gardens, called by the 
Arabs Deir Yasin. At length the top of the hill is reached, and on 
the west the Mediterranean is discovered, on the east the Mount 
of Olives, and to the north the Mount of Mispeh, or En-Neb i 
Samwll. On either side of the summit of the hill are some typical 
Moslem hovels built of stone, begun but never finished. 

After crossing the ridge the scene changes completely ; stones , 
rocks and barrenness are past, a new vista appears, and stony 
land gives place to woodland and a smiling valley. This valley, 
which opens into the Wadi Beit Hanina, is known as the Valley 
of Sorec. For two miles there is a rapid descent (and a tedious 
climb on the return journey) with continuous windings, as in 
Switzerland, down to the valleys , and then, on turning a comer, 
with sides planted with vines, olives, and other fruit trees, emerges 
the graceful village of Ain Karim, the land of the herald of Christ, 
John the Baptist. The Franciscan Church is the first to be seen, 
and then the great Convent of the Sisters of Syon, perched on a 
prominence on the hills beyond. A path to the right took me to 
the Franciscan Convent, and a gate on the left seemed to be the 
entrance. It reminded me of sunny days in Umbria— all was so 
peaceful, and no living soul apparent. 

The church, which dates from the sixteenth century, is 
in the Itahan style, and naturally is under the patronage of 
St. John the Baptist ; according to tradition, it occupies the site 
of the house of Zacharias, the father of the Forerunner. At the 
extremity of the northern aisle, a staircase of seven marble steps 
leads to the Grotto of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, which 
is entirely hewn out of rock and lighted by innumerable lamps. 
The first church was built in the fourth century, in the next 
century a convent for Greek monks was built there by St. Sabas, 
on the spot where the Baptist was bom, and there the Bene- 
didus (" Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, for He hath visited 
and redeemed His people ") was heard for the first time. The 
Samaritans destroyed the church and murdered the monks in the 


sixth century, but it was rebuilt by the Crusaders. After the 
repulse of the Christians, the Saracens turned the building into a 
khan and stables, but the Franciscans rebought the ancient 
Grotto in the fifteenth century, and at this time it would seem 
that the Greeks, and other Orientals also, had the privilege of 
using the church. 

A path from the church leads to the carriage road, and in a 
few minutes one reaches the charming spring known as the 
Virgin's Well, which is associated with the visit of Mary to 
Elizabeth. To-day it is the business centre of Ain Karim, and is 
used by the native women for washing their clothes, and also as 
a place of gossip. Girls and women, tall and graceful, with pitchers 
on their heads, pass to and fro ; it is a hot afternoon, and all 
nature seems asleep, except these young women, who would seem 
to have followed their occupation since the days of Elizabeth. 
Above the spring stands out in all its beauty a slender and very 
graceful minaret belonging to some disused mosque ; close by is 
the Russian Church and Convent, and also a House of Rest where 
Miss Carey hospita;bly entertains Enghsh and American visitors 
and pilgrims. A quarter of a mile away, and on the slope of an 
adjoining hill, is a small Latin Church, marking the traditional 
site of the summer dwelling of Zacharias, where the Blessed Virgin 
saluted Elizabeth, while at about three miles distance in a western 
direction is the spring and grotto of Ain el-Habis, where, it is said, 
the Baptist lived as a hermit until the day of his preaching in the 
desert on the banks of the river Jordan. 

Ami the child grew and waxed strong in spirit, and was in the 
desert till tlie day of his showing unto Israel.^ 

This grotto, in a very picturesque position, overhangs the deep 
valley of Sorec, called by the Arabs Wadi Sathaf, the name 
of the village which is built on the side of the opposite mountain. 
The desert of St. John is a picturesque and charming site, culti- 
vated and fertile, for it must not be forgotten that " deserts,'' 
according to Oriental significance, mean lonely, solitary places. 

» St. Luke i. 80. 



(fl) Jewish Sects and Customs. 

(b) The Passover. 

(c) The Zionist Movement. 
{d) The Jewish Colonies. 






(a) Jewish Sects and Customs 

The history of the Jews is one long romantic story from the days 
of Abraham to the present era. It is a story of indomitable 
purpose, of prosperity and misery, of changing fortunes, of 
tyranny and persecution, of disobedience and cowardice, and then 
of gradual restoration. To-day the Jewish population in Pales- 
tine is comparatively modem. At the time of the great siege of 
Jerusalem they were almost exterminated ; some few remained, 
only to be banished by Hadrian. In later years those who had 
returned were dealt hardly with by the Crusaders, and in Jeru- 
salem nearly all the Jews were massacred. Towards the end of 
the twelfth century anti-Semitic persecutions in France and 
England drove many of them to Palestine, to be joined later by 
the victims of the persecutions in Spain. These latter, known as 
the Sephardim, or Spanish Jews, erected a group of synagogues in 
Jerusalem built almost underground, and situated between 
Haret al Yahud and Haret al Meidan. One of their meeting- 
places was called the Synagogue of Elijah, from a legend 
that the prophet Elijah appeared at a service as a Jewish 
stranger at a time when the Jews were in great danger. 

The A shkenazim,0T" German " Jews, driven out by the Moslems 
in 1490, returned to Jerusalem two hundred years later, only to 
be expelled again after thirty years, their synagogues being 
seized by the Moslems. It was not until the Egyptian occupation 
in 183 1 that they were allowed to settle in Jerusalem again. 
They then repurchased their synagogues, and restored them for 

During the past forty years Jewish immigration has greatly 

increased, and further impetus was given to this movement after 



the expulsion of the Turk in 1918. Now Jews are flocking into 
Palestine from all parts of the world. In other towns also, such 
as Tiberias, Safed, Haifa, Jaffa, and Hebron, their numbers 
increase almost daily. Since 1884 the Jews have founded many 
colonies in different parts of the Holy Land, at Rehoboth, Rishon^ 
Ekron, etc., and northern colonies such as Rosh Pinnar and 
Machnayim. United as a race, the Jews have few sects. 
Of these there are two great branches, viz., the Ashkenazim, or 
Jews from the North — Russians, Germans, Poles, Roumanians, 
etc., and the Sephardim, or Jews from the South — Spanish, 
Portuguese, Algerians, Jews from Morocco. This branch includes 
the Yemenites, or Jews from Arabia. 

Socially the various Jewish sects mix together, but in religious 
observance they keep to their own synagogues. On all important 
issues these sects are at one (that is to say as far as the " practis- 
ing " Jew is concerned, for it must be remembered that some 
modem Jews, including those who have but lately 
emigrated to Palestine, are not in this category. To them Jewry 
means a Nation, and not necessarily a Religion). They all 
await a Messiah, learn the traditional law of Moses and the 
Talmud, and keep with strict observance the various feasts, and 
above all, the Sabbath. From six o'clock on Friday evening to 
the same hour on Saturday work ceases, and rest from labour is 
carried out almost to excess : it is forbidden to write a letter, to 
strike a match, and many other regulations are observed con- 
tained in what might be called the positive and negative laws 
regarding Sabbath observance. 

The dress of the Palestine Jew is of great variety in style 
and colour ; the Ashkenazim wear ear-locks, a furry hat, and 
cloaks of wonderful hue ; the Sephardim generally adopt the 
native costume, while others would seem to combine the dress 
of the Arab with that of their own country, many of them 
wearing the " fez " or " tarbouche." The " international " 
Jew, such as one sees in Jewish colonies, wears ordinary 
European clothes. 

(b) The Passover 

Through the kindly efforts of a Zionist friend, I was invited 
to take part in the Feast of the Passover, being the first day of 


unleavened bread, this year (1920) falling on Good Friday, at 
the house of Mr. G., the director of a famous Jewish orphanage. 
On my way to the house I passed through the Jewish colony 
by the Italian buildings, and noticed that every house and apart- 
ment was brilliantly illuminated with candles and lamps, and 
that all the blinds were up. In one room I saw a sick man in 
bed who was keeping the Feast with the requisite number of 
lighted candles. It was still early, that beautiful hour at the 
beginning of spring when the sun sets and before the moon begins 
to show her radiance. The sky was filled with a heavenly glow 
of colour. The candles were lit thus early, as no light can be 
kindled once the sun has set. 

I was received with great courtesy by Mr. G. and his wife, 
and introduced to the other friends who sat at the high table, 
a professor from Amsterdam, a Jew from Abyssinia, and the 
sister of a prominent Zionist. These and the three children of 
the household made up the party. I fear that I committed a 
solecism by going into the dining-room with my head uncovered ; 
it is the custom for all men to be " covered " on these occasions, 
but this was soon put right by someone kindly offering me a cap. 
As this, however, did not fit, I asked to be allowed to wear my 
own hat. We sat down at 7.30 p.m. In addition to the party 
at the high table, there were two long tables, at each of which 
sat some thirty-five boys, wearing their school-caps. The cer- 
emonial commenced at once, the professor, who sat next me, 
acting as interpreter and also giving me a book with an English 
translation of the Hebrew, the language used throughout the 

We filled our glasses with the heavy and somewhat sweet 
" Rishon " wine, and the boys had their little Arabic coffee-cups 
filled also. Next our host was placed a chair with a large cushion, 
on which he reclined at certain parts of the ceremony. Prayers 
were then chanted to a quaint rhythm, somewhat like plain- 
chant. At the words, " Blessed art Thou, O Lord our God," 
we drank half a glass of wine. Then, as part of the ceremony, 
everyone filed out, including the seventy boys, to wash their hands. 
We dipped our fingers in water, dried them, and returned to our 
places. The dining-hall was brilliantly illuminated by several 
lamps and candles on each table, the number of candles being 



four or eight — never seven, for this is a sacred number. Then 
we ate some lettuce with a bitter paste produced by the mixture 
of all sorts of vegetables, which typifies the bricks the Israelites 
were forced to make without stubble. While eating it Mr. G. 
said a prayer in the Hebrew tongue. Then followed the breaking 
and eating of the Passover cake — first a tiny morsel, and then 
as much as one desired. In front of our host was placed a dish, 
looking like a plate of hors d'ceuvres, and on it the bone of a lamb, 
an egg, and some small pieces of meat. Mr. G. laid his hand 
on the dish and said : " Lo, this is the bread of affliction which 
our ancestors ate in the land of Egypt. Eat thereof ," after which 
we finished the first glass of wine. Then four boys came forward 
and very solemnly enquired : " Wherefore is this night distin- 
guished from other nights ? " And our host replied : " Because 
we were slaves unto Pharaoh in Egypt, and the Eternal, our God. 
brought us forth from thence with a mighty hand and a stretched- 
out arm." 

Various stories telling how different rabbis " had discoursed 
on the departure from Egypt " were then chanted by the whole 
company. The wine-glasses were again filled and thanks given 
by all the company in song ; then the story of the treatment of 
the Israelites by the Egyptians, and of the plagues meted out to 
Pharaoh, were related, the chant being now changed into a 
minor key. The list of plagues followed in detail, in slow chant, 
everyone sprinkling a drop of wine at the mention of each plague ; 
Blood ; Frogs ; Vermin ; Murrain ; Noxious Beasts ; Boils ; 
Hailstorms ; Locusts ; Darkness ; and the Slaying of the 
First-bom. Rabbis were again quoted in explanation of the 
plagues, and then the host took hold of the Passover cake and 
showed it to the company as a memorial of the freedom of the 
Jews from bondage, saying : " This unleavened cake, wherefore 
do we eat it ? Because there was not enough time for the dough 
of our ancestors to leaven." Then we ate the bitter herb, in 
which was placed some date fruit to lessen the bitterness : " This 
bitter herb, wherefore do we eat it ? Because the Egyptians 
embittered the lives of our ancestors in Egypt." During the 
eating of the bitter herb there was complete silence. After a 
long paean of praise to God for deliverance, everyone held a glass 
of wine in his hand and chanted : " We are therefore in duty 


bound to thank, praise, and honour God, in that He brought us 
out of bondage into freedom." 

Once again we went out to wash our hands, while someone 
chanted these words : " Blessed art Thou, O God, King of the 
Universe, Wlio has sanctified us with His Commandments, and 
commanded us to wash our hands." 

After this grace was said, and the meal begun. First of all 
soup with large rissoles of meat in it ; then a shoulder of lamb, 
cut up by the host and passed round, the only vegetable served 
with it being a kind of beetroot. The meal concluded with a 
dish of preserved fruits. Mrs. G. and her daughters waited on 
us, the boys waited on themselves. Grace was then said : 
'■ Blessed be our God of Whose bounty we have been satisfied, 
and through Whose goodness we live. Blessed be He, blessed 
be His Name." During the dinner between each course Jewish 
songs were sung by all present ; these were in Hebrew and their 
theme connected entirely with praise of the Passover and the 
Sabbath. After dinner the ceremonial continued : psalms and 
prayers were chanted, and it was curious to notice how rapidly 
they changed from the minor to the major key, at one moment a 
dirge, the next triumphant. At the Psalm (cxv), " Non nobis, 
Domine " (" Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto Thy 
Name we give the praise "), the wine-glasses were filled for the 
fourth time. It seems that the rule is for everyone present to 
drink four glasses or cups of wine in all, to signify the four promises 
mentioned in Exodus vi. 6-7, viz. : 

I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, 
and I will rid you out of their bondage, and I will redeem 
you with a stretched-out arm and with great judgments : 
and I will take you to mc for a people, and I will be to 
you a God. 

It is said also that the "cup" mentioned four times in 
Genesis xl. 11-13 refers to this ordinance. 

And Pharaoh's cup was in my hand : and I took the grapes, 
and pressed them into Pharaoh's cup, and I gave the cup 
into Pharaoh's hand . . . and thou shait deliver Pharaoh's 
cup mto his hand. 

Then were oft-repeated the words : " The stone which the builders 
rejected is become the chief stone of the comer." To me it 


seemed wonderful that none present should realise to Whom 
these words of prophecy alluded. After this, psalms of praise 
were chanted, and then followed a graphic account of the slaying 
of the first-bom in Egypt : " Thou didst perform abundant 
miracles in the night, Thou didst terrify the Syrian in the dead 
of night, and Israel wrestled with an angel, and overcame him 
in the night. The first-bom of the Egyptians didst Thou crush 
at midnight, their strength found them not when they arose in 
the night," and so on. Then with frequent reiterations, and at 
this time with what truth ! 

" The Coming Year, O Bring Us to Jerusalem." 

Towards the end, slowly and with great solemnity, the following 
words were chanted : " The commemoration of the Passover is 
now accomplished ; according to its order, all its formalities 
and customs, as we have thus arranged it. O may we also 
merit the actual observance thereof. . . . O hasten to bring 
the redeemed to Zion with joyful song. O may He Who is most 
mighty soon rebuild His House ; speedily, speedily, soon in 
our days ; God, rebuild it, rebuild it, rebuild Thine House 
betimes." The words " rebuild it " were repeated over and 
over again. Then followed the blessing : " May it be Thy will, 
O Eternal our God ! and God of our ancestors ! speedily to 
rebuild the Holy Temple in our days, and grant us a share in 
Thy laws." 

The Passover concluded at ii p.m. ; the boys were getting 
sleepy and the atmosphere close. It had proved a most interest- 
ing experience, though the actual ceremony was different in 
many ways from what I had expected . For instance .there was no 
"eating in haste" to typify the flight from Egypt; on the 
contrary, the meal was protracted, and from time to time all 
leant back in their chairs to show that not only were they in 
bondage to no man, but that they relied not on their own strength, 
but on the power of God. 

My host, Mr. G., and his wife, were most hospitable, and 
asked me to come and see them again. This I did later, and 
inspected the schools, the arrangement of which was altogether 
excellent and homehke, and the sanitation all that could be 

^^' ''^ 

1 r^r 

I'* ( J'^^' : J& 

Tfi£ Jews' W^lltru^ PUce- 

[To face page 1O4. 


(c) The Zionist Movement 

The " Wailing Place "of the Jews recalled to my mind the oft- 
repeated words of the Passover ceremonial : " O God, rebuild it, 
rebuild it ; rebuild Thy House betimes." Coming in by the 
Dung Gate, and passing through a regular jungle of cactus, 
one reaches the south-west corner of the wall of the Haram 
(great blocks of stone probably used in the building), close by 
the arch which connected the Temple with the ancient city of 
Zion. This is called Robinson's Arch, after the American 
traveller who discovered it. By following a narrow crooked lane 
to the north and then turning to the right one comes suddenly 
upon the " Jews' Wailing Place." This is the celebrated western 
wall of the Temple, the last remaining relic of past splendour ; 
it is composed of enormous blocks of limestone, fifteen feet long 
and three to four feet high, rough-surfaced. Every Friday 
afternoon and Saturday morning Jews " wail " here for their 
lost Temple and pray for its restoration. This seemed to me a 
trifle incongruous, for the modern Jew, it is said, has no desire 
whatever to restore the Temple worship. However, the prayers 
offered are not only for that purpose, for people living far away 
from Palestine send requests for prayers to be said here, and 
Jews come to " wail " over their own troubles and to ask help 
from God. 

On July 25th (the ninth of Ab), the anniversary of the 
destruction of the Temple, many himdreds of Jews visit this 
wall. The day is observed as a fast in the Jewish commimity, 
but in view of the gradual " restoration " of the Jews to Palestine 
it is possible that this mournful anniversary may no longer be 

Soon after arriving in Jerusalem I spent a Sabbath afternoon 
at the house of Miss M., a prominent Zionist, who had invited 
several Jews to meet me, most of whom were members of the 
Zionist Commission. Amongst those present were the President 
of the Council of Jews in Jerusalem, a Jewish minister formerly 
a Rabbi in New York, and the Secretary of the Zionist Commission. 
For some time we discussed Zionism and its future. All present 
were eagerly expecting the Mandate to be given to Great Britain, 


for this would result in Palestine becoming the national home 
for the Jews. I was told that thousands of Jews were waiting to 
come over from Russia, America, Holland, Roumania, and other 
countries ; that no immigrant would be admitted without search- 
ing enquiries as to his antecedents ; that only men were wanted 
who would work, or capitalists willing to bring their money into 
the country. The movement was stated to be in no sense 
religious, but national, political, and economic. There are many 
enthusiastic Zionists who are not " practising " Jews, but who 
believe in " Jewry a nation," and that the home of the nation 
must be Palestine. I was given to understand that, " Once a 
Jew always a Jew ; he might not practise his religion, he might 
be a freethinker, or he might even live the life of a Gentile, but unless 
he wilfully broke away and dishonoured Judaism, he still remained 
a Jew, and had the right to share in Jewish privileges. The spiritual 
home of the Jews was Palestine, there they could live in perfect 
content, whereas in every other country they were a ' peculiar people,' 
and marked men when they tried to carry out their convictions in 
detail, e.g., as regards food, and the observance of the Sabbath. At 
present the observance of the Sabbath ruined their business, but 
once Palestine became a Jewish homeland all these disabilities 
would cease, their observances would then be the rule and no longer 
the exception." Such was the point of view of the Zionists with 
whom I talked on that afternoon.^ 

I was the only Christian amongst them, and they were most 
civil to me. Candies were handed round after tea, but not being 
able to partake of them, I asked if I might smoke. My hostess 
said, " Oh, certainly," and brought me matches ; but when I 
asked .vhy the others present did not smoke, she replied, "Oh no, 
it is the Sabbath," but that there was no objection to my 
doing so. The reason for not smoking on the Sabbath is that it 
would entail the kindling of fire, which is forbidden. As various 
visitors came in they retained their hats for a moment while 
they wished each other "Good Sabbath," and all gave the 
greeting " Shalom " as they entered or left. The universal 
salutation among the Jews is this Hebrew word " Shalom," which 
means " Peace be yours." Hebrew is now the universal language 

* March 1920. 


of the Jews. Zionists are not , as some suppose, merely Ghetto Jews, 
with their lovelocks, nor are they mainly adherents of Talmud 
traditions and Yiddish dialect. Zionists to-day are European 
and American Jews, educated, intelligent, and very modem. 
They have achieved a really wonderful thing, namely, the 
revival of a dead language, the transformation of the Biblical 
Hebrew into a living medium for ordinary purposes. 

(d) The Jewish Colonies 

On several occasions during my stay in Jerusalem I was 
urged by members of the Zionist Commission to visit some of 
their colonies, but pressure of work prevented me from making 
this visit until my last week, so that I could only see a few of 
these interesting settlements. The President of the Zionist 
Commission, at the suggestion of Dr. D., a Hebrew scholar in 
sympathy with Zionist ideals, placed a car at my disposal in 
order that I could inspect some of the colonies between Jerusalem 
and Jaffa. Dr. S., a Russian Jew, sometime Professor at the 
Sorbonne, accompanied us as "guide, philosopher, and friend." 
On a glorious afternoon in late spring we followed the road to 
Ramleh, passing the picturesque village of Lefta, and a little 
further on the Jewish colony of Moza, founded in 1890, and then 
Kaloniyeh, said to be derived from the Roman " Colonia," and 
by some to be the village of Emmaus. After driving through 
the Wadi Beit Hanina, we saw Ain Karim, the biri;hplace of 
St. John the Baptist, picturesquely situated on the top of a hill. 
Then on the right, high above us, the village of Kastal, after which 
the road became very steep, uphill and downhill, until we reached 
the long fiat road to Ramleh. Here we left the main road, and 
our troubles began. We now realised how impossibly bad 
Palestine " roads " could be. ^ Deep into the sand sank the 
wheels of our chariot, and had it not been for the opportune 
help of some hefty young Jewish soldiers encamped in the 
neighbourhood, we should probably be there still. After losing 

' Since 1920 the roads have been very considerablx improved here 
as in other parts of Palestine. 


our way very frequently, we arrived at last at Ekron, the first 
Jewish colony on our list. Ekron was one of the five chief cities 
of the Philistines, and on its actual site is now the Arab village 
Akir, about a mile away from the colony. 

This is the land that yet remaineth : all the borders of the 
Philistines, and all Geshuri, from Sihor, which is before 
Egypt, even unto the borders of Ekron northward, which 
is counted to the Canaanite : five lords of the Philistines.* 

On a hill immediately to the left stand the ruins of Gezer. 
the town which Pharaoh presented to Solomon as his daughter's 
dowry : 

Pharaoh, King of Egypt, had gone up and taken Gezer, and 
burnt it with fire, and slain the Canaanites that dwelt in 
the city, and given it for a present unto his daughter, 
Solomon's wife. And Solomon built Gezer.* 

It was also an important place in the time of the Maccabees, 
for Judas Maccabaeus won a great victory there, pursuing his 
enemy " unto Gazera " (Gezer). ^ 

The modem colony of Ekron was founded by Baron Edmond 
de Rothschild in 1884 ; population about 450, made up of eighty 
families. It is an agricultural colony of thirty-five acres, both 
Jewish and Arab labour being employed- The products are 
mainly maize, olives, and wheat. 

The chief inhabitants of the village came out to meet us, all 
talking Hebrew, which our Professor translated. Suddenly, to 
my surprise, a man looking like a farm labourer said to me, 
" Monsieur, voulez-vous bien prendre une tasse de the chez moi ? ' ' 
After replying, " Volontiers, monsieur," I enquired how and 
where he had learnt French, to be told that he had acquired the 
knowledge of that language as a boy in Russia. As a rule the 
colonists speak no language but Hebrew, except in Rishon. On 
our way to his house the children troop)ed out of school to greet 
us, and after I had taken some photos of them, they marched 
through the village street singing Jewish songs. While we were 
at tea, some girls of the village decorated our car with beautiful 

' Joshua xiii. 2-3. ' i Kings ix. 16-17. 

' 1 Maccabees iv. 15. 


flowers from their trim little gardens, and we drove away amidst 
the cheers and good wishes of all the inhabitants. 

From Ekron we went next to Hulda (Khulda). What a 
drive it was ! Sand into which the wheels of our car sank 
repeatedly, rocks and huge boulders over which we bounded into 
the air, precipices we barely climbed, and finally a morass in 
which we expected to spend the night ; but thanks to Dr. D.. 
who sacrificed a charming flannel suit to the mud in his efforts 
to push the machine, we did eventually come out on dry land. 
What a lonely and desolate country, with only the raucous cries 
of jackals to relieve the monotony ! Eventually, however, 
about 7.30 p.m., just as it was beginning to get dark, we arrived 
at Hulda. 

This is a young colony, founded with the aid of 
the Zionist Organisation, 400 acres of agricultural land 
and about 150 inhabitants, all of whom are young people. 
There are married quarters, and girls are allowed in the 
colony if they are betrothed to one of the colonists. They 
live a community life, on what might be termed sanely socialist 
lines. The colony consists of one large farm, and most of the 
work is connected with farming and agriculture. There are 
also large plantations of olives and almonds, and also many 
hives of bees. As in most of the other colonies, I noticed many 
eucalyptus trees planted to keep off malaria. I wished they 
would plant something to keep off the flies. In every colony 
flies were a perfect pest, for literally they swarmed on us. 

The whole colony came out to greet us, and did not seem in 
the least surprised at the lateness of our somewhat unconven- 
tional visit. Clean, healthy young men in flannels, a few married 
women, and unmarried girls made up the colony. We were 
escorted to the men's quarters, where they soon fixed up three 
beds in a large room with plenty of fresh air, for it was a warm 
evening ; then they insisted on our sharing their supper of 
potatoes, goat's cheese, hot bread and hot milk, all produce of 
the farm. After supper we sat on the verandah, where the whole 
colony crowded round us. It was the day after the news of the 
" Mandate to Britain, and Palestine for the Jews " had reached 
Jerusalem ; and therefore pur Professor was most eager to tell 
the colonists the " good tidings," for news is only brought to these 


distant villages by occasional visitors or by a belated Jewish 
newspaper. Thus the Professor had the joy of being the first 
at each colony we visited to proclaim the news of the " National 
Homeland." He spoke in Hebrew and ever^'one listened with 
rapt attention. There was no applause or comment of any 
kind, but when at last he came to an end, all present sang the 
Jewish national song, after which " God Save the King " was 
played on a violoncello. This they did not sing, possibly because 
of unfamiliarity with the words. Then they danced, six men and 
six girls, arms entwined, in slow steps, Eastern fashion, singing 
the while Psalm cxxii., the last verse with great fervour : 

I was glad when they said unto me, We will go into the house 

of the Lord. 
Our feet shall stand in thy gates, O Jerusalem. 

Over and over again they repeated these words until they 
were tired and breathless. The moon was brilliant, and all 
around was complete silence,, except for the cry of a jackal or 
the hooting of an owl. 

Next morning we were up soon after 5 a.m., but the colonists 
had already been at work for at least an hour. After photo- 
graphing a group of them, we visited the farm, and were 
given a breakfast of eggs, hot milk, bread, and white cheese 
(which we shared with the flies) ; and so with many farewells 
and invitations to come again we left the colony. The road now 
was not quite so deplorable, at any rate there was no morass, 
and we did not dismount more than nine times an hour. 
About 9 a.m. we reached Katra, otherwise known as Gedara. 
This colony was founded in 1884 by the Choveve Zion (Lovers 
of Zion) , a great colonising society formed during the persecutions 
in Roumania and Russia in the eighties. It has about 1,360 
acres, and a population of 200, the labour being done by Jews 
and Yemenites, viz., Arabian Jews. The colonists, like the 
others visited, were Russians, and were engaged in vine-dressing, 
almond-growing, agriculture, and arboriculture. This is a very 
prosperous community, governed by a committee of three men 
elected every year. The chief of the village, who looked like a 
prosperous farmer, invited us to his house, where we drank wine 
with him, and shortly after others joined us. The sun was 


scorching, and there was but little shade in the clean and pic- 
turesque street. We then visited the synagogue and talked to 
the rabbi, who told us that one day's war had been experienced 
in that village during 1917, during which time the synagogue and 
some houses were badly shelled, several men wounded, but none 
killed. Certainly the synagogue was in a deplorable state, and 
so far no effort had been made to restore it. 

Soon aftenvards we recommenced our journey, but a few 
yards of another execrable road was too much for our long- 
suffering "Ford," and, after wheezing and groaning, it fixed 
itself into a deep rut and off came a wheel ! We expressed our 
feelings in different ways, and the chauffeur, having made his 
furst and only remark in English, " Finish motor," sat down on 
the sand and whistled. He had an exasperating habit of 
whistling, that chauffeur, at odd intervals. However, there was 
nothing to be done but to return on foot to the village, and there 
wait until the head man had commandeered a farmer's cart, and 
two mules had been brought from the fields. Progress after 
this was slow and painful, since the cart had no springs, but it 
was at least sure, and we did manage to make progress, getting 
out and walking when the jolting became too much for us. 

Thus we made our way to the next colony, that of Rehoboth ; 
on the left and close to the sea stood the Arabic village of Yebna , 
prominent on a hill, a large village which seems to delight in 
the possession of many names. It is the ancient Jabneh or 
Jabiieel : 

And tlie bolder went out unlo the side of Ekron northward 
. . . and passed alon^ to Mount Ba;dah, and went out unto 
Jabnecl : and the i;Oings out of the border were at the sea. ' 

The Greeks call it Janmia. It has two mosques, one of which 
was formerly a Crusaders' church. After the destruction of 
Jerusalem, Jabneh became the seat of the Jewish Sanhedrin. 
The Crusaders, not to be outdone in the matter of nomenclature, 
after taking the village, called it Ibelin, and there erected a 
great fortress. 

We arrived at Rehoboth in the early afternoon, and walked 
through streets of sand to the President's house. This com- 

' Joshua .\\ . 1 1 . 


munity was founded in 1890 by a Russian colonisation society, 
and has a population of 1,239, with 3,250 acres. The village is 
governed by a committee of seven, which, with the President, 
is elected yearly by the inhabitants. The people are chiefly 
Russian and Polish Jews, and the labour is performed by Yemen- 
ites, who have a settlement here. It is looked upon as an 
" intellectual " colony, neither " bourgeois " nor socialist. The 
soil is extremely poor, consisting only of loose sand. Like the 
other colonies, it is agricultural and arboricultural, and the 
products are chiefly vines and crops. The village consists of 
two long streets with red-tiled houses and small gardens, and 
each street has its avenue of trees. As we walked up the street 
in the blazing sun not a person was to be seen, but we managed 
to find a barber's shop, where a Roumanian Jew who spoke 
Italian gave us a much-needed shave. The President entertained 
us with wine and biscuits, and later with tea a la Russe, and then 
sent us on our way to the next colony in a carriage with springs, 
drawn as before by mules. 

It was a glorious evening as we drove through this beautiful 
country, passing plantations of olives, almonds, oranges, and 
figs, all of which seemed to thrive happily on sandy soil, whereas 
the grain crops were thin and poor. This road was made by 
the colonists, but the Turks insisting on taking it over from 
them, it became impassable, and we had to drive through fields 
to avoid it. This was a relief after miles of interminable sand, 
and we were glad to be in a cart, for our " Ford " would have 
stuck fast in that sandy road to Rishon. The mules advanced 
passively, not worrying even when strings of camels passed by, 
growling and grunting. As they passed, our Professor asked if 
I knew why the camel always looked so supercilious, and on my 
replying in the negative proceeded to tell me. It is averred 
by Moslems that God has ninety-nine names or attributes, and all 
the Faithful are taught these names from their youth. The 
camel, however, knows the hundredth name. Also he is 
aware of man's ignorance and does not mean to divulge. Quite 
enough to make him supercilious. 

By and by we came to a level crossing, and were held up 
while a goods train passed through. In it were guns and 
accoutrement, and cattle-trucks full of Indian soldiers on their 


way to Jerusalem. " Still more soldiers ! " the Professor 
grumbles, and we wonder if fresh trouble is brewing. Then we 
passed through orange groves to the small colony of Wadi el 
Khanin, with a population of 150, founded in 1882 by the 
Chovev^ Zion, and sharing its 176 acres with the neighbouring 
colony of Nes-Ziona. founded in 1897. 

Compared to other colonies Rishon-le-Zion is a small town. 
So full of trees is it that the houses can scarcely be seen. We 
drove up the main street, past a kiosk where some Jews were 
occupied in reading yesterday's Jerusalem paper, then by the 
large synagogue at the top of the street, down a picturesque 
avenue to the Hotel Rishon-le-Zion, a two-storeyed wooden 
house with a verandah running along the front. We had just 
fixed up our rooms and ordered dinner when the Mayor and some 
leading men of the village paid us an official visit. They knew 
the Professor and were anxious to make our acquaintance. All 
of them were Russians, and the Mayor, Mr. R., was chief of the 
local democratic party, for there are "parties" even here. 
The Mayor at once told us about the colony, the population of 
which is 1,600, with 318 families, and contains about 3,180 
acres of land. It was founded in 1882 at the instance of the 
Choveve Zion, when a few colonists came and settled in tents. 
The place was then a desert ; a few Bedouins lived in encamp- 
ments and molested the colonists in every possible way. Added 
to this, the colonists had no knowledge of the language, nor of 
the customs of the Arabs ; their means and technical preparation 
were altogether inadequate, and malaria threatened their health. 
This and other colonies would have been wiped out had not 
Baron Edmond de Rothschild intervened with large sums of 
money and other assistance. Later on the Jewish Colonisation 
Association, founded by Baron Hirsch, also gave its assistance, 
and ultimately a syndicate of 352 vine-planters was formed, 
known as the " Co-operative Society of Vine-planters of Rishon- 
le-Zion." The work here is confined almost entirely to vine- 
growing and arboriculture, and the cellars of Rishon are said 
to be the second largest in the world. Jews are only employed 
in the cellars and in technical work, Arabs and Yemenites being 
used for all unskilled labour. The Mayor told us that the sub- 
soil of the land was treated with the greatest care, which made 


it possible for the vines to flourish in the sandy soil, and that 
many of the vines of Rishon were imported from France and 

Early next morning a deputation headed by the Mayor came 
to fetch us to visit the caves. First we went to the offices of the 
company and were introduced to the Director, a Russian. Then 
we were conducted all over the cellars, and a guide explained the 
very elaborate machinery. Every detail had been thought out 
most carefully, and not the least interesting undertaking was the 
chemical laboratory. On our return to the Director's office we 
sat round a table and sampled a few of the many vintages we 
had seen in the cellars, finding the Rishon " Malaga " altogether 
excellent, far superior to the other wines. Subsequently we 
visited the public gardens, which contain avenues of majestic 
palms, also bananas, date-palms, tropical plants and flowers in 
great profusion. Our next visit was to the vineyards. Here we 
saw before us a regular landscape of flourishing vines, and the 
Mayor was most anxious that we should see and admire his own 
vineyard, of which he was justly proud. This colony had an 
air of great prosperity, the people looked contented, the houses 
comfortable and well built, and its general appearance was that 
of a flourishing suburb outside an English provincial town. 

On our way back to the hotel we saw a vision, namely, our 
" Ford " drawn by three mules, and led by an Arab, the chauffeur 
still whistling, his legs over the wind-screen. He was still on 
his way to Jaffa to have that wheel mended. Sometimes I have 
wondered whether he ever did reach Jaffa, or whether chauffeur, 
motor, mules and Arab found their long rest in the sand instead, 
and, if so, whether the chauffeur still whistles in spirit-land. 

After taking several photographs of the colony, the Mayor 
provided us with a wagonette and two horses, and sent us on our 
way to Lydda. Soon we passed another colony, that of Nahalat 
Yehudah, with twenty-five houses, founded in 1913, the most 
recent colony in the neighbourhood, worked on communist lines. 
There were other colonies in the neighbourhood, but time was 
precious, and so we returned to Jerusalem by train from Lydda. 

In view of the future of Palestine and its possibilities, a visit 
to these colonies is a most interesting experience, for they are 
a revelation of what could be done by Christians and Moslems as 


well as Jews, given help in the way of funds, loans, and land. 
What surprised me most was the great difference between the 
Jews of Jerusalem and the Jews of the colonies. Anaemic, dirty, 
and idle as most of the former appear to be, the latter are fine, 
healthy men, obviously fit and eager workers. The history of 
these colonies is one of splendid romance, patience, and perse- 
verance, as well as of hard work and untiring energy. Wherever 
a colony has been planted the Arab in the neighbourhood has 
become more self-respecting and the Arab villages far cleaner 
than those at a distance. Ignorance and racial hatred on both 
sides are responsible for many difficulties, and attacks by Bedouins 
are ^ still frequent, especially in the more northern colonies. That 
many improvements are necessary is obvious : for instance, the 
plague of flies is appalling, and strong measures should be taken 
to stamp out this pest. The condition of the roads is most 
deplorable, and a great hindrance to communication. What they 
must be like in really bad weather one can hardly imagine. 
The less one says of the drainage and sanitary arrangements the 
better — they certainly could not be much worse ; the lighting 
is ineffective, and the water supply insufficient. It is likely, 
however, that before very long these drawbacks will disappear. ^ 

Note (a). — According to the Report of the Zionist Organisation, the 
number of Jews immigrating into Palestine between the yearsig 1 9 and 1927 
amount to 78,223. The highest number in any year was in 1925, viz., 34,641. 
In i926thenumberofimmigrantswas 13,910. It appears that in September 
1926 the total number of Jews in Palestine was 158,000, as against 
^3'79-i io 1922. When compared with the total population of the country 
J ews number 1 7 per cent. , a percentage greater than in any other country, 
as seen by the following figures ; Poland, 12.9 per cent. ; Rumania, 5.5 
per cent. ; Hungary, 6 per cent. ; Germany, i per cent. ; U.S.A., 3.1 per 
cent ; Russia, 2.2 per cent. The vast majority come from Poland. 
The report also gives details of emigration from Palestine ; between 
the years 1922 and 192O inclusive 16,979 Jews left Palestine, and of 
these 1,503 emigrated in 1922 and 7,365 in 1926. No less than 52 Zionist 
colonies have been founded since the year 1920. 

Note (6). — No figures are given of emigrations 1920-1922. 

Note(c). — The Annual Report of the Palestine Health Department 
for 1926 (published December, 1927), gives the total population of 
Palestine' as 865,227, viz.; — Moslems, 633,744; Jews, 147,398; 
Chriitians, 75,5^6; others, 8,559. 

1920. - Most of these drawbacks have since disappeared. 

' Approximately. 


(fl) The Prophet. 
(6) Moslem Faith and Practice. 
(c) Some Notable Moslems. 
{d) The Har.\m Esh-Sherif. 




(a) The Prophet 

In order to understand the career of Mohammed and the growth 
of the religion associated with his name, the reader may find it 
useful to have a preliminary account of the civilised world at 
the end of the sixth and the beginning of the seventh centuries 
A.D. for it is at this period that Mohammed was entering upon 
his mission. 

The Roman Empire, though greatly shorn of its former 
extent, was still regarded as the great bulwark of Christianity 
against the twin forces of paganism and barbarism. The seat 
of Government was then at Constantinople, originally known as 
Byzantium, for which reason the empire was conventionally 
styled the Byzantine Empire. The former capital, Rome, had 
been deprived of its political headship. This fact had tended to 
increase the power and dignity of its Bishop. During the episco- 
pate of Gregory the Great, a.d. 590 to 604, Rome began to 
acquire a status independent of Constantinople. The future 
severance between the Eastern and Western Churches was in 
process of preparation. The Papacy was entering upon its 
historic career. 

During the rule of Justinian, from a.d. 527 to 565, the 
Byzantine Empire had enjoyed a period of revival. But Justin- 
ian's immediate successors were devoid of vigour or ability. 
The Lombards pressed into Italy. The Franks had become 
predominant over Gaul and Western Germany. The Avars 
had occupied the Danubian provinces. To the east the Byzan- 
tine Empire found itself confronted by the power of Persia, 
then ruled over by the dynasty of the Sassanians. The boundary 
between the Byzantine and Persian spheres of influence lay along 


the upper Euphrates. Chosroes H., who ascended the Persian 
throne in A.D. 590, waged incessant war against his Byzantine 
rival. The conflict was marked by great vicissitudes. At one 
time the Persians swept all before them. They poured into 
Palestine and in 624 they captured Jerusalem and carried off 
the famous relic the True Cross, an act which moved Christendom 
to its depths. The Byzantine Emperor Heraclius (a.d. 610 to 
641) offered the most determined resistance to Persian aggression. 
The tide eventually turned in his favour. He invaded Persia, 
sacked its capital, caused the ruin of Chosroes, and obtained 
an honourable peace from his successor. But these interminable 
wars had exhausted the strength of both the Byzantine and the 
Persian empires, and had rendered them an easy prey in case 
of the rise of a new enemy. This new enemy was to be found 
in the Arabs. 

The curtain falls and rises again on the figure of Mohammed. 
A study of his life involves many controversies on points of 
detail. But the main facts may be briefly summarised. 

Mohammed was born, either in a.d. 570 or 571, at Mecca 
in Arabia. 

His family belonged to the Kuraish, the most honourable of 
the Arabian tribes, and the guardians of the sacred Ka'bah at 
Mecca. According to tradition the Kuraish traced their descent 
from Ishmael, the son of Abraham. Mohammed (a name 
meaning " the praised one ") lost his father, Abdullah, before 
he was four years old, and his mother, Aminah. before he was 
six. The orphan was placed under the care of his grandfather, 
Abdul Muttalib, and, subsequently, of his uncle, Abu Talib. 
We are told that Mohammed, during his early years, was a 
shepherd, and it may well be assumed that, in his long hours 
of loneliness amid the Arabian solitudes, he acquired a habit 
of meditation which early inspired him with deep religious con- 
victions. On reaching manhood Mohammed became a camel- 
driver and merchant. He entered the service of a rich widow, 
Khadijah, who, impressed by his good qualities and attracted 
by his person, consented to become his wife. The marriage 
appears to have taken place in or about the year 595. Mohammed 
continued to absorb himself in religious contemplation. In 
his fortieth year, which, taking the date of his birth at 570, 


brings us to 6ii, he definitely assumed the title of the Apostle 
of God. At the beginning his converts were few in number and 
slow in accession. His teaching, moreover, excited bitter 
resentment at Mecca. In 622, therefore, Mohammed fled, or 
— to speak more correctly — migrated, to Yasrib, since known by 
the title of Medinatu en-Nabi, the city of the prophet, or more 
briefly, as Medina. It stands about 200 miles due north of 

This migration, known in Arabic as the " Hijrah," is of great 
importance as marking the initial date of the Mohammedan 
calendar. The precise date appears to have been June 20th, 
622. A Mohammedan year is reckoned with reference to the 
period between it and the Hijrah. Thus Mohammedans place 
the death of Mohammed in the eleventh year of their era, i.e., 
since the Hijrah. This is written A.H. (in Latin, Anno Hegirae) 
II. It is, however, exceedingly difficult to synchronise Christian 
and Mohammedan dates. The Mohammedan year consists of 
twelve lunar months, without any intercalation to make it 
correspond with the solar year. The Mohammedan year thus 
amounts very nearly to 354 days, 9 hours, and the Mohammedan 
New Year, as compared with the Christian year, begins about 
eleven days earlier than in the preceding year. 

The time spent by Mohammed at Medina was the most 
critical period in his career. It involves numerous incidents 
which have been narrated at great length in his biographies. 
It is sufficient here to say that, while at Medina, Mohammed 
increased his number of converts ; he developed his doctrines ; 
and he created a powerful and enthusiastic military force. He 
was able to revisit Mecca in 629 ; but it was not till 630, after 
severe and successful fighting against the still recalcitrant Arabs, 
that he made his triumphal entry into that city, in the dual 
character of Apostle and War-lord. From 630 his supremacy 
was assured. He died at Mecca in 632. His combination of 
powers, religious, military and civil, passed to Abu Bakr, known 
as the Caliph (in Arabic " Kalifah," the successor or vice-regent 
of the prophet). 

The ensuing section of this chapter gives an account of the 
doctrines of Mohammedanism. For the present it is enough to 
lay stress upon what many critics regard as its distinguishing 


characteristic. This is its union of rehgion and militarism. 
Mohammedanism was, first and foremost, a religion for the 
fighting man. It was its gospel of propagandism by the sword, 
of martial zeal inspired by uncompromising fanaticism, that led 
to its astonishing extension during the century following 
Mohammed's decease. Against the inspired frenzy of the Arab 
soldiers the effete and distracted Western world of the time 
appeared helpless. The mingled pride and assurance of success 
of the Arabs is notably shown in their meteoric conquest of the 
great Persian dominion within only ten years of the prophet's 

(b) Moslem Faith and Practice 

In its missionary character Islam resembles Buddhism and 
Christianity. The progress of Arab conquest was regularly 
accompanied by the extension of the Mohammedan religion. 
The doctrines of the Prophet were established in Egypt, Syria, 
Mesopotamia, Persia, and Turkistan. Farther East, Moham- 
medanism penetrated into India, China, and Malaysia. In 
Western Europe, Islam at one time dominated Spain and it 
made a desperate effort to force its way into France. It even- 
tually failed in both these countries, though it maintained its 
hold across the straits of Gibraltar on the coast of North Africa. 
From here Mohammedanism has carried on an active propaganda 
in the African continent. Meanwhile, with the advance of the 
Ottoman Turks, Mohammedanism was making great progress 
in Eastern Europe. Constantinople fell in 1453, and the world- 
famous Basilica of the Divine Wisdom was transformed into a 
Mahommedan mosque. The Balkan peninsula was conquered 
by the Turkish Army. In 1547 Sultan Suleiman acquired from 
Austria the possession of the greater part of Hungary and 
Transylvania. But this would appear to be the high water 
mark of Turkish Mohammedan power-in Eastern Europe. From 
that date it has slowly but steadily receded. 

In 1923, roughly speaking, thtre were some 169,000,000 
Moslems in Asia, 60,000,000 in Africa, and less than 
5,000,000 in Europe. 

Islam, like other great religions, is divided into innumerable 


sects. An attempt to explain their mutual differences, even in 
outline, would involve a length}^ and laborious dissertation. The 
tenets of the Mohammedan mystics, the Sufis as they are called, 
comprise an abstruse system of metaphysics which is exceedingly 
difficult for Western minds to appreciate. In addition to the 
sects, attention would have to be paid to the orders of Dervishes, 
confraternities, as a rule of a fanatical type, which play a pro- 
minent part in the spread of Islam. But for practical purposes 
it will be enough to lay stress upon the fact that the main 
division in the Mohammedan world is between the Sunnis and 
the Shias. The Sunnis regard as lawful Caliphs the three 
immediate successors of Mohammed, i.e. Abubeku, Omar, and 
Othman. The Shias, or "Partisans" (of Ali) hold that Ali, 
Mohammed's son-in-law, whom the Sunnis regard as only the 
fourth Caliph, was in reality the first lawful successor of 
Mohammed. Sunnis and Shias also differ from one another in 
their attitude towards religious tradition and in their systems 
of jurisprudence. Both Sunnis and Shias contain, within 
themselves, many sects. But historically these two great 
divisions of Islam have always represented mutually hostile 
forces. They are to a certain extent on analogy with CathoUcism 
and Protestantism among Christians. The Sunnis, who claim 
to be the orthodox, have in many cases shown a strong bias 
for persecution. The Shias are more tolerant. Turkey has 
been the centre of the Sunnis, Persia of the Shias. So marked 
indeed is the opposition between them that it may be doubted 
whether an effective union of the whole Mohammedan world, 
i.e., a scheme of Pan-Islamism, is ever likely to be realised. 

(c) Some Notable Moslems 

While in Jerusalem, I was able to converse with several 
Moslem notables, and was much struck by the courtesy with 
which they received me. The first visit of this kind was to the 
Grand Mufti, ^ and a friend who was a good Arabic linguist 
went with me as interpreter. His Excellency lives in a long, 
low house, built in Oriental fashion, on the slopes of Mount 

* Died June 1921. 


Scopus. The roof is flat and in constant use in the cool of the 
evening, from it one has a dehghtful view across the valley 
to the walls of the city. The Grand Mufti received us in a large 
room with a vaulted roof, and with him was a well-known 
Effendi and also the Mufti's brother. After introductions had 
taken place, cigarettes and coffee were, as usual, handed round. 
It used to be said in England that no two or more people could 
meet without the suggestion of a drink ; in Palestine I never 
paid a formal visit without the assistance of coffee or its equiva- 
lent. At first we talked in French, and the Mufti wanted to 
hear my impressions of the Holy Places, of which he spoke 
with the greatest respect and veneration. It was obvious that 
he did not confine his love for the Holy Land simply to the 
Dome of the Rock, but that the Christian Holy Places had a 
place in his heart also. Possibly this breadth of vision accounted 
for his popularity among all sections of the people. 

A few days before, while driving by his house, my com- 
panion, an English priest, said to me, " That is the Grand 
Mufti's house ; he is quite the most amiable head of any 
religion in Jerusalem." My visit to him was of special interest, 
for only that afternoon a telegram had arrived in Jerusalem 
containing the news that the Peace Conference, sitting at San 
Remo, had decided by a majority to give the Mandate for 
Palestine to the British, and that in this Mandate would be 
included the famous Balfour Declaration, namely, " Palestine 
the national homeland of the Jews," and I was the first to 
convey the news to him. He received it with much disappoint- 
ment, for he had hoped that under the British Mandate all 
religions would have received the same treatment, and all the 
people of those religions be treated on equal terms. Two points 
the Grand Mufti desired to make clear. The first was his un- 
ceasing admiration for England and all that the great Empire 
stood for : he had welcomed the British victory, and the conse- 
quent deliverance from the Turk. And the second that he was 
by no means anti-Semitic, for Christian, Jew, and Moslem had 
lived together happily side by side in Palestine for many years 
without serious trouble. The Grand Mufti was anti-Zionist 
on principle, for he objected to his country being exploited by 
a section of the people who were not Palestinians, but who 


had come, and were coming, from all parts of Europe and from 
America — so much so that in a few years' time foreigners might 
be in a majority among the population. What he had hoped 
was that the inhabitants of Palestine would be given fifteen 
years in which to develop the country, and that during this 
period agricultural banks would be opened, money loaned, 
land purchased, and other help forthcoming, by which means 
the people would be encouraged to show how the Palestinian 
himself could restore his country to what it had been in days 
gone by, namely, "a land flowing with milk and honey." If 
after fifteen years it was found that nothing could be done, 
then permission might have been given to others to come in and 
try. It would at least have been just and fair to give the people 
a chance of showing what they could do in their own country 
with temporary assistance from the Government ; and in this 
work of reconstruction, he was sure that all Palestinians would 
have worked together. 

The Grand Mufti expressed his surprise that Europeans 
should be so ignorant of the true facts about his country. 
" People spoke as if Palestine consisted of a few Christians, 
a handful of Moslems, and a majority of Jews, whereas the 
opposite was the truth. The Jews, except in Jerusalem, were 
in a small minority ; ' the Palestinians, whether Moslems or 
Christians, loved their country intensely and loathed the idea 
of its being exploited by foreigners, who, under the plea of 
making it a ' National Home,' merely looked forward to be- 
coming masters of Palestine." On this subject we talked for 
over an hour, and he seemed only too pleased to answer any 
questions. That he was deeply affected there was no doubt, 
but there was nothing personal in his resentment. However, 
the Grand Mufti is an optimist, and later on, with a charming 
smile, he said that, after God, he still put his trust in 
England because that country had such a reputation for 
taking the side of the weaker nations, and he could not bring 
himself to believe that she would allow the Palestinians to be 
tyrannised. On my taking leave of him, he said, " When 
next you come to my country, let us hope that you will find 
peace, Moslems, Christians, and Jews working in harmony." 
' in 1920 tiiey numbered less than 75,000. 


On more than one occasion I paid a visit to His Excellency 
Aref Pasha el Dajani, who occupies a small house pleasantly 
situated on Mount Syon, outside the little self-contained Moslem 
borough of En-Nebi Daud. 

The Pasha was the founder and President of " The Moslem 
and Christian League," the main object of which was to limit 
the immigration of foreign Jews into Palestine. This League 
was an interesting outcome of political events dating from the 
British occupation. It was originally founded for Moslems only, 
but later on Christians expressed a wish to join it. The Pasha 
spoke very freely, and told me that the League represented united 
Christian and Moslem opinion throughout Palestine. When 
the war began, he said, Arabs throughout his countrj^ were only 
too glad of an opportunity to break away from Turkish rule, 
under which they had existed for over four hundred years. 
Turkish ways were detrimental to their well-being, and an 
effectual stop to all progress. They had heard so much about 
the British nation, of their great power and justice, that they 
decided at once to fight their co-religionists and range themselves 
on the side of Great Britain. So anxious were they for British 
occupation that some 130,000 Arabs deserted from the Turkish 
ranks, and Bedouins hurried across from the desert south of 
Gaza to help in the new crusade. It was to them not a religious 
war, but a war for the liberation of a weaker nation ; not only 
the Moslems of Palestine, but the Moslems of India also, would 
have refused to fight a Moslem country if this point had not 
been impressed upon them. Consequently his people were 
greatly disappointed to find that, after all they had done for 
England, their country was to be handed over to the Zionists, 
and thus this League had come into existence to voice their 
protest. Shortly before the summer of 1919, news was circulated 
that a joint Commission of representatives from England, 
America, and France was to be held in Jerusalem, but eventually 
only America took part in it. In order to be ready to give 
witness before the Commission, branches of the League were 
formed at Jaffa, Gaza, Hebron, Djenin, Nablus, Acre, Haifa, 
Nazareth, Safed, and elsewhere ; all these branches had the 
same constitution, which had been approved by the Military 
Governor of Jerusalem, and the Pasha was elected first President 


of the League. It was then decided to draw up these three 
resolutions to be presented to the Commission : 

1. The independence of -iyria from the Taurus Mountains to 

Kafah, the frontier of 1-gypt. 

2. Palestine and Syria to form one country. 

3. Foreign Jewish nuniigration to be opposed. 

The Pasha added that the whole population of Christians and 
Moslems, as represented by the League, accepted these resolu- 
tions. The President of the Commission summoned the League 
first to appear before it, and then told the delegates that Palestine 
and Syria could not be united. The Pasha was asked the 
question. " What Mandatory Government do you want ? " He 
replied that at one time they would have preferred Great Britain, 
but owing to recent events they now asked that America might 
be given the Mandate for Palestine and Syria. Afterwards 
the Commission interviewed other communities separately, but 
they all replied that their demands had been put forward by 
the League, all except the Jews, who asked for a British Mandate, 
and a separate Government for Palestine. The American Com- 
mission went all over Palestine, and received the same demands 
everywhere ; so much so, that the head of the Commission, 
before leaving Palestine, spoke of the wonderful unanimity 
prevailing throughout the country. ... In conclusion, his 
Excellency stated again that the Arabs would far rather have 
the Turks restored to Palestine then see their beloved country 
handed over to international Jews. Aref Pasha is a native of 
Jerusalem, and was at different times Governor of the Turkish 
Provinces of Baghdad, Yemen, Cilicia, and Salonika. 

As this volume deals mainly with events and impressions, 
the opinions of the tluree leading Moslems in Jerusalem 
regarding politics as they were in 1920 cannot fail to be of 
interest, and are therefore placed on record. I was amazed to 
find such wonderful unanimity amongst them and other Moslems 
with whom I discussed the subject. There seemed to be neither 
bitterness nor hatred, and certainly no self-seeking, only a feeling 
of intense disappointment that they had not been consulted 
on a question which might change the whole outlook of the 
PQuntry they loved with such devotion. 


(d) The Haram esh-Shenf 

The usual way of approach to the Haram esh-Sherif is by the 
Suk el Kattanin, or " Bazaar of the Cotton Merchants," which 
for centuries was no more than a dreary street filled with derelict 
shops. Since the British occupation, and thanks to the energy 
of the Governor, many of these bazaars are now open, 
and known as the " Jerusalem Looms," and employment has 
been found here for many Christian and Moslem natives. It 
was most interesting to see the looms at work, and the children 
being taught to weave ; afterwards the cotton material is sold 
to the native women of Bethlehem and Jerusalem. This bazaar 
leads to the Bab el Kattanin, or " Gate of the Cotton Merchants," 
through which one reaches the level of the Haram enclosure ; 
in front of the Gate is a staircase forty feet in width which leads 
to the raised platform on which stands the Dome of the Rock. 

The word " mosque " is a European corruption of the Arabic 
Masjid, which signifies " a place of prayer." The Moslems call 
the whole of the esplanade the Mosque, but in ordinary speech 
it is named Haram esh-Sherif. The Dome of the Rock is not 
in reality a mosque, but a shrine to cover the holy Rock. The 
title, sometimes given, of " Mosque of Omar " is incorrect, and 
also misleading, as it is not properly a mosque, nor was it built 
by the Caliph Omar, the real Mosque of Omar being close to 
the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The Dome of the Rock is 
the direct descendant of the Temple of Solomon, for it stands 
over the same Rock that was once the floor of the Holy of Holies. 
After the Moslem occupation the Rock became a place of pil- 
grimage for all Moslems, almost as important as the Ka'abah 
at Meccah. 

On my first visit I came through the Dung Gate, passing 
by the plantation of cactus, and so on to the Jewish Wailing 
Place. Jews were praying for the restoration of the Temple 
to their nation, and I wondered what they would do if it 
were thus restored. 

I shall never forget that first view of the Dome after entering 
the esplanade. One pictured the Temple of Solomon on MoUnt 
Moriah rising higher than the spire of any cathedral in Europe 


And this mountain, what memories it called forth : the scene 
of Abraham's trial of faith, of the staying of the plague, of 
Melchisedek, King of Salem ; while on it the great Temple 
was built. Then, centuries later, " not one stone remaining 
upon another " ! Fifty years after the destruction of Jerusalem, 
Hadrian built a temple to Jupiter on this rock, with a statue 
of himself over the Holy of Holies, which was discovered during 
excavations in later years. The statue of Jupiter must have 
remained there for many years, as St. Jerome writes of it in the 
fourth century. 

The building of the Dome of the Rock was in perpetual 
memory of Mohammed, although probably he never visited 
Jerusalem. Then in later years came the Crusaders, and the 
Mosque became a Christian church ; and then the victorious 
Saladin restored it again to Islam. 

It was a glorious morning in March, and I spent much time 
on the plateau, or esplanade, known as the Haram esh-Sherif, 
or Noble Sanctuary. During my contemplation in the perfect 
stillness, the whole place shining with sunlit beauty, the muezzin 
began to chant the call to prayer. As the mollah summoned 
the faithful with his cry, the muezzin on the minaret at the 
other end of the esplanade made his response. And presently 
from every minaret that wonderful message sped forth. . . . 
And then silence again, a stillness and a peace, strange and 
beautiful, which seems never absent from that vast Haram 

There is plenty of vegetation : ancient and gnarled olive 
trees ana cypresses stand out in relief against the sombre buildings, 
and. forcing their way through the pavement, are a medley of 
spring flowers — marigolds, marguerites, the scarlet poppy, and 
many others. It is a splendid tranquillity, dead and yet living, 
and the fierce sun lights up the whole of the Noble Sanctuar}^ 

Solomon, when he succeeded to the throne of David, con- 
structed his glorious Temple, and brought the Ark of the Lord 
out of the city of David and placed it in the Holy of Holies. 
Here centred the religious, political, and poetical life of God's 
chosen people. 

This great Temple was built some 1,000 years before Christ. 
It stood for 470 years, when it was destroyed by the Chaldaeans 


at the revolt of Zedekiah, and the Jews taken captive to Babylon. 
Seventy years later, when the Israelites returned from captivity, 
Zerubbabel rebuilt the Temple, but it was so inferior to Solomon's 
Temple that it is said " the people wept on beholding it." 

In 606 B.C. Judah became subject to Nebuchadnezzar, 
Jerusalem and the Temple being destroyed twenty years later. 
From the destruction of the Temple by the people of Babylon 
to its rebuilding by Zerubbabel was about fifty years ; many 
Jews would therefore remember the splendour of Solomon's 
Temple. Frequent wars impaired the Temple of Zerubbabel, 
and it was rapidly falling into decay when Herod the Great, in 
order to appease the Jews, with whom on account of his atrocious 
conduct he was rapidly becoming an object of detestation, 
commenced the work of repairing it in the eighteenth year of 
his reign, sixteen years before the birth of Christ. This Temple, 
always known to the Jews as the Second Temple, was " forty 
and six years in building " (St. John ii. 20), and it greatly sur- 
passed the former in magnificence, which would seem to carry 
out the meaning of the prophet's words : 

The glory of this latter house shall be greater than of the 
former. ' 

The High Priest went into the Holy of Holies once a year on the 
great Day of Atonement, and none but priests were permitted to 
enter the Holy Place. Jesus Christ was of the tribe of Judah, 
and consequently entered no further than the other Jews into 
the Temple. The Holy Place contained the Golden Candlestick, 
the Table of Shewbread, and the Altar of Incense. The Holy of 
Holies was separated from the Holy Place by a veil, the veil 
which was rent from top to bottom at the death of Christ on the 
Cross. In the Temple of Solomon the Holy of Holies contained 
the Ark of the Covenant, in which were the Tables of the Law, 
but in the Second Temple there was no Ark, only the Square 
Stone called the Talmud, the Stone of Foundation. After the 
Temple was built at Jerusalem, it was forbidden to offer sacrifice 
in any other place. In spite of this command, the Samaritans 
erected a " Temple " on Mount Gerizim and of this our Lord 
said to the woman of Samaria : 

^ Haggai ii. 9. 


Ve worship ye know not what : wc know what we worship : 
for salvation is of the Jews.' 

In the court of this great Temple the infant Clirist was presented 
by His Mother, and there also the Youth of twelve years old 
was discovered " both hearing and asking " questions of the 
great doctors of the law. Here, in later years, Christ worked 
some of His chief miracles ; here also He pronounced those 
wonderful discourses ; and here He showed compassion on the 
woman taken in adultery. Here, also, in earlier days Simeon 
and Anna were rewarded for faithful vigil by the sight of the 
" Light to lighten the Gentiles." when Jerusalem saw the Prince 
of Peace in the arms of His mother in the Temple which in 
days to come was to be made "even with the ground," with 
not " one stone remaining upon another," when the Romans 
surrounded the city and " shut them in on every side." 

As already stated, it is on this site that now stands 
the most famous Moslem mosque in the world, the renowned 
Dome of the Rock, or Kubbet-es-Sakhrah. The plateau or 
Esplanade now known as the Haram esh-Sherif, or Noble 
Sanctuary, is entered by seven gates on the west, the principal 
of which is the Bab-es-Silsileh, or Gate of the Chain. 

It is interesting to recall the fact that in 635 the Caliph Omar 
visited the Esplanade of the Temple, and, finding it a receptacle 
for the refuse of the city, commenced to clear it with his own 
hands, and built on it a " Mihrab," or place of prayer. Arabs 
knew no sort of architecture — they preferred to pray in the 
open, as is mdeed their custom to-day the world over. In 670 a.d. 
Arculf saw on this Esplanade " an enormous square edifice of 
vile construction built on the ruins of some old buildings, and 
composed of beams and planks of wood supported on ancient 

The building of the Dome of the Rock is said to have com- 
menced in the year 686 B.C. by the Caliph Abd el-Melik after 
a design of his own, and in all probability it was identical with 
that now existing, except that the outer eight walls have been 
added. Mukaddassi, who was born in Jerusalem 946 a.d., gave 

' St. John iv. 22. 


an interesting description of the Dome : " Within the building 
are three concentric circles with columns of the most beautiful 
polished marble, and above is a low vaulting. Within these 
is the central hall over the Rock ; the hall is circular, 
and not octagonal, and is surrounded by columns of polished 
marble, supporting round arches. Built above these and rising 
into the air is the drum, in which are large openings, and over the 
drum is the Dome. The Dome from the floor up to the pinnacle 
which rises into the air, is in height a hundred cubits, and from 
afar off you may perceive on the summit of the Dome its beautiful 
pinnacle, the size of which is a fathom and a span. The Dome 
externally is completely covered with gilded brass plates, while 
the building itself, its floors and its walls, and the drum, are 
ornamented with marbles and mosaics." ^ 

In days gone by no Christian could enter the Dome of the 
Rock, nor even the great Esplanade ; later on entrance was 
permitted if the visitor brought with him a letter from his Consul 
and was accompanied by a Turkish soldier. Some of these 
vexatious regulations are now abolished, though there are still 
many restrictions, and one cannot roam about the Esplanade 
or enter the two Mosques at will. 

On entering the Dome or the Mosque of Aksa, all parapher- 
nalia, especially cameras, must be left in charge of the custodian, 
and everyone has to put over their shoes or boots a pair of 
monstrous slippers, in return for which "backsheesh" is ex- 

The original Dome was destroyed by an earthquake, but re- 
built in 1022 A.D. The Crusaders, during their occupation of 
Jerusalem, turned the building into a church, without making 
any substantial changes. The iron screen round the Rock is 
a souvenir of their occupation. They covered the actual Rock 
with marble, and it served as a footpace for a Christian altar. 
In 1187 it was administered by Canons Regular. Saladin 
restored the building in 1194, and Suliman II. added to it in the 
sixteenth century. The Dome is reached by eight flights of 
steps along the four sides of the Esplanade ; at the top of each 
flight is a graceful portico, called Maouzin (the Scales), from a 

' Medic£val Toivns. Jerusahfn. Sir C. M. Watson. 


popular tradition that at the Last Judgment the scales for 
weighing souls will be attached to these porticoes. The building 
itself is octagonal, in a circle of 180 feet in diameter. The cupola 
is 78 feet in diameter and 108 feet from the ground. The crescent 
which surmounts it is 12 feet high. The doors at the four 
cardinal points are supported by five columns, and the octagonal 
base is cased in marble to the height of 18 feet. In the upper 
part the wall is faced with earthenware, and pierced by a row 
of pointed windows. The sides of the cupola are also pierced 
with a row of semi-circular windows and covered with enamelled 
earthenware on which verses of the Koran are inscribed in 
arabesques. To the north-west of the Mosque is a charming 
octagon surmounted by a cupola. A long Arabic inscription 
carved above the entrance states that it was restored in 1200 
and consecrated to the memory of the Ascension of Mohammed. 
It is probably the Baptismal Chapel erected by the Crusaders, 
and the fine baptismal font a few steps on the south would have 
occupied the centre of it. Opposite the east door, or chief 
entrance of the Mosque, is Mehkemeh Daoud, the Tribunal of 
David, sometimes also called the Kubbet es Silsileh, or Dome of 
the Chain. The columns, bases, and capitals have all been 
taken from ancient buildings. The Arabs have a tradition that 
an invisible chain comes down from heaven to the Dome, which 
will serve to discover the righteous from the sinners at the Last 
Day. Hence its name, the Dome of the Chain. 

Leaving the other buildings until later, we then visited the 
Dome of the Rock, having first put on the great slippers, the 
Sheik removing his shoes. It was close on noon, and the light 
was perfect. One can only stand amazed at the scheme of 
light and colour which impresses itself upon one on entrance, 
as at the almost unearthly effect produced by the play of light 
from the mosaic windows. There, surrounded by gilding, 
marbles, mosaics, hanging lamps and chandeliers, lies the great 
Rock, a grey brown monster, rugged and severe. After the 
Sacred Places contained in the Holy Sepulchre, there is nothing 
in Jerusalem so touching in its simplicity, so splendid in its 
grandeur, so amazing in its traditions and history, as this great 
mass of solid rock. Everything else is for the moment forgotten : 
the glorious shrine which covers it is of no account. The silence 



is intense, it is awe-inspiring, in keeping with the presence of 
that immense block of stone. I felt this the first time ; subse- 
quent visits only deepened my awe, and the Rock seemed to 
hold within its massive heart the history of strength and power, 
of failure and weakness, of victory and defeat. What scenes 
it must have witnessed ! When all else was destroyed, the 
Rock remained ! To-day its surroundings are Mohammedan, 
and its associations are with the prophet, about whom there 
are endless legends. From this rock he is said to have ascended 
to Paradise to converse with the prophets, and when the Rock 
desired to follow Mohammed, it was held down forcibly by the 
angel Gabriel. There are shown the finger-marks of the Arch- 
angel who put out his hand to stop the Rock, there is the foot- 
mark of the prophet, and there in a little shrine close by are 
three hairs from his beard, which relic is exposed to the faithful 
once a year. The Rock itself is said by Moslems to cover an 
abyss in which are contained all the waters of the Flood. 

The proportions of the building are perfect ; the general effect 
of colour is a predominance of gold, deep red, and blue. This 
sounds gaudy, but in reality it is amazingly effective and har- 
monious. The sixteenth-century windows are of great beauty 
and brilliancy, the arches are covered with glass mosaics which 
gleam like jewels, and the pillars are of dark marble with bril- 
liantly gilded capitals. 

We then descended into the cave below the Rock. A Moslem 
legend tells that since the " Ascension " of Mohammed, the Rock 
has been suspended in the air, and the hollow-sounding wall 
of the cave was placed there because pilgrims who passed under 
the Rock feared lest it should fall and crush them. Here are 
shown the praying-places of David, Solomon, and Mohammed, 
and also the impression of the prophet's head. The legend tells 
that Mohammed's prayer was so eloquent that the Rock ap- 
proached and listened spellbound. But the prayer ended 
abruptly, and arising from his knees, the prophet struck his head 
against the Rock and caused a great dent. This cave is almost 
under the spot where the Jewish Altar of Sacrifice was placed, 
and below again is a hollow place into which dropped the blood 
of the Sacrifice. An ancient Arab writer tells a very naive 
stoiT ;ig.Tinst himself: "When T first visited the Sakhnih, 


I dared not enter the cave, because of its darkness, and the sins 
which I had committed, but afterwards, when I beheld greater 
oppressors and sinners than I knew myself to be, going in and 
coming out safely, I, after watching for some time, gathered 
courage and also entered and beheld the marvels." 

Then we visited the Mosque el-Aksa, about which there has 
always been difference of opinion, but which to this day has 
the appearance of a magnificent Basilica. The guide-books 
would seem to take for granted that it was a Christian church 
founded by Justinian in honour of the Blessed Virgin in 536, 
and that it was converted into a mosque in the seventh century. 
On the other hand, others declare that the building is completely 
Moslem, though built on the site of a Christian church. Fer- 
gusson, however, insists that it was built by the Caliph Abd 
el-Melik to take the place of a wooden building erected by the 
CaUph Omar, and for this purpose columns and capitals were 
taken from older buildings. Nothing of the original mosque 
exists except the Mihrab in the south wall, which has never 
been changed, and in all probability the columns have been used 
over and over again in successive restorations. This point of 
view seems to be that of Moslems — it certainly was of the Sheik 
who accompanied me, and who said that the fact of the columns 
and capitals being both Byzantine probably had given rise to 
the theory that this mosque was originally a Christian church 
built by Justinian. This, however, was improbable, as there is 
no mention of any Christian church at that date either in Christian 
or Moslem records. 

In 1016 there was a great earthquake in Jerusalem, which 
threw down the cupola of the Dome of the Rock, and also 
damaged the Mosque of Aksa. The cupola was rebuilt, and the 
mosque restored by the Caliph Ez-Zahir. The interior is stately 
and imposing, and, whether it has once been a Christian Basilica 
or not, the place is charged with an atmosphere of spiritual 
devotion. The floor is covered with splendid specimens of Persian 
rugs and carpets, there is some fine glass, and the interior of the 
Dome and the portion below it is richly decorated with superb 
mosaic work and marble casing. The pulpit, known as Saladin's 
Pulpit, at the southern end of the mosque, is one of the most 
beautiful I have ever seen. It is exquisitely carved in wood 


and inlaid with ivory and mother-of-pearl. The wood is of 
cedar of Lebanon, brought to this mosque by Saladin from Aleppo 
Of great interest to EngHshmen is the stone slab in a pavement 
near the entrance of this mosque. It marks the resting-place 
of the murderers of Thomas k Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
who, according to the chronicler Hovenden, were sent on a 
pilgrimage of penance for their crime to the Holy City, where 
they died, and lie buried at this spot. " Having been admitted 
to penance by Pope Alexander HI, they went to Jerusalem. 
Et ex praecepto Papae in monte nigro poenitentiam agentes 
obierunt et sunt Jerosolymis sepulti ante ostium templi. Quorum 
superscriptio hoc est. Hie jacent miseri, qui martyrizaverunt 
Thomam Archiepiscopum Cantuariensem."^ 

Near the pulpit is the reputed praying-place of Moses ; at 
the back is a stone said to bear the print of the footstep of Christ. 
Then there are the two pillars, so close together that only people 
of ordinary size could pass between. Every pilgrim, however, 
was supposed to try ; those who succeeded would be certain 
to go to heaven, but those who failed. . . . Since 1881 obstacles 
have been placed between the pillars, for in that year a pilgrim 
too stout to squeeze through tried the experiment and died on 
the spot. 

After removing our slippers, we went to the far comer of 
the Haram, where the Sheik opened a door, and thence passed 
down many steps to the Cradle of Christ, a small vaulted chamber, 
where according to Moslem tradition Christ was brought to be 
circumcised, and here the aged Zacharias dwelt ; then below to 
that mysterious and vaulted hall described as Solomon's Stables, 
where once the Crusaders' horses were tied up to the rings of stone, 
which may still be seen. . . . 

The Golden Gate is the most striking feature in the eastern 
wall, through which it is said that Christ entered Jerusalem 
on Palm Sunday. There used to be a tradition that the con- 
quering Christians, when they wrested Jerusalem from the 
Turk, would enter by this gate. In Crusading times the Golden 
Gate was of)ened twice a year, on Palm Sunday and the Feast 
of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross. 

» Tht Holy City. George Williams. 


Close to the Golden Gate is the small mosque called the 
Throne of Solomon. It was here, according to a legend, that 
the King was found dead. Towards the northern wall is a 
small chapel with a white dome, where Solomon gave thanks 
upon the completion of the Temple. . . . 

Every corner of this wonderful plateau has some object of 
interest, almost every spot its legend, which to some Moslems 
are matters of faith, to others matters of interest, and to others 
again, stories that will amuse the tourist. Some of these 
stories have their origin in ancient tradition, and in reading or 
hearing them one has to remember that East is East and that 
such legends or romances are the couleur locale, part of the 
ancient glory of the centuries that nothing can efface. 






Close to the Russian buildings on the Mount of Olives is a lane 
which, leading through pleasant paths down the slopes of that 
Mount, brings the traveller in about half an hour to Bethany. 
The lane winds in and out, passing at times between high walls, 
and then, quite suddenly, issues into open fields, with the road 
to Jericho just below and the village of Bethany on the right. 

To-day this place of hallowed memories (called by the Arabs 
El-Azariyeh, after Lazarus) consists of a confused mass of 
dwellings built of stones, probably taken from religious houses. 
Bethany looks like a picture from some illustrated Scripture book ; 
olive, fig, almond, and carob trees grow around the village in 
great abundance, and the inhabitants, who do not number more 
than two hundred and fifty, are nearly all Moslems. 

Bethany, the Home of Sadness, but according to Eusebius 
and others the Home of Dates, is a village of pecuHarly sacred 
memories, closely connected with the last days of our Lord's life 
on earth. This was the place He loved most, for here dwelt 
His best friends, Mary, Martha, and Lazanis. The Gospels 
record many events that took place in this once prosperous and 
thriving village, but none quite so beautiful as that of the supper 
in the house of Simon. A short tower is situated close to the 
Tomb of Lazarus. This is said to mark the spot on which the 
house of Simon the Leper once stood, and in this house the first 
of the two anointings by Mary Magdalene took place. The scene 
of the first anointing is one that will never be forgotten, nor did 
our Lord intend that it should, for He said : " Wheresoever this 
gospel shall be preached in the whole world, there shall also this, 
that this woman hath done, be told for a memorial of her." ^ 

»St. Matthew xxvi. 13. 


Throughout the ages the story of Mary Magdalene, her sin and 
her restoration, and above all her devotion to our Lord, has been 
one of arresting power and pathos. "This, that this woman 
hath done." 

" And, from that glad hour, 
Followed I Him, and ministered to Him ; 
And found myself alive who had been dead. 
And saved by Love, who dwelt so lovelessly." 

There are many interesting legends concerning the 
lives of Mary and Martha. In later years, it is said that 
Lazarus, Mary, and Martha were of the number of disciples who 
journeyed to Marseilles to carry the Gospel to the Gentiles, under- 
going much suffering and persecution. Martha died in the ancient 
city of Tarascon, between Avignon and Aries, and there she was 
buried, and is venerated to this day as the patron saint. Mary 
Magdalene died at Aix, being buried by the Holy Maximinus in a 
" tomb of white shining alabaster," bearing on it the carved repre- 
sentation of the anointing in the house of Simon, when Mary 
found pardon for her sins, and also of the service she rendered 
to her Lord when she brought spices to His Sepulchre. ^ 

At Bethany also our Lord raised Lazarus to life after he had 
been dead four days. The Tomb of Lazarus of which Origen 
speaks (185-254) is a grotto hewn out of soft and chalky rock. 
It consists of a vestibule nine feet square, whence one descends 
in complete darkness to a small compartment some six feet square, 
this being the actual tomb, the entrance to which had been closed 
by a slab laid over it ; as St. John says : " It was a cave, and a 
stone lay upon it." 

The Tomb of Lazarus is venerated by all religions as the actual 
place where our Lord worked the miracle. Eusebius speaks of 
it as being two miles from ^ha Capitolina, the Jerusalem of 
Hadrian. The Bordeaux Pilgrim (third century) writes of the 
tomb as three thousand paces from Mount Olivet. St. Jerome 
also tells of a church that had been built over the sepulchre of 
Lazarus, and " towards the end of the fourth century the GaeUc 
pilgrim, St. Sylvia, relates that on the last Friday but one of 
Lent the Christians crossed the Mount of Ohves, stopped first 

'Vide The Coming oj the Saints. John W. Taylor. 

^-(^[^" -v 


at the church situated on the road where Jesus. Martha, and 
Mary conversed together, and five hundred paces farther on 
arrived at the Lazarion, the empty chamber of the resuscitated 
disciple." ^ 

Besides the house of Simon the Pharisee, that of Mary and 
Martha is also pointed out, but the supposed sites of these houses 
have been not infrequently changed during the course of years, 
and in any case nothing remains of the original houses, mdeed 
any idea of localisation here would seem unimportant. An 
ancient tradition records that these disciples of our Lord, Mary, 
Martha, and Lazarus, saturated with divine knowledge re- 
ceived from His own lips, went forth to distant lands to spread 
that knowledge with an enthusiasm that carried all before it. 
Mention has already been made of the mission of Mary and 
Martha to Europe. With them went many other disciples ; and 
in a litUe back street in Marseilles stands the Church of St. Victor, 
built, it is said, over the cave tomb of Lazarus. In that church 
is to be seen a life-sized statue of him whom Christ raised from 
death, holding the crosier in his left hand and blessing with his 
right ; for he is stiU spoken of as the first Bishop of Marseilles. 
His festival is observed on the first day of September, and on the 
pedestal of the statue these words have been inscribed : 

" Divo Lazaro 
A Christo Suscitato." 

Herein, perhaps, may lie the chief difference between the 
Christian and the other two great rehgions found in Palestine. 
For the Christian there can never be a "national homeland " 
on earth, whether it be Jerusalem. Rome, Constantinople, or 
Canterbury. "Their sound went into all the earth, and their 
words unto the ends of the worid." * is as true to-day as it was of 
those who. in the early ages of faith, hastened away to the 
furthermost corners of the earth, to carry the message of the one 
Faith that could redeem a stricken world. 

1 Franciscan Guide to the Holy Land. Vr. ii. Mcislcrmann. 
■5 Romaas \. 18. 


One last glimpse of Bethany. The little white village nestling 
on the slopes of the Mount of Olives, amidst its palms and oHves, 
its gardens and its houses, was a place of quiet retreat for our 
Lord, especially during the last few days of His life. Bethany 
witnessed the wonders of His humanity as shown in earthly love. 
One might also say that without Bethany the revelation of His 
character would not have been complete. His glory was shown 
forth on Mount Tabor, His power over the storm on the Lake of 
Galilee, but it was in the home at Bethany, the home of him 
whom He loved so much, that at the news of his death He wept. 
It was here that His holy humanity. His beautiful and pure 
affections, shone forth with such amazement. 

It was from Bethany along the lower road and thence through 
the golden gate of the Temple that the great procession passed 
when the people strewed their garments in the way, and the 
multitude cried out, " Blessed is He that cometh in the Name of 
the Lord ! Hosanna in the highest ! " ^ — the one joyous triumph 
in the life of our Lord. Bethany, then, we may regard as 
His last earthly home and also the centre of the first Christian 
discipleship such as was afterwards gathered round Christ at 
Capernaum on the Lake of Gahlee. It woiild appear that after 
the raising of Lazarus the whole village became enthusiastic 
followers of Christ, ready to welcome Him and His disciples 
whenever they came into their midst. 

And the last scene of all, the Ascension. " He led them out as 
far as Bethany " ! One can picture the farewell, and the little 
crowd gathered round him, including His Mother and the Apostles, 
Mary, Martha, Lazarus, and the others whom He had loved best 
at Bethany. Here at Bethany He bade them farewell, and then 
with His Mother and the eleven Apostles ascended the rocky path 
to the Mount of Olives for the last time. There, on that Mount of 
hallowed memories. He lifted up His hands and blessed them. 
" And it came to pass while He blessed them He was parted from 
them, and carried up into Heaven. And they worshipped Him, 
and returned to Jerusalem with great J03' and were continually 
in the Temple, praising and blessing God." ^ 

So when He left them the real work began, but its back- 

' St. Matthew .\xi.9. -St. Luke xxiv. 51-53- 


ground would be Bethany. And with Bethany would be for 
ever associated the romantic story of the Magdalene, as Jesus 
Himself said : " Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever this gospel 
shall be preached throughout the whole world, this also that she 
hath done shall be spoken of for a memorial of her." ^ 

" The pathways of Thy land are little changed 
Since Thou wast there : 
The busy world through other ways has ranged. 
And left these bare. 

" The rocky path still climbs the glowing steep 
Of Olivet. 
Though rains of two millenniums wear it deep, 
Men tread it yet. 

" Still to the Garden o'er the brook it leads, 
(,,">uiet and low : 
Before his sheep, the shepherd on it treads — 
His voice they know. 

" The wild fig throws broad shadows o'er it still. 
As once o'er Thee : 
Peasants go home at evening up the hill 
To Bethany."* 

» St. Mark xiv. 9. "• From the Lyra Angltcana. 



(fl) Jericho, Ancient and Modern. 
{b) On the Banks of the Jordan. 
(c) The Dead Sea or the Lake of Lot. 




(a) Jericho, Ancient and Modern 

The drive to Jericho is amazing in its scenic changes, and the 
little modern town is a centre of sub-tropical beauty, full of 
fascinating charm, although Mathilde Serao in her Nel paese di 
Gcsii calls it " the most loathsome place in the world " ! 

My first visit was made shortly after the Easter of 1920 in 
the company of two ladies and one of the Fathers of Notre Dame 
de France. We were somewhat nervous, not through the fear 
of falling among thieves, but because of the possibility of being 
stopped by the military authorities. It was during that period 
of unrest, to which reference has already been made, when no 
one knew what would happen next, and the authorities warned us 
that there was danger and that we had better postpone our visit. 
For various reasons our visit could not be postponed, so we decided 
to take the risk, trusting that the presence of the reverend Father 
would help us through difficulties. When we reached the Gate of 
Damascus we expected the worst, for a group of native policemen 
and some English officers were standing in our way. However, 
it is always the unexpected that happens in the East, for they 
made way and we drove on without their taking the slightest 
notice of us. It was a somewhat lonely drive, for not one carriage 
of any description did we pass nor did we meet any Europeans. 
Even the natives seemed to have retired to their hovels, though 
many of them may have been at En-Nebi Musa, where the Moslem 
festival was still going on. Here and there we came upon groups 
of Indian soldiers engaged in road-mending, but otherwise we had 
the entire countryside to ourselves, saving only for the storks, the 
hares, the partridges, and other wild birds and animals. After 
passing Bethany we left the Moslem village of Abu T)U on our 

.09 Q 


right. This village is said to be very fanatical. Further along 
the road we passed the church used by Greeks and Russians of 
the Orthodox faith, which marks the traditional spot where 
Martha met our Lord and told Him of the death of Lazarus. 

The changes in scenery along the road from Jerusalem to 
Jericho are remarkable. The blue mountains of Moab as seen 
in the distance from the hills near Bethany, the cool and rushing 
waters of countless rivulets, the masses of flowers smiling in all 
their springtime glory, together with the verdant clothing of 
the fields, fresh and fertile, form a striking contrast to the arid 
yellow hills and rugged mountain sides. The scenery is almost 
indescribable in its sinister and gloomy appearance. There 
can scarcely be another drive like this in the world — gloomy 
gorges at one moment, fragrant flowers the next, a veritable 
medley of heaven and hell. 

After a long descent we came to the picturesque Fountain 
of the Apostles, Ain el Hand, as the Arabs call it, or the Fountain 
of the Trough. This is a favourite spot for pilgrims to refresh 
themselves after the steep climb from Jericho. It owes its 
name to the tradition that our Lord and His Apostles often 
rested here on their journeys to or from Jerusalem. The water 
is said to be clean and refreshing, but dangerous to drink, for 
in it are found innumerable small leeches, which have 
the unpleasant habit of clinging to the throat and choking the 
drinker. The hills are very steep and the road indescribably 
rough and stony, as we continue the descent toward the entrance 
of the Valley of the Camels, or Wadi el Jemel, while before us 
rises the hill called Arak es-Schems, or the Rock of the Sim. 
Crossing the valley of the Lotus, or Thorny Jujube Tree (to 
be found everywhere around Jericho), we meet the ancient 
route from Jerusalem, the one followed by our Lord, and ascend 
to the Khan Hathnir. Tradition localises this spot as the Inn 
where the good Samaritan gave "the man who fell among thieves" 
into the care of the innkeeper. 

But a certain Samaritan being on his journey, came near 
him : and seeing him, was moved with compassion. And 
going up to him, bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and 
wine ; and scttmg liini upon Jiisown be.isl, hroiighl him lo 
an inn and took care ot lum. And the next day he took out 


two pence, and gave to the host, and said, Take care of 
him, and whatsoever thou shalt spend over and above, I 
at my return will repay thee.' 

On the hill above the Kahn are to be seen the ruins of a 
Crusaders' castle, called the " Castle of Blood," the name being 
perhaps given because of the brick-red marble which is found in 
this neighbourhood. Long before the time of the Crusades, St. 
Jerome wrote that "the Greeks call it the Red Mountain on 
account of the blood so often shed there by robbers ; it is situated 
upon the confines of Judah and Benjamin, which from Jerusalem 
go down to Jericho. Our Saviour recalls this place of massacre 
and blood in the parable of the man that went down from 
Jerusalem to Jericho." ^ 

On the south side of the Khan the country is called Togreit 
ed Debr, recalling the town of Debir or Debera, which Joshua 
places opposite Adommim : " And reaching as far as the borders 
of Debara, from the valley of Achor, and so northwards looking 
towards Gilgal, which is opposite to the ascent of Adommim on 
the south of the torrent." ^ 

Ever descending, through valley after valley, we passed a vast 
number of storks, and could not help admiring the beauty of their 
flight, like small white aeroplanes above us, radiant in the sun. 
The birds were very tame and came close to our car. No one 
ever harms them in any way, and the same can be said of the many 
other animals and birds, such as the partridges, hares, and gazelles 
we met with in this district. To our right was the road by which 
we should return, viz., the pilgrim road to En-Nebi Musa, 
a better but longer road, and on the left the rocky ravine 
known as the Wadi Kelt. At this spot we left the 
motor to gaze at the magnificent view over Deir el 
Qelt (or Kelt), the old Convent of Couziba, commonly known 
as the Convent of St. George. This convent is most picturesque. 
It hangs like a swallow's nest upon the wall of the mountain above 
the abyss, and looks as if it had always been part of the 
mountain and was inseparable from it. All around are to be 

'St. Luke X. 33 (Vulgate). 

* St. Jerome, Onomasticon Sacrum. 

' Joshua XV. 7 (Vulgate). 


seen caverns, where hermits dwelt in times past, never leaving 
their caves. 

Continuing our journey, a steep ascent brought us to the spot 
where the valley spread out, and the great plain of Jericho ap- 
peared before us . When we reached it we found the heat intense, 
for we were already some three hundred feet below sea-level. 
When we left Jerusalem the weather was chilly and inclined 
to rain ; furthermore, the sun was completely obscured, 
partly by mist and partly by clouds, and we were thankful for 
warm wraps. From winter we had travelled into the tropics 
within two hours ! The very air was hot, and as our car rushed 
along our faces were scorched as from a furnace. 

We passed the fragments of remains marking the spot where 
once stood the second Jericho, the Jericho of Herod and the 
Romans and of the days of our Lord, and saw the ruins of Herod's 
palace and an aqueduct said to have been built by that king. 
Somewhere in this neighbourhood the early pilgrims, it is said, 
pointed out the place where Zacchaeus climbed up a sycamore 
tree to see Jesus of Nazareth pass by ^ ; and on the same spot 
tradition has it that the miracle of heahng the blind Bartimasus 
was performed.^ After following the perfectly level surface of 
this immense plain and crossing it by a narrow bridge, we arrived 
at what might be called the " third " Jericho which was built on 
the foundations of the " New Jericho " of the Crusaders. The 
contrast between the rugged wildness of those mountains we 
passed, with caves used at different times both for robbers and 
anchorites, and the amazing fertility of Jericho, was bewildering. 
The bees were humming, the birds sang, enormous dragon-flies 
flew by ; tall palms, olives, oranges, and lemons grow in the greatest 
abundance ; and vegetables of every variety are raised here for 
the market in Jerusalem. The village and its surroundings 
are so full of fascination and beauty that it might be made, as 
Josephus once called it, an "earthly paradise." 

The Jericho of to-day consists of" two small hotels, ^ a Greek 
and a Latin Church, some Government oihces, and a long street 
that opens into a piazza with a delightful fountain. There are 

iSt. Luke xix. 2-10. ^st. Mark x. 46. 

3 The chief hotel was destroyed in the earthquake of 1927. 


many pleasant-looking villas, but the houses in the square are 
built of straw and clay ; they looked clean, however, and the 
children had a healthy appearance. Driving through the village 
we noticed the sidr-trees, with their branches of cruel thorns, 
called by Christians " Spina Christa," and said to be the thorns 
of which Christ's crown was made. On either side of the lanes 
around Jericho were to be seen orchards and plantations filled 
with sub-tropical trees, bushes, and flowers of all descriptions. 
About a mile beyond Jericho we came to a small pond divided 
by concrete into two partitions, and known as Elisha's Spring. 
It received this name owing to the belief that the prophet, moved 
by the prayers of the people of Jericho, ' healed ' the bitterness 
of the waters, making them fit for drink by casting into them a 
handful of salt . * The Arabs, on the other hand, call the fountain 
Ain-es-Sultan, or Sultan's Spring. On the opposite side of the 
road we saw the excavations of the first Jericho, the Jericho of the 
days of Joshua and the Canaanites, which for its beauty was also 
called the " City of Palm-trees," One narrow street with its very 
small houses was quite visible, and its width might have just 
allowed one chariot to pass at a time, but there could have been 
no room for a side walk. So small must have been the town 
that the Israelites could have walked round it many times 
without much fatigue". The whole army was ordered to " com- 
pass the city " and to "go round the city once " for a period of 
six days. On the seventh day, seven priests were to accompany 
the army, and these priests were to " bear before the ark seven 
trumpets of rams' horns," and on this day to compass the city 
seven times. At the conclusion of the march all the people 
"shouted with a great shout, upon which the walls fell down 
flat," and thus the city was taken without capitulation. ^ There 
would have been no difficulty in discovering where Rahab lived 
as the Israelites in marching round the city thirteen times would 
have recognised the "line of scarlet thread in the window," 
the sign that had been agreed. ^ It must have been most terrify- 
ing to the people of Jericho to see the Israelites marching round 
and round the city in complete silence. They must also have 
wondered by what means the attackers could have crossed the 

* u Kings li. 2^. * Joshua vi. 3 cl seq. 

* Joshua ii. 18. 


Jordan, although, according to Rahab, they had already heard 
"how the Lord had dried up the waters of the Dead Sea." 

Close to the ruins of ancient Jericho the cliff towers up to a 
peak which is known as the Mount of the Quarantana, in Arabic 
Jebel Karantal, which since the days of the Crusaders has been 
pointed out as the site of the " forty days and forty nights " in 
the wilderness. The plain beneath was the scene of our Lord's 
fasting, and the topmost peak of the mount that of His Tempta- 
tion. Here, according to tradition, Satan offered the kingdoms 
of the world to our Lord on conditions that would obviate His 
Passion and Death. 

Again the devil taketh Him up into an exceeding high moun- 
tain, and showeth Him all the kingdoms of the world, and 
the glory of them ; and saith unto Him, All these things will 
I give Thee if Thou wilt fall down and worship me.^ 

This tradition is accepted, generally speaking, by all Christian 
people. And what a position ! — barren, deserted, wild, given up to 
the haunts of beasts and reptiles of all kinds, the sim-scorched 
sand of Jordan's plain with desolate scrubs and ill-looking weeds 
growing all around ; confronted by those savage moimtains with 
their hideous precipices . Below, there lay the gloomy and sinister 
valley, and what better position could our Lord have chosen to 
fight and conquer the enemy of all mankind ? What a contrast 
to these terrible surroundings was the offer made to Him by the 
Tempter, " the kingdoms of the world and the glory of them " ! 
From the heights of the Quarantana He would have seen beyond 
the mountains of Moab and Edom the topmost peak of Nebo, 
where Moses completed his earthly task, and turning round, the 
distant hills of Judah stretching to Mount Ohvet, where He, in 
His turn, would finish His appointed work. 

(b) On the Banks of the Jordan 

Retracing our steps, we found ourselves once more in the 
piazza of modem Jericho, and, turning to the left, drove along 
the stony road to the Jordan. We crossed a dreary and un- 
cultivated plain, noticing from the vegetation all around how very 

*St. Matthew iv. 8. 



fertile it could be made given scientific irrigation. Beyond the 
plain we passed between ranges of quaintly-shaped chalk hills, 
curious and forbidding in their formation. Here there was no 
vegetation whatever, everything was dead ; skeletons of animals, 
sheep, horses and camels ; \Tiltures flying overhead — a picture of 
loneliness and horror. At last we reached the open plain before 
the Jordan, and instead of those awful hills we drove through 
bushes of tamarisks and a jungle of reeds (while all around were 
signs of vegetation), with willows and great poplar trees. The 
priest who accompanied us knew every inch of the ground, 
having camped near the river many times, and led us to a shady 
nook out of range of the fierce sun, close to the traditional scene 
of the Baptism of Christ . This spot is commonly called Makkadet 
el Hadjlah, and to-day innumerable pilgrims bathe here. There 
seems to be no exact clue as to the location of Bethabara, where 
St. John baptised, and some say that the place is much higher 
up the river, but it matters very little, for we know that our 
Lord was baptised in the Jordan, probably not far from Jericho. 
Pilgrims come to this spot in great numbers, especially early in 
the year before it is too hot, and the Greek Church holds a great 
function here on the Feast of the Epiphany. According to a 
popular tradition from here Elijah ascended to heaven in a fiery 
chariot, after the prophet had smitten the waters and " they were 
divided hither and thither," so that he and Elisha could pass 
"over on dry ground," ^ and here, also, a legend related that St. 
Christopher carried the infant Christ across the river. 

The rains of the previous weeks had swollen the Jordan, and 
its waters were coffee-coloured from the clay it stirs up during its 
rapid course. Great trees were growing on its banks, with masses 
of wild flowers and sweet-smelling herbs beneath them, and under 
their shade we sat down to an al fresco lunch. Immediately 
the food was unpacked, before we had time to devour a morsel, 
we were visited by crowds of unwelcome guests — mosquitoes 
and flies, especially sand-flies — anxious to share the meal. So 
insistent were they that we discovered the only way to lessen 
their attention was to smoke with one hand and eat with the 
other ; but as soon as we had finished, and the remains of the 

' II Kings ii. 8 et seq. 


meal had been packed up, our visitors disappeared as suddenly as 
they had arrived. Before leaving this pleasant spot \ye each 
filleU a bottle with Jordan water to take away with us. All along 
the river banks are lined on both sides with a dense jungle 
too thick to penetrate, except where it had been cleared by pil- 
grims. When the Russian pilgrims came to the Jordan they 
made their bath a solemn baptism, bringing with them white 
sheets, men and women alike, and these they wore when they 
jumped into the river, after which the sheets were carefully pre- 
served so that they might be buried in them. In the jungle by 
the river-side, wolves, bears, and the inevitable jackal are still 
found, but on the day of our visit we saw none of them ; indeed, 
we had the whole district to ourselves. 

As we drove back to Jericho across the blazing plain we could 
well understand why Herod made it his winter resort. The plain 
of the Jordan will be as fertile as the land around Jericho once 
there is a proper system of irrigation, and one realised the bUght- 
ing effect of Turkish rule here almost more than anywhere in 
Palestine. If in years to come Palestine is restored to its one- 
time glory as a "land flowing with milk and honey," there will 
be no more beautiful spot than Jericho and the country round 
the Jordan to winter in, sheltered as it is from cold winds and 
stormy weather. Jericho must have been a very beautiful spot 
from accounts down to the seventh century, earning the name of 
the "City of Palms." Here too, we are told, flourished the 
famous " henna," from which the blood-red dye is produced. 

Antony presented Jericho to Cleopatra, who in turn gave it to 
Herod the Great. Our Lord began His last journey to Jerusalem 
from Jericho, probably but a few days before His triumphal entry 
into the Holy City. There was a Bishop of Jericho in the fourth 
century, and Justinian erected a church there to the " Mother of 
God " ; but after the days of the Crusaders Jericho fell into the 
hands of the Moslems, and gradually decayed, as have so many 
Moslem towns. 

(c) Thi Dead Sea or the Lake of Lot 

On our return to Jericho we rested awhile in the picturesque 
and cool little inn, and then followed the Jerusalem road for 


about a mile, when a sharp turning to the left brought us to the 
remnants of a track which ultimately led to the Dead Sea. How 
the car managed to move along this track at all still remains a 
mystery to me, for we dived into sand, we floundered in thick 
white mud, and we bounded over rocks, the chauffeur meanwhile^ 
cheering us with the information that in bad weather the "road " 
was impassable. For some distance we passed through an un- 
cultivated and desolate plain, and then between more hills of 
chalk formation, all sizes and shapes, some like great animals of 
the prehistoric age, others like the Sphinx, and again others like 
immense giants, sinister, terrible, and remote : so much so that it 
did not need much imagination to picture the scapegoat of ancient 
days slowly dying in these awful surroimdings. At last we 
emerged on to a desolate road, where we found an Arab encamp- 
ment near the beach of the Dead Sea. The sea was no longer 
blue, but a dark grey-green, reflecting the sombre colours of the 
hills of Moab. Those hills that looked so wonderful in their 
azure splendour from a distance looked sombre and threatening 
at close quarters. The Arabs call the Dead Sea the Lake of 
Lot, for Mohammed introduced the story of Lot and the 
destruction of Sodom into the Koran. The surface of the sea 
lies about 1,300 feet below the level of the Mediterranean ; it is 
forty-seven miles long, it greatest depth is 1,310 feet, and its 
greatest breadth some ten miles . Into it the waters of the Jordan 
empty themselves, but it is an inexplicable phenomenon that 
these waters do not increase the bulk or alter the level of the sea : 
many millions of tons of water roll day by day into the Dead Sea, 
but not a single ton of water is seen to roll out of it. The surface 
is generally motionless, but occasionally a stiff breeze will lash 
the sleepy waters into activity. This vast expanse of motionless 
water is shut in by two steep and barren mountain ranges, the 
chain of Judea and the tableland of Moab, its shores, as parched 
as the country around, bearing no traces of vegetation or the 
existence of man, except the occasional hut of a Bedouin, in 
keeping with the surroundings. No fish can live in it, and those 
washed in by the Jordan die at once. All aroimd the earth is 
white with salt, but at a little distance from the shore a few 
gnarled and dwarfed shrubs grow — shrubs that bear a strange 
fruit which has an unpleasantly bitter taste. This is known as 


the Dead Sea fruit, or Sodom Apple, said to be the only product 
of a stricken vegetation. What struck me as most curious was 
the impossibility of penetrating the waters of the Dead Sea be- 
yond a few feet, beneath which they seem to be altogether opaque . 
The silence everywhere was almost painful ; even the few 
Bedouins sat outside their camp, never saying a word, but 
silently gazing beyond the distant hills. Presently a little naked 
dark-skinned boy came out of a hut ; quietly and solemnly he 
walked into the sea. WTien the water reached his knees he lay 
down on his back and kept still with the burning sun beating 
down upon him. When he wanted to come out it needed some 
effort on his part to stand upright, and on emerging, with the 
sun beating down upon him, he looked for all the world like a 
pillar of salt. In the distance, perhaps two miles away — but 
distance cannot be computed accurately on this weird sea — a 
small island is to be seen, memorable because an EngUshman lost 
his life years ago in trying to reach it by swimming. The Arab 
boy came and stood near us while he was scraping the salt from 
his body, but after much rubbing he still was covered with little 
crystals clear as pearls. Then he lay down and panted in the 
sun, with his feet just touching the miniature ripples of the water. 
There was a terrible solemnity about this place of sinister mem- 
ories, and not the faintest breath of air stirred. Far down below, 
buried beneath the depth of the sea, according to ancient tradi- 
tion, lie Sodom and the other cities of the plain, five in all, gone 
for ever :. for there were not ten righteous men in Sodom to save 

The sun was risen upon the earth when Lot entered into 
Zoar. Then the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon 
Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven ; 
and He overthrew those cities, and all the plain, and all the 
inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the 
ground. But his wife looked back from behind him, and 
she became a pillar of salt.* 

When the ungodly perished, she [Wisdom] delivered tho 
righteous man, who fled from the fire which fell down upon 
the five cities. Of whose wickedness even to this day the 
waste land that smoketh is a testimony, and plants bearing 
fruit that never come to ripeness : and a standing pillar of 
salt is a monument of an unbelieving soul.* 

* Genesis xix. 23-26. - Wisdom of Solomon x. 0. 


We returned by the same so-called track in a chastened frame 
of mind, which not even the execrable road and the subsequent 
gyrations of the car were wholly able to dispel, and it was not 
until we joined the main road and the air was cooler and fresher 
that life became more normal. We chose to return by the 
En-Nebi Musa route, and before long that little town became 
visible, perched on the edge of a tremendous gorge. From the 
depth of the ravine we could see crowds of tiny figures taking part 
in some ceremony connected with their pilgrimage which had not 
yet finished. At other times of the year the place is absolutely 
deserted, and was, at any rate until a few years ago, a safe retreat 
for bands of robbers. The hills on the return journey were 
terrific, for it must be rememberec that we were climbing from the 
Dead Sea, 1,300 feet below the level of the Mediterranean, to 
Jerusalem, some 2,500 feet above sea level, and our little car was 
tried to the uttermost. Unfortunately, some time after we had 
left the Fountain of the Apostles, it was discovered that there was 
no water to quench the car's thirst and fill the exhaust, and very 
sorrowfully we were compelled to sacrifice our precious supplies 
of bottled Jordan water, which just sufficed until we reached the 
inn of the Good Samaritan. 

As we ascended the steep hills to Jerusalem, it seemed like a 
return to winter after a tropical summer. Jerusalem was like a 
city of the dead, for it was still under martial law, and everyone 
had to be within their houses by six o'clock. . . . Reviewing 
the events of the day, all we had heard, seen, and thought, I came 
to the conclusion that no description could possibly convey the 
wonders of that visit — the first of many visits to those amazing 
and historic sites. 



{(i) Haifa and Mount Carmel 
[h) St. John of Acre 




(a) Haifa 

Shortly after Easter I paid a visit to Haifa. The train from 
Jerusalem went only three times a week, so needless to say it 
was crowded. As usual there was a long wait at Ludd, and 
although we left Jerusalem at ii a.m., we did not reach Haifa 
until 6 p.m. At the station there were three carriages for at 
least sixty people, so most of us walked into the town, employ- 
ing half-naked little Arab boys to carry our bags. Shortage of 
accommodation was the rule all over the country in those days, 
and Haifa was no exception. However, just as it was getting 
dark, by good luck I managed to secure the last room at the 
only hotel. 1 At any rate, I was recompensed by a 
perfectly splendid view of the Bay of Acre when I woke 
early next morning to brilliant sunshine and sea and sky 
of azure blue. Haifa could be made into a veritable paradise, 
and thus vie with many places on the south coasts of France and 
Italy. At present it is a squalid little town, noisy and dusty, 
the only attraction being Mount Carmel. 

Haifa, Haiffa, or Caiffa, called by Arabs Hefa, or Hepha, for 
like many other towns in Palestine and Syria it rejoices in many 
names, is the old Calamon, not mentioned in Holy Scripture, and 
apart from the Crusades of no special interest in history. Near 
it stood Sycaminos, or the town of the Sycamores, and these two 
cities were great rivals in the Middle Ages, St. Jerome, on the 
other hand, made but one town of Sycaminos and Calamon, and 
stated that Sycaminos was called Epha (Hepha), because of 
Mount Carmel, which gave shelter (Hebrew, Khafah) to the town. 

' There are now ut least two tolerably good hotels (1928). 


The famous " Pilgrim of Bordeaux," who visited Palestine in the 
third century, mentions that he came across Sycaminos three 
Roman miles from Calamon. 

During the first Crusade Tancred captured Haifa after 
a siege of fifteen days ; it was conquered by Saladin in 1187. 
and later, when the Crusaders took Acre, he ordered it to 
be laid waste. The Crusaders again rebuilt rt, but after their 
departure from Palestine in 1292 it was left to itself until 
the eighteenth century, when Sheik Dhaher el Amar, the 
conqueror of Galilee, rebuilt it towards the east of its former 
position and surrounded it by a great wall. Napoleon Bonaparte 
took it in 1799, and here repulsed the attack of the English fleet 
Ibrahim Pasha occupied it in 1837, and three years later it 
was badly damaged by the fleets of England, Austria, and 

Haifa is situated at the south of the Gulf of St. John of Acre 
almost opposite that picturesque city, and is the only port for the 
whole of Galilee. Fishermen told me that in the bay were found 
the fine Sjoian sponges which are much appreciated in the 
European market. The town stretches along the bay and is 
dominated by Mount Carmel ; under the north-west slope of the 
Mount is the so-called German colony. In the centre of the town 
are to be found the bazaars and somewhat squalid streets, and at 
the extreme end, facing the harbour and beyond the railway 
station, the new Jewish colony is situated. There seemed to be 
very little commerce in this city, and what there was consisted 
chiefly of the exportation of com, sesame (sunflower seeds), 
maize and oil. Quite recently, however, I was told that com- 
merce had been reopened between Haifa and Damascus, and 
now many steamers ply between it and BejTout and 

Whilst in Haifa I had hoped for the opportunity of meeting 
His Excellency Sir Abdul Baha Abbas, the present leader of the 
Bahai movement, but unfortunately the opportunity did not 
arise. A friend has sent me the following information concerning 
Abdul Baha, and the remarkable religious cause with which he is 
associated, which I am glad to be able to share with my 
readers : 

"The Bahai movement arose in Persia in 1S44. and now 


numbers many millions of adherents, the bulk of whom live in 
Persia and the Middle East. Whilst the majority of the Bahais 
are drawn from the Moslem world, this cause can claim disciples 
within the ranks of all the world religions. 

" Bahaism, working for world-wide spiritual and social re- 
construction, irrespective of caste and creed, was an outcome of 
Babism, which took its name from a Persian youth, Mirza Ali 
Mohammed, known to his followers as ' The Bab ' (' Gateway '). 

" Many European historians, including Professor E. Browne 
of Cambridge, have described the wonderful charm of this pure- 
hearted seer and teacher of progressive religion. The ' Bab ' 
was martyred in 1850 after six years of missionary work. Before 
his death he announced that a great spiritual leader would arise 
within the lifetime of many of his followers to spread throughout 
the world tidings of an era of universal peace and brotherhood 
and this prediction was widely believed to have been fulfilled 
when Baha'o'llah, a Persian nobleman, came forward and an- 
nounced himself as ' He whom God would manifest.' 

" Baha'o'llah, after a period of imprisonment in chains, was, 
with his family and immediate followers, driven into exile by 
reactionary leaders in Persia, and after great hardship and many 
wanderings, he and his family were imprisoned in 1868 in the 
barracks at Acre. From prison Baha'o'llah continued to spread 
his gospel of universal love throughout Western Asia, and the 
movement which he led continued to grow by leaps and bounds, 
despite the martyrdom and persecution of Bahais in Persia and 

" Baha'o'llah, having spent forty years in exile and imprison- 
ment, died at Acre in 1892, after appointing his son, Abdul Baha 
Abbas, as his successor. 

" Under Abdul Baha's leadership the Bahai cause has spread 
in many lands, especially in the United States, and has brought 
thousands of Christians, Mohammedans, Buddhists, Parsis 
Jews, and Hindus into harmonious association. 

" The Bahais believe that the period of the ' Golden Era ' 
upon earth is approaching, the age when, as Christ foretold, ' men 
shall come from the east and from the west and from the north 
and from the south, and shall sit down in the kingdom of 



" The following are some of the basic principles on which the 
Bahai faith is built : 

1. The oneness of the world of humanity. 

2. Independent investigation of truth. 

3. The foundation of all religions is one. 

4. Religion to be the cause of unity. 

5. Religion to be in accord with science and reason. 

6. Equality between men and women. 

7. Caste prejudice and class hatreds of all kinds to be re- 

placed by fraternal co-operation. 

8. The establishment of universal peace. 

9. Universal education, with equal educational facilities for 

boys and girls. 

10. Just solution of economic problems. 

11. The adoption of a universal auxiliary language. 

12. The establishment of an international tribunal for the 

prevention of wars and the settlement of international 
problems by arbitration. 

"There is no priesthood in the movement, no rehgious 
ceremonial, its only dogma being the belief in God and His 
Prophets (or ' Manifestations '). Ritual holds no place among 
the Bahais, whose faith must express itself through prayer and 
devotion to God and by all the actions of life accomplished in 
neighbourly love. 

" Abdul Baha Abbas (knighted in 1920 through the influence 
of General Sir Arthur Money, the Chief Administrator of Palestine, 
in token of his spiritual and social services to the country) lives 
on the slopes of Mount Carmel, and is now in his seventy-seventh 
year. He is held in the highest reverence and respect by the 
inhabitants of Haifa and Acre, irrespective of their creed, his 
venerable gracious figure being familiar throughout the district, 
and in many other parts of the east as well. After the reform of 
the Turkish Government in 1908 Abdul Baha Abbas was re- 
leased from imprisonment within Acre, and in 191 1 he visited 
London and Paris, travelling throughout the United States in 
1912. At the City Temple in September, 191 1, he said : ' This 
is a new cycle of human power. This is the hour of the unity of 
the sons of men and of the drawing together of all races and 

" ' The Gift of God to this enlightened age is the knowledge of 
the oneness of mankind and of the fundamental unity of religion . 

" ' War shall cease between nations and l)y the will of God 


the Most Great Peace shall come. The world will be seen as a 
new world and all men will love as brothers.' 

" In bidding his friends in London farewell, Abdul Baha 

" My hope is that through the zeal and ardour of the pure in 
heart the darkness of hatred and differences shall be entirely 
abolished and the light of love and unity shall shine ; that this 
world shall become a new world and things material the 
mirror of the divine. That the whole world shall become as a 
man's native country and the different races be counted as 
one race ... I pray that blessing may be upon all who 
work for union and progress. "i 

Possibly there may be a great future in store for Haifa, for 
some hope that it will become the Mediterranean port for the new 
Baghdad railway and the pipe-line from the oilfields of Meso- 
potamia. In mediaeval times Acre was the port of Galilee, for the 
reason that its site was more readily defensible on the landward 
side. Haifa, with the glorious background of Mount Carmel, 
could be turned into a residential town, suitable for those who 
prefer the cool breezes and shady walks of the Prophet's mountain 
to the sun-scorched flatness of Acre. Again there is plenty of 
room for expansion to the north-west and south-east of Haifa, 
and there are few situations so superbly beautiful and romantic, 
enjoying such possibilities. 

I ascended Mount Carmel on the first morning of my visit, 
only too glad to get away from the noise and dust of the town, then 
in military occupation, and consequently full of khaki and motor- 
lorries. Mount Carmel is not really a " mount," but a chain of 
hills, chiefly limestone, which stretches from north to south for a 
distance of some sixteen miles. Its highest point is in the middle 
of the chain, where it rises to a height of 1,782 feet, facing the 
Bay of Acre on one side and the plain of Esdraelon on the other. 
Carmel signifies a garden, and the name is altogether appropriate. 
Would that I understood the names and meaning of flowers, and 
could in any way describe the wondrous beauty of the spring 

* Sir Abdul Baha Abbas died in 1925, and was succeeded as leader 
by his grandson, Mr. Sheoghi Kabani. I visited him in his plea-ant 
villain the Persian colony on the slopes of Mt. Carmel in 1926. Like his 
grandfather, Sheoghi Kabani is held in great respect by the inhabitants 
of Haifa and Acre irrespective of creed. Many Bahai pilgrims visit 
him, and several hostels have been built in the colony to house them. 


flowers that grow all along the paths to the sacred Mount ! 
Flaming marigolds, red anemones, wild roses, scarlet poppies, 
marguerites and literally hundreds of other wild flowers whose 
names were imknown to me. There are hedges also of sweet- 
smelling herbs from which the monks make their famous liqueur.^ 
Carmel is not a geographical name, it is more a type of metaphor 
of fruitfulness and beauty. WTien I climbed the Mount its sides 
were gloriously verdant, for the sun had not yet been sufficiently 
fierce to scorch them into dull brown. Among other trees were 
many almonds, evergreen oak, pines, and olives. Lizards were to 
be seen in great numbers, and some unusually large ones ran 
across the simny paths or chased each other up and down the 
stone walls. The beauty of the Mount is described by Isaiah : 

It shall blossom abundantly, and rejoice even with joy and 
singing : the glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it, the 
excellency of Carmel and Sharon.* 

The carriage road is a very easy climb, and after about thirty- 
five minutes' walk I arrived at the summit of the ridge or esplan- 
ade. The first building reached is that of the Sisters of Nazareth, 
and next it are the great Carmelite buildings with the conspicuous 
dome which surmounts the Church of our Lady of Mount Carmel. 
Towards the west is a large modem building with a lighthouse, 
called " The Summer Palace." On this site a church was built 
in the fifth century in honour of St. Helena, and later a Carmelite 
monastery, in which St. Simon Stock was a monk, who later 
became general of that Order. This was destroyed by the 
Turks, who in 182 1 built here a summer palace for Abdullah 
Pasha of St. John of Acre. In front of the palace is a graceful 
column of granite, with a statue of the Virgin given by pilgrims 
from Chile. 

The church is eighteenth -century Italian style, and in shape 
like a Greek cross. Opposite the west door, a double staircase of 
white marble leads to the High Altar. Between the balustrades a 
flight of stairs leads down to the Grotto of Elijah, the cave in 
which the prophet dwelt. It is this cave which has made the 
mountain for ever renowned, this and the wonders that he 

* Eau de M^lisse. * Isaiah xxxv. 2. 


wrought here and elsewhere during his sojourn on Mount CarraeL 
In the native language the Mount was called " Jebel Mar Ehas," 
the Mountain of Elias (Elijah). A modem inscription over the 
cave testifies to the work and merits of the great prophet. The 
cave is held in great veneration alike by all religions in 
Palestine, and many come to pray in this grotto. 

The view from the roof stretches from the promontory of 
Tyre, beyond Acre to Tantura, the ancient Dor of Joshua's time. 
Beyond this I could just distinguish Cesarea of Palestine, once a 
most important city holding the privileges of a Roman colony, 
bestowed upon it by Titus. St. Paul was imprisoned in this 
town. It is said to be the only city that has been besieged for so 
long a time as seven years, capitulating at the last in iioi, when 
it was taken by Baldwin. It is related that a very precious 
glass vase said to have been used at the Last Supper was dis- 
covered here at the taking of the town, a vase that played an 
important part in mediaeval times in connection with the Holy 

In a small garden in front of the church there is a stone 
pyramid surmounted by an iron cross, placed here in memory of 
those French soldiers, wounded or ill, who were left by Napoleon 
in the care of the monks, and massacred by the Turks after his 
departure (May 20th, 1799). Their bones, found by the monks 
scattered among the ruins of the convent, are buried beneath the 
monument. At the annual " pilgrimage of penitence " made by 
French residents and visitors to this spot a requiem is said for the 
repose of their souls. 

After leaving the convent I visited the grotto known as the 
School of the Prophets, close to a small Moslem cemetery, and now 
used as a mosque. According to tradition, it was here that 
EUjah gathered his disciples and started the community known in 
the Bible as the " Sons of the Prophets." This sanctuary, 
too, has for many years been an object of veneration. 
The energetic visitor can, if he wishes, proceed from 
here to El Mukhraqu, or the Place of Sacrifice, which 
stands on the highest peak of Mount Carmel, and entails a climb 
of four to five hours. This is the traditional spot on which 
Ehjah offered the victim that was consumed by fire from heaven 
and is marked by a chapel built by the Carmelites a few years ago . 


There are few places in Palestine quite so attractive as Mount 
Carmel for its peace and tranquillity, its manifold legends and 
traditions, as also for its beauty. The mountain in springtime 
is green and fresh, and this in spite of the fact that all cultivation 
has been abandoned for years, yet the sight of the trees, the 
flowers of spring, and of the verdure, makes one realise what 
a fertile district this really must be. The sides of the mountain 
are grooved by many dales, and burrowed by grottoes which 
afforded safe refuge to those flying from persecution or from 
justice. This, perhaps, explains the words of the prophet Amos : 

And though they hide themselves in the top of Carmel, I will 
search and take them out thence.^ 

(b) St. John of Acre 

Acre, or Acca, called by the Arabs Akka, the one-time 
stronghold of the Crusaders, and always associated with them, 
has already been mentioned. As the train neared Haifa, Acre 
was pointed out to me, shining in the sim, and standing out on 
its small promontory. The very first sight of Acre is most 
attractive, not merely because of its charming situation, but 
also because of what it stands for in history and romance. The 
quaint fact about Acre is that, though almost every stone has 
witnessed the thrilling scenes of its history, not one building 
of ancient interest remains, except the gate of the city, and part 
of the ramparts which date back to the time of the Crusaders. 
All else, bazaars, mosques, and houses, are built up of the old 
stones that once formed part of great monasteries and magni- 
ficent palaces. 

To get to Acre it is best to drive along the sands, crossing the 
mouth of the river Kishon, with the great plain of Acre on the 
right. The beach stretching from Haifa to Acre is most pic- 
turesque, and in parts studded with tall palms. All kinds of 
shells are to be found on the shore, including the spiny shells of 
the fish from which the Phoenicians in olden times obtained the 
Tyrian purple. Glass was made from the sand of the Kishon. 

' Amos ix. 3. 


At the mouth of this river, where it joins the Mediterranean, a 
large monument of Mcmnon once stood. 

I first \isited Acre one evening just before dusk and it seemed 
as though I had suddenly stepped into the Middle Ages as I 
passed under the magnificent gateway, the only gate of the city. 
The streets were narrow even for an Eastern town, and every 
turning brought me upon something fresh and strange. I saw 
no European, and the illusion would have been perfect in the 
half-light had I not suddenly come upon some English soldiers 
belonging to the " Somersets," who were stationed here. In the 
Square were several Arab cafes, where men sat on low stools 
smoking their hookahs, and from the Square ran the very 
narrowest street of bazaars, over which were stretched tarpaulin 
and sacking to protect the sellers from the heat of the sun. 
Down the middle of each street ran a tiny rivulet, which left 
still less space for pedestrians. In many of the shops dinners 
were already cooked on tin trays, and there was no lack of 
customers. From one bazaar I passed to others, all equally 
picturesque ; there was nothing for the tourist to purchase be- 
yond the commodities of daily life. Fvurther on I came to the 
Franciscan Convent in the Khan Frandji, the ancient quarter of 
the European merchants. Close by the Franciscan convent is 
the large building of the Khan Frandji itself, which dates from 
the seventeenth century and would seem to have escaped de- 
struction. It was one of those many fortified caravanserais 
where traders and others took shelter imder the protection of 
their Consuls and were thus able to carry on their business, 
I could just distinguish in the fading light the Mosque of Jeztar, 
built about 1780 in a very picturesque position, surroimded 
by orange trees, palms and cypresses which shelter the tombs of 
former pashas of Acre. Close by is a charming and graceful 
minaret, the gallery of which was brilliantly illuminated with 
coloured lamps, for the muezzin was about to give the call to 
prayer. The citadel near by marks the spot where once stood 
the ancient monastery castle of the Knights of St. John. 

Few towns of its size have had such a remarkable and romantic 
history as Acre, and few have taken part in so many wars and 
sieges. Acre is mentioned in Scripture for the first time in the 
Book of Judges as a town of the tribe of Aser. In the time of the 


Ptolemies it received the name of Ptolemais. It is mentioned in 
the days of Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, Alexander the Great, 
Ptolemy and Simon Maccabaeus ; Cleopatra took it and gave it to 
the Syrians ; later it became a Roman colony. St. Paul landed 
here, through him Christianity spread, and as early as 198 there 
was a Christian Bishop. It had resumed its name of Akka when 
in 638 it fell into the hands of the Moslems. In 1104 it became 
one of the principal bulwarks of the Christian religion in Palestine, 
and was called St. John of Acre. Except for a short interval of 
Moslem rule it remained in Christian hands, and was the last 
outpost of the Crusaders until 1291, when they were finally 
driven out of Palestine. Since then it has suffered from many 
attacks and changes of fortune, but from 1840 until 1918 it 
remained in the hands of the Moslems. It is interesting to 
remember that during the Great War Acre was neither attacked by 
land nor bombarded by sea, an altogether new experience for this 
belhcose little city. . . . 



(a) Tiberias. 

(6) A Pilgrimage to Nazareth. 

(r) The Streets and Lanes of Nazareth. 



(a) Tiberias and the Bright Blue Lake of Galilee 

From Haifa we took the morning train to Samakh, passing 
through the pleasant fertile plain of Kishon, and then through 
that of Jezreel. I was much impressed by the utter loneliness 
of the district. Except at the stations there were no signs of 
life or human habitation. After reaching El-Afuleh, the station 
for Nazareth, we passed a Jewish colony where agricultural 
labour was in full progress. Then we came to Shatta, and, 
shortly after, Beisan. This town is the ancient Bethsan or 
Beisan, the House of Rest, mentioned in Scripture in connection 
with the disastrous battle of Gilboa, where Saul, defeated by 
the Philistines, committed suicide. The Philistines cut off his 
head and fastened his body to the walls of Bethsan. ^ 

The surroundings of this town, watered by four different 
streams, are most picturesque, with luxuriant vegetation much 
in evidence. Rabbi ben Lakisch said of Beisan : " If Paradise 
is to be fornd in Palestine, its gate is Bethsan." We crossed 
the Jordan about three miles before reaching Samakh, and on the 
left obtained a view of the picturesque Djisr el Moudjamia, " the 
Bridge of the Meetings," which dates back to the times of the 
Saracens and is composed of a large pointed arch flanked on each 
side by small and low arches. 

Semak, or Samakh (Arabic for " fish "), is fifty-four miles 
distant from Haifa and some 600 feet below the level of the 
Mediterranean. The village, picturesquely situated on a small 
cliff, consists of a collection of Arab hovels. The view of the 
lake and the surrounding mountains is magnificent ; the sun shone 

' Samuel xxxi. 10. 



and the lake was calm and peaceful. A few minutes' walk took 
us to the edge of the lake, and there we found a motor-boat full 
of natives ready to imdertake the forty minutes' voyage to 
Tiberias. By the time we had all squeezed into the boat it was 
filled to its utmost capacity, but for a while the weather was 

Tiberias is hidden away by promontories, but Tabigah in its 
glory of verdure can easily be seen, while Capernaum can be 
distinguished at the northern end of the lake lying at the entrance 
of the valley through which runs the Jordan. 

Soon after leaving Samakh clouds obscure the sun, the wind 
rises suddenly, the rain descends, and the waters of the lake 
become like waves of the sea. Tarpaulins are d^a^\^l round the 
boat ; we can see nothing ; the moimtains themselves are wrapped 
in mist, and the rain drips down our necks. It is depressing, but 
we console ourselves with our first glorious view of the lake. 
These storms soon arise and as quickly fall, and all is calm once 
more. We could not fail to remember : 

And, behold, there arose a great tempest in the sea, inso- 
much that the ship was covered with the waves : but He 
was asleep. And His disciples came to Him, and awoke 
Him, saying. Lord, save us : we perish. And He saith 
unto them. Why are ye fearful, O ye of little faith ? Then 
He arose, and rebuked the winds and the sea ; and there 
was a great calm.^ 

Just before we reach Tiberias the rain stops and the sun again 
appears, the curtains are drawn back, and we can see the beauties 
of the lake. On the left we pass the famous hot springs, housed 
in a building of Oriental style, surmounted by a dome. A few 
minutes afterwards we arrive at Tiberias. A short walk up 
steep and narrow steps through an open square and we find 
ourselves at the H6tel Tiberias. In the afternoon the weather 
cleared, and some officers staying in the hotel volunteered to 
take me to the far end of the lake. As the weather looked im- 
certain, we made directly for Capernaum, known to the Arabs 
as Tel Hilm . 

On landing we visited the ruins of the Synagogue. The 
Franciscan brother in charge showed us the excavations which 

' St.Malthc-.v v111.24-.2O. 


had been carried on by the German Oriental Society before the 
war. These were the remains of a rampart sunk under the earth, 
said to have formed the foundations of a large tower, and further 
on we saw a slab of mosaic which evidently had formed part of 
the flooring in some ancient church. At the end of the road we 
came upon the imposing ruins of the Synagogue, which had 
obviously been built of great blocks of limestone. 

The interior shows the remains of what might be called a 
central nave, sixty-two feet long and twenty-six feet wide, and in 
the comers of the gallery are to be seen two square pillars, each 
flanked by half columns. The pedestals, united as one piece with 
the bases of the columns, are for the most part still in their places. 
Shafts over nine feet in length carry superb Corinthian capitals 
with deeply-cut foliage, and the friezes, which may still be seen, 
are profusely ornamented with sculpture, palms, foliage, fruit, and 
figures. One walks on ruins, blocks of stone, or stumps of broken 
columns, which are still half concealed by the growth of thistles 
and biiars. I was much struck by the immense size of this mag- 
nificent ruin, from all accounts unequalled in size and splendour 
by any other synagogue. It is generally accepted now that the 
foundation of this synagogue can be attributed to the centurion 
mentioned in the Gospel, it being the type of synagogue con- 
structed under Roman rule.* 

Chorazin is about two miles distant, and its ruins lie at the 
bottom of a ravine. 

To this lake a variety of names has been given, first of all 
Kinneret, which it received because of its oval shape, supposed 
to bear some resemblance to a harp (in Hebrew, Ktnnor). After 
the captivity in Babylon it was called the Sea of Gennesar, or 
Germaseret, a name borrowed from the fertile plain lying around 
its shores on the north-west. In the New Testament it is called 
the Sea of Gahlee and the Sea of Tiberias, and the Arabs have 
retained this last name by calling it the Bahr Tabarujeh. There 
are few places which recall such vivid memories of the Gospel 
story, for our Lord, together with His disciples, would come and 
go from one side of the lake to the other, spreading the know- 
ledge of the Faith by His teaching and miracles along its shores. 

' Since 1920 great progress has been made in excavating the Syna- 
gogue and erecting it in its original form. 


The Apostles were afloat on this lake when their boat was in 
danger of sinking because of the " wind and tempest " ; on its 
waters our Lord walked towards His disciples as if He were 
treading on solid ground. From a ship on the lake our Lord 
spoke to the crowd assembled on the shore, and explained to 
them the mysteries of the Kingdom of Heaven. Its waters 
witnessed the miraculous draughts of fishes ; the first being 
followed by the call of the Apostles/ the second used for the 
payment of tax,'^ and on the occasion of the third, which took 
place after the Resurrection, the charge was given to Peter to 
feed the sheep and lambs of Christ's flock. 

All these episodes bring before us very vividly the ministry of 
our Lord and His constant association with the men, women, and 
children who dwelt in the towns and villages on the lake and 
especially with the fishermen who earned their living by the fruit 
of its water. To-day, alas ! how changed it all is : there are no 
boats, no fishermen, no villages or towns of any size except 
Tiberias, and no people to crowd the shores. 

About two and a half miles from Tiberias, on the same side 
of the lake, is to be seen a collection of Arab hovels known as 
El Mejdel. We noticed the remains of an enclosing wall and 
the fragments of two towers. El Mejdel is the ancient Mag- 
dala, an Aramaean form corresponding to the Hebrew Migdal, 
which means a tower or fortress. It was at Magdala that the 
Pharisees asked of Christ a sign. Its chief interest to-day lies 
in the fact that it was the birthplace of St. Mary Magdalene.^ 

Romantic indeed must have been the situation of Magdala, 
the palms and balsams of Gennesaret around it, the blue lake in 
front, the hills beyond, and behind it the stretch of valley with 
the picturesque horns of Hattin terminating the view. Surely 
it was rich in all that contributes to beauty and grandeur ! 

It is interesting to recall that at the time of the opening of 
the Gospel story, Andrew, Peter, and Phihp were living at Beth- 
saida, and that James and John, with Zebedee, were their neigh- 
bours. Mary is in her house at Magdali, St. John the Baptist is 
at Bethabara beyond Jordan, Nathanael is at Cana, while our 
Lord is still living at Nazareth with His Mother, so that the 

^ St. Matthew iv. i8. » St. Matthew xvii. 27. 

'■ St. Lukeviii, 2 and vii. 37. 


lake and its environs form indeed the mise en seine of the prelude 
to our Lord's ministerial Hfe and these men and women its 
dramatis persono. Making a rough map of the Lake of Galilee 
with the Jordan running through it, Capernaum is seen towards 
the north ot the lake, Magdala on its western border and 
Bethsaida between the two. Cana lies to the west about twelve 
miles off and Nazareth five miles further away. Between 
Bethsaida and Capernaum there must have been perpetual 
" going and coming " by our Lord and His disciples. Evidently 
the home at Nazareth was left for a while and a house taken 
at Capernaum, henceforth known as our Lord's city. " It is 
about our Lord's life in Capernaum that most is known, and at 
the time of His sojourn there it had become a notable city, civil 
representatives of the Roman power being stationed there, and 
its position at the junction of the four great roads from Arabia, 
Egypt, Tyre, and Damascus made it an important centre of travel 
and commerce. Our Lord spoke of the town as "exalted to 
heaven." and although this may have had mainly a spiritual 
significance, it is not improbable that the height and magnificence 
of the architecture displayed in many of its public buildings may 
have suggested the exaltation to which our Lord referred." So 
writes Mr. J. W. Taylor, in his fascinating book, The Coming of 
the Saints, but one cannot help feeling that our Lord was speaking 
in a spiritual sense and referring to Capernaum's exaltation in 
unprecedented and unparalleled privileges. 

Of all the cities in Palestine, none had so great opportunities 
as Capernaum and Bethsaida. Bethlehem was indeed " ex- 
alted " as the scene of His birth, Nazareth was "exalted " as 
the home of His youth, and Jerusalem was "exalted " as the 
scene of thrilling events and as the witness of the great 
drama of the Passion and Resurrection. The manifestation of 
the life of Christ, however, is to be found in Capernaum. Every 
path and slope of the mountains, every street around that once 
busy lake is saturated with His presence. His teaching, His 
miracles. Further, whereas He was driven from Bethlehem, 
assaulted in Nazareth, and persecuted in Jenisalem, there is 
no such record in Capernaum ; on the contrary, His influence 
was great, He seems to have been honoured and respected • 
all and sundiy came to listen to His words, publicans from the 


custom-house, fishermen from their nets, elders from the Jewish 
synagogues, officers in the Roman army, and the " common 
people" who "heard him gladly." They heard His words, 
but the influence of the royal court in the neighbouring city of 
Tiberias, with its appalling vices and irreligion, was too great 
for them, and thus the vast multitude heard Him with indifference, 
and though they were proud of Him they neglected any attempt 
to follow His teaching. . . . To-day nothing is more striking 
than the contrast between these shores in the time of our Lord, 
such busy scenes of traffic and life, and what they are now, a 
spectacle of loneliness and desolation. 

Who can ever forget the story of Levi the publican, that story 
of romance and courage ? He was a revenue officer, a Jew 
in the employ of the Roman government, his office being in the 
custom-house close to the landing-stage ; here he collected the 
harbour dues for the boats coming in, and probably levied duty 
on the exports and imports as they went or came across the lake. 
The Gospels give us the story in simple form without com- 
ment : 

And after these things He went forth, and saw a publican, 
named Levi, sitting at the receipt of custom : And He said 
unto him. Follow me. And he left all, rose up, and followed 
Him. And Levi made a great feast in his own house : and 
there was a great company of publicans and of others that 
sat down with thcm.^ 

Before leaving this spot of holy memories, one may well 
count up those who lived at Magdala, Bethsaida, and Capernaum, 
or near those places : our Lord and His Mother ; James, John, 
Zebedee, and Salome ; Peter, Peter's wife, and his wife's mother ; 
Andrew, Philip, Nathanael ; James (the less), Simon, Jude, 
Cleopas and Mar>' his wife ; Matthew and Thomas ; the centurion 
and his servant ; Chuza, Joanna, and their son ; Mary 
Magdalene ; Jairus, with his wife and daughter ; the man with 
an unclean spirit ; the sick of the palsy ; the widow of Nain and 
her son ; the man with a withered hand ; the young man who 
said, " Master, I will follow Thee, whithersoever Thou goest," 
the woman with the issue of blood, and the two blind men who 
cried out, " Thou Son of David, have mercy upon us." Beyond 

* St. Luke V. .J7-2y. 


all these there were crowds who thronged the synagogues to 
hear Him and the multitude who followed Him and desired to 
crown Him as their earthly King. Perhaps the greatest scene of 
all was that which occurred towards the end of our Lord's resi- 
dence at Capernaum. It was just after the miracle of the feeding 
of the five thousand, and it marked a parting of the ways, a 
foretaste of the betrayal and Passion. This dramatic event 
happened at the conclusion of the Eucharistic discourse. The 
synagogue was thronged, for it was the sabbath morning, and the 
elders were murmuring in anger : " Is not this Jesus, the Son of 
Joseph, whose father and mother we know ? How is it then that 
He saith, ' I came down from Heaven ' ? " But Christ replied : 
" Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, 
ye have no life in you." ^ Here was indeed the parting of the 
ways . ' ' How can this man give us His flesh to eat ? " And then 
one by one they leave Him. Picture Jesus standing on the steps 
of the synagogue, the service being over. " F'rom that time many 
of His disciples went back and walked no more with Him." The 
Apostles alone remain. " Will ye also go away ? " He asks them, 
and Peter repHes, " Lord, to whom shall we go .? Thou hast the 
words of eternal life, and we beheve and are sure that Thou art 
that Christ, the Son of the living God." ^ It may well be called 
a momentous scene in our Lord's life at Capernaum ! In order 
that it might never be forgetten, the Evangehst St. John adds 
these words : ' ' These things, said He, in the synagogue as He 
taught in Capernaum." 

We read in St. Luke's Gospel how our Lord " arrived at the 
country of the Gadarenes, which is over against Galilee." This 
takes us to the eastern shore of Gennesaret. The contrast 
between the sterile aspect of this side and the cultivated beauty 
around Capernaum must have been striking. Hills with just a 
patch of cultivation here and there rising abruptly from the 
water's edge, the chmate uncongenial, the land exposed, as it is 
to this day, to the incursion of hostile hordes, one can understand 
why there were but few inhabitants. It was a kind of borderland 
in those days, abandoned to a mixed population of Jews and 
Gentiles ; animals clean and imclean, the sheep of the Hebrews, 

» St. John vi. 53. - St. Jolm vi. 68, 09. 



the swine of the Gentiles, browsing on contiguous pastures. 
There is something sinister about these hills, dark and threaten- 
ing, with no sign of Ufe or human habitation. There are still the 
remains of a Jewish burial-ground to be seen in a recess formed 
in the mountains. Caves, natural or artificial, are hollowed out 
of the rock, while the ruins of some village crown the heights at 
the top of the valley. It would seem that out of one of these 
rocky tombs a being in human shape rushed down the slope to 
the lake and met our Lord on His arrival with wild gestures and 
cries ; he was " possessed of devils a long time, and wore no 
dothes, neither abode in any house, but in the tombs." Then 
follows the exorcism, the devils enter the herd of swine, which 
are destroyed ; but human life is saved, and the man is found 
by the Gadarenes seated " at the feet of Jesus, clothed, and in 
his right mind." ^ . . . Finally there is the farewell, that most 
touching of all the scenes on the lake. There had been the 
night of failure — the disciples had toiled all the night and caught 
nothing — but "when the morning had come Jesus stood on 
the shore," "^ a miracle is worked. " and now they were not able 
to draw the net for the multitude of fishes." In that quiet 
morning hour our Lord holds a confidential meeting with His 
Apostles. Probably a larger gathering is now arranged, that 
He may publicly bid farewell to the many devoted disciples 
scattered throughout Galilee among whom He had lived and 
laboured so long. St. Matthew tells us that the place appointed 
was " a mountain," probably the Mount of the Beatitudes, the 
spot hallowed by former words of warning and mercy, which 
more than any other place overlooked the scenes of His ministry 
and miracles. Possibly this place of meeting was the memor- 
able assembly to which St. Paul refers when he speaks of Christ 
having been seen by five hundred brethren at once, the greater 
part of whom were still alive when he wrote, though some had 
fallen asleep. At this assembly our Lord closed His ministry 
in Galilee, upon the shores of its favoured lake. 

On our return to Tiberias another of those sudden squalls 

' St. Luke viii. 26. * Si. Julin xxi. ^. 


came sweeping down the mountain gorge. There was no rain 
fortunately, but great waves arose, and we were nearly 
swamped. Just as we caught sight of the little pier of 
Tiberias, the lake stilled, and trorn a murky green its waters 
became azure blue, and the sky cloudless. Later that evening 
we walked to the ruins of Herod's palace high above the city, 
and witnessed a glorious sunset over the waters of that wonder- 
ful lake ; then we wandered about the narrow streets of that 
once imposing city Tiberias, now but a small and unim- 
portant village. 

The next day being Sunday, I heard Mass at the little fisher- 
men's church on the border of the lake. It is an old church, 
belonging to the Franciscans and dedicated to St. Peter, in 
perpetual memory of the miraculous draught of fishes and the 
final command of our Lord to Peter after the Resurrection. 
Afterwards I walked by the lake and saw a few fishermen mending 
their nets ; others were drying along the walls of the quay. 
It was a beautiful morning ; at 7 a.m. the sun was already fierce, 
the hills on the east were in deep shade, in contrast to the splendid 
blue of the lake. Shortly afterwards we started on our journey 
to Nazareth. Motor-cars, then, being impossible to obtain at 
Tiberias, we had to content ourselves with a small wagonette 
and two horses. 

(b) A Pilgrimage to Nazareth 

A steep and apparently interminable climb brought us to the 
top of the hill, and we had just time for a gUmpse of Tiberias, 
with its mosques, palms, and gardens, the Roman fortress, the 
ruins of Herod's palace, the lake and its mountains beyond, when 
quite suddenly the rain began to fall, and we had to shelter be- 
hind our tarpaulin curtains. The promise of the morning had not 
been fulfilled ; it was just a replica of an English April day, 
for sunshine and storms alternated. For a moment it was dark 
overhead, but simny on the distant hills ; and then it changed 
again, the waters of the lake were churned, the waves crested 
with white foam. It rained heavily, and we were thankful not to 
be on the waters. The country we passed through was deserted, 
but very fertile, just crying out for labourers and someone to 


take an interest in it. We passed a caravan, a few isolated 
shepherds, and an occasional Arab driving his donkey along the 
sandy road, which was fast becoming a quagmire owing to the 
rain. Then we passed the Arab village of Mansourah, situated 
at the entrance of the plain of Sharon of Galilee, below the 
mount known as Hadjaret en Nasira, or the " Stones of the 
Christians," also called the Khamsa Khoubsat, or the "Five 
Loaves," and in Latin the Mensa Christi. Here, according to 
tradition, the miracle of the seven loaves took place, St. Matthew 
recording that our Lord "having left Tyre and Sidon, came 
nigh to the sea of Galilee, and going up mto a mountain, He sat 
there," ^ afterwards He entered a boat and went to Magdala. 

Then on through the fertile plains of Sharon of Galilee 
amidst fitful gleams of sunshine — " the Sharon of which Isaiah 
speaks," as St. Jerome says — we obtained an admirable view of 
Mount Tabor, the Mountain of the Transfiguration, on the top 
of which the Franciscans possess a handsome Basilica. Before 
us on the right rose Hattin,^ a beautiful elongated hill, rearing 
up at the ends like an Arabian saddle, forming two peaks re 
sembling horns, hence its name, Quoroun Hattin. This mountain 
witnessed a sanguinary battle in 1187. Here the Crusaders 
made their last attempt to retain the Holy Land, but were utterly 
defeated by Saladin, and thousands of them slaughtered. The 
battle was followed by the withdrawal of the Crusaders to 
Acre, where they remained until driven out of Palestine in 1291. 

The rain lifted for a moment and the sun shone ; one last 
glimpse of the, a blue gleam flashing up from the deep hollow 
below to cheer us in the midst of the storm, and then we advanced 
slowly on to the plain of El Battdf or Zebulon. This is said to 
be one of the most fertile plains in all Palestine, and its appearance 
in spite of utter neglect, would seem to justify this reputation — 
luxuriant crops of thistles and rank grass, a few patches of com, 
maize, sesame and lentils. Brilliant wild flowers were growing 
widely, and all around them were clumps of green grass. The 
Bedouin nomads seemed to be aware of its fertile properties, 
for we saw many droves of camels and sheep feeding on its grass 

' St. Matthew xv. 29. 

* Quoroun Hattin, or the Horns of Hattin, is said by Pome authorities 
to be the Mount of the Beatitudes. 


and shrubs. The road was so heavy owing to the storms that 

we rested here awhile for the sake of the horses, and ate our lunch 

inside the wagonette, with the tarpaulin curtains firmly fixed, 

for the wind and the rain were coming down heavily again. 

After lunch we started once more, and presently we reached 

Kafr Kenna, as the Arabs call Cana of Galilee, among the stony 

hills so characteristic of Palestine, with splendid olives, prickly 

p)ears, and its famous pomegranates all around it. Here we left 

the carriage, and walked along a narrow path leading by stone 

houses and mud hovels to the centre of the village, which looked 

very prosperous. An ornate marble sarcophagus did duty as a 

water-trough, and as we passed by we saw women filling their 

pitchers from its contents, and afterwards placing them on their 

heads, according to nnmemorial custom. 

There are no Jews here ; it is a village of Syrian Christians. 

and Moslems only, most of the Christians belonging to the 

Orthodox Greek Church. We visited the parish church of the 

Latins, which is served by Franciscans, and occupies the site 

of a Crusaders' church, which in its turn had taken the place of 

a still more ancient church. In the crypt the lay brother showed 

us a Jewish pitcher, said to be a facsimile of those used at the 

miracle. According to tradition, it was on the site of this 

crypt where the miracle took place. 

Jesus saith unto them. Fill the waterpots with water. And 
thev filled them up to the brim. And He saith unto them, 
Draw out now, and bear unto the governor of the feast. 
And they bare it • . . . 

In the Greek Church, which was built in 1556 and restored 
in 1886, we were shown two heavy basins of stone, and told that 
they were the waterpots used at the wedding feast. Outside 
the church a group of picturesque women and children implored 
us to buy some specimens of the local lace, and offered us various 
aUeged antiquities in the way of beads and crosses. They told 
us that in latter years visitors came but rarely- to Kafr Kenna, 
and they were naturally anxious to seize the opportunity we 
afforded them. On leaving the village we passed the Chapel 
of St. Bartholomew, the traditional house of Nathanael, to whom 
Philip told of the finding of Messiah. 

* St. John li. 7 1 J • 


The road on leaving Cana becomes very steep, and after ascend- 
ing for some distance we passed Er Reineh, with its stream of clear 
water, climbing on, until we reached the ridge of El Chanouk, 
and obtained our first glimpse of Nazareth. A rapid descent 
brought us to the Fountain of the Virgin, where we saw girls 
and women bearing their pitchers ; and then at the end of the 
main street, almost opposite the convent of the Poor Clares, 
we reached the hotel at last, having taken seven and a quarter 
hours to complete the journey of seventeen miles. The sun 
shone as we reached our destination, mocking at our damp and 
mud-stained clothes, but the joy of finding ourselves in Nazareth 
made us forget every discomfort. 

(c) The Streets and Lanes of Nazareth 

The origin of the name of Nazareth is Nezer, meaning a shoot, 
and thus a flower. Well chosen is the name, for Nazareth is 
indeed a flower of beauty in a most charming setting. 

Early the next morning I climbed up to the Salesian monastery 
on the top of the western hill, and obtained a glorious view over 
the city and the mountains beyond. The morning was fresh, 
the sun shone brightly after the rain, and the air was light and 
clear. Below lay the little town with its white houses and 
graceful minaret, with palm-trees, dates, and cactus, and the 
quiet loveliness of the valley seemed to give it an air of seclusion, 
as if shut away from the outer world. 

Nazareth is not mentioned before the time of our Lord, and 
therefore owes its importance, firstly, to the fact that it was the 
home of the Virgin Mary, and that here the Archangel Gabriel 
announced to her the wondrous message that she was to be the 
Mother of the Son of God, and secondly, because He passed His 
youth up to the age of thirty in this' obscure village. Therefore 
Nazareth has no other memories than those connected with 
Christ, and in this way it is unique. During the period of our 
Lord's youth the city was obscure, a mere mountain town, 
lying out of the way and seldom visited ; so unimportant, indeed, 
that Nathanael, on hearing that the Messiah was of Nazareth. 


asked Philip the famous question, "Can any good thing come 
out of Nazareth ? " ^ St. Mattiiew tells us that the Holy Family 
reiurned to Nazareth after the death of Herod, that the words of 
the prophets might be fulfilled, " He shall be called a Nazarene." ^ 
St. Jerome explains these words as meaning that the Evangelist 
alluded to the prophets, who announced that Messiah would be 
an object of hatred in the eyes of His own people. Up to the 
time of TertuUian (160-240), the name of Nazarene was used 
as a term of contempt by Jews and Pagans alike, and this custom 
only ceased in the fourth century, when the term Nazarene 
became the name of an heretical sect. The Arabs, however, 
still speak of Christians as Nostrani in the singular, and Nasara 
in the plural. 

Nazareth has experienced many vicissitudes, and the tempests 
of war have often broken into this secluded valley : so much so 
that not one stone of the town known to our Lord remains to-day. 
Until the time of Constantine it continued to be a Jewish town, 
but later a splendid Basilica was built on the spot where the 
Angel appeared to Mary, and the house where Mary dwelt 
would have been known to generations of Jews, partly because 
of their hatred of the Christians, and also owing to the veneration 
of the Christians for these sacred places. 

From 1 100 onwards, historic events seem to have followed 
each other in rapid succession. On Tancred taking possession 
of Galilee after the conquest of Jerusalem by the Crusaders, the 
Basilica was rebuilt and used as a cathedral, but in 1187, after 
the battle of Hattin, the Christians were driven out. Later j 
in 1250, the Sultan concluded a treaty with St. Louis, King of 
France, by which Nazareth and other towns were given back to 
the Christians ; but not for long, for the Bibars came up from 
Egypt and encamped with a great army on Mount Tabor, from 
whence troops were sent out to destroy all churches and convents. 
Christians were promised safety from death if they embraced 
Islam, but preferring death to apostasy they were martyred and 
their bodies cast into wells. When in 129 1 the Crusaders 
made their final exit from the Holy Land, most of the clergy 
followed them, and only a few Franciscans remained at their 

* St. John i. 46. • St. Matthew li. 23. 


perilous posts to win back the Holy Places for Christendom. 
Earlier in the thirteenth century St. Francis of Assisi, according 
to tradition, had visited Nazareth, drawn there, according to his 
scribe Celando, "by the sanctuary of the Mystery of the In- 
carnation," and his great spirit of fortitude would seem to have 
remained behind him, for there can be no doubt whatever that 
the saving of Nazareth and its preservation for Christianity has 
to a great extent resulted from the constant and unflagging 
devotion of the Franciscans. Sixty years after the departure 
of the Crusaders we find the Friars Minor settled down among the 
ruins of the Sanctuary of the Annunciation, and a writer of the 
fourteenth century saj^s : "At Nazareth they possessed a 
monastery to-day abandoned on account of the wickedness of 
the Pagans." According to Franciscan chronicles, the Friars 
Minor were driven from Nazareth first in 1385, then in 1448, and 
the following year it is stated that " one priest and two Christians 
were found again dwelling in the chapel, where the Angel saluted 

Again, in 1548, under Turkish rule, persecution raged against 
the religious orders in Nazareth ; many were killed and others 
went to Jerusalem. One Christian remained behind, however, 
and kept two lamps perpetually burning in the Grotto of the 
Annunciation. In 1620 the Father Custodian obtained formal 
permission to build a church above the grotto, together with a 
convent, but in the following years the friars again suffered 
imprisonment, fines, and then expulsion. The pertinacity of 
these amazing men baffles description : nothing seemed to damp 
their ardour — torture, imprisonment, fines, expulsion were all 
a part of their daily life, and however often they were driven out, 
invariably they returned ; for every one who fell out of the ranks 
by mart}Tdom or disease, there were always others ready to 
fill his place, and so it has been throughout their history since 
the time of their founder. 

About the year 1730 the Sheikh Zahir el-Omar made himself 
master of Central Palestine, and under his rule Nazareth enjoyed 
comparative peace. The Franciscans then applied for permission 
to restore the Sanctuary and rebuild the church, which they 
obtained, but the local Moslems continued to persecute them and 
to put e\ery obstacle in their way in order that the church should 


not be built. The manner in which the Moslems were circum- 
vented is altogether delightful, and one can picture the Fathers' 
simple enjoyment at being able to outwit their persecutors. 
The Franciscans secretly gathered together the workers and the 
necessary material, and at the feast of Nebl Muscl, when the last 
Moslem had started on his pilgrimage, they began to build, and 
carried on the work with such feverish energy that the church was 
finished in two months, just a day before the return of the pil- 
grims. One can imagine the baffled wrath of the Moslems when 
ascending from the plain of Esdraelon they saw before them a 
great church standing up against the horizon. Whatever their 
feelings were against the friars, they did not persecute them 
further. Possibly they may have thought that a miracle had 
been worked, or more likely they admired the unwearying efforts 
of the Franciscans to build once again a shrine worthy of the 
Holy Place. Whatever the reason, peace has reigned since the 
great Basilica was rebuilt. 

One of Napoleon's generals set up his headquarters here in 
1799, and later on Kleber's division visited the town accompanied 
by the great Napoleon himself. After the battles of Cana and 
Mount Tabor the wounded and sick were cared for by the Fathers 
and their labours called forth the ungrudging praise of the general. 
Napoleon, together with Kleber, was lodged in the Casa Nova, the 
Franciscan Hospice, and in the Franciscan chronicles it is stated 
that " before leaving Nazareth they visited the Sanctuary of 
the Annunciation, where a few days earlier the soldiers had 
come to pray, recalling to the minds of the beholders the memory 
of the Crusaders." 

All this, and much more, the Guardian of the Holy Places 
at Nazareth told me over a cup of coffee in his cell at the Fran- 
ciscan convent. We crossed the sunlit courtyard and entered 
the Latin Church of the Annunciation, the present entrance 
being part of the gateway of Constan tine's BasiHca. The first 
church was built by Joseph, Count of Tiberias, in 330 ; in 1131 
it was reconstructed, the ancient plan being preserved with its 
row of stately columns, and the apse alone being the work of the 
Crusaders. Remains of the Crusaders' Church and the old 
Church of St. Helena were still visible ; the former lay east and 
west a right angles to the present church and its three apses 


were visible on the east side through the sacristy. Of the 
Church of St. Helena, which once stood over the Grotto, the 
apse under the High Altar and mosaics in the left aisle are still to 
be seen. The church is divided by pillars into three naves, the 
end of the central nave being occupied by the choir and High 
Altar, which stand over the crypt . These are reached by a double 
flight of stairs, while in the centre a large staircase of fifteen 
steps leads to the Sanctuary proper. We entered first the Angels' 
Chapel, with the Altar of St. Joachim and St. Anne on the right, 
and on the left that of the Angel Gabriel, which latter is on 
the site of the House of the Virgin. Crossing a pointed arcade, 
which rests on two twisted columns of white marble, we came 
to the Chapel of the Annunciation, cut entirely out of the rock, 
and under the Altar read the words : 

Verbum Caro Hic Factum Est 

The round upright column of Gabriel is said to mark the place 
where the Archangel stood to deliver his message, and the column 
of Mary, a fragment of red granite hanging from the ceiling, where 
the Blessed Virgin received the message. 

And the angel came in unto her, and said. Hail ! thou that art 
highly favoured [full of grace], the Lord is with thee : 
blessed art thou among women ! . . . And, behold, thou 
shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt 
call his name Jesus. . . . And Mary said, Behold the hand- 
maid of the I-ord, be it unto me according to thy word. ^ 

This is one of the most sacred places in Christendom, for the 
Incarnation of our Lord is the rock on which the whole fabric of 
Christianity is built. This Holy Place is far removed from jarring 
and warring tongues ; at the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, at the 
Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, Christians quarrel over their 
sacred spots, but here at least it would seem that there had always 
been peace among the followers of Jesus of Nazareth : no sec- 
tarian discord, no anger, but the joy of perfect peace and faith. 
This, perhaps, may account for the harmony of atmosphere one 
feels throughout Nazareth itself. ... At the extension of the 
Chapel of the Annunciation is the Altar of St. Joseph, and from 

» Luke I. 28-38. 


this chapel a staircase leads to the Kitchen of the Virgin, giving 
direct communication between the crypt and the convent. 
This passage was intended to allow the Franciscans a way of 
entrance and of escape in days gone by when they were in danger 
of being molested by the Moslems. In making this passage a 
small grotto was discovered, and the faithful, thinking that it 
had always communicated with the House of Mary, and taking 
the mouth of the cistern for a chimney, called it the Kitchen of 
the Virgin. Some writers at the time of the Crusades asserted 
that the Virgin was bom in this grotto, but her birth took place 
in Jerusalem. 

From the Church of the Annunciation we went to the Work- 
shop of St. Joseph {la bottega di San Giuseppe). Here a church 
was built about the end of the sixth century, known as the 
Church of the Nutrition, which was destroyed and then rebuilt 
by the Crusaders. In 1754 the Franciscans acquired the house 
that was built on the ruins of the former church, and this they 
replaced by a chapel in honour of St. Joseph. Now a handsome 
church stands on this spot, dedicated to the Holy Family, at 
the west end of which is enclosed the Workshop, and over, the 
Altar of St. Joseph one reads this inscription : Hie erat subditus 
illis {" Here He became subject to them "). 

As we left the gates of the church the Father pointed out to 
me the famous Casa Nova, where so many people of all degrees 
have found rest and a temporary home, and which sheltered 
large numbers of pilgrims every year. 

Unfortunately, at present this hospice is closed,^ for during 
the war the Turks raided it, and, according to their custom, 
stole all the linen, beds, and furniture. 

Following the narrow street on the right, we came next to 
the Synagogue where our Lord expounded that passage of Isaiah 
which concerned Him, and from whence He was driven to the 
Mount of Precipitation. 

The Synagogue was converted into a church in the thir- 
teenth century, and is now the parish church of the Greek Uniats. 
The Arabs call it Medresch el Messieh, or the " School of the 
Messiah." We then continued the ascent north-west of the 

1 This is no longer the case ; it has been furnished imcw and is now 
open . 


Synagogue until we came to a little chapel surmounted by a dome, 
which is called the Keniset-el-Balita, or Mensa Christi (" the 
Table of Christ "). The chapel was erected in 1861, the Francis- 
cans having bought the property from the Moslems. The Mensa 
is an enormous block of hard chalk (eleven and a half feet long and 
nine and a half feet broad), at which, according to a tradition, our 
Lord dined with His disciples after the Resurrection. 

Before bidding me farewell the Father gave me a copy of 
the Franciscan guide to the Holy Land compiled by the Padre 
Barnabas Meistermann, a book too little known to visitors. 
It is the most complete and useful guide I have yet 

I visited the Greek Orthodox Church of St. Gabriel, a church 
of earlier foundation, rebuilt in the eighteenth century, half of 
it being below grovmd. The famous spring, known as Jesus' 
Spring, or Gabriel's Spring, is beneath the altar of the church, 
and is conducted past the altar on the left side, where Greek 
pilgrims bathe their eyes with the water. ^ From here the water 
runs to Mary's Well, or the Fountain of the Virgin, Ain Miryam, 
as the Arabs call it, which is quite close to the church. It is the 
only spring in the town, and there can be no doubt that this is 
the actual source from which the Virgin Mother drew water for 
her household, and that our Lord often must have been 
in her company. We do not see the actual spring, but the great 
stone basin into which, through a conduit, it pours its waters 
in a copious stream. The foimtain is a place of pilgrimage to 
this day, and has much picturesque charm. I sat down beside 
it and watched the motley throng of people collected around it. 
Graceful women were laughing and talking as they drew their 
water like Madonna of old ; most of them wore with charming 
effect a dark blue skirt tucked up at the waist and held in place 
by a blue cord, while a blue cloak lightly fell over their fore- 
heads, protecting them from the rays of the sun, and then hung 
in graceful folds completely covering them, except for the small 
bare feet, slender hands, and oval faces. A romantic picture, 

* Here, as also in his own house, the Greek Archbishop Kleopas, Metro- 
politan of Nazareth and of all Gahlee, has received and entertained the 
members of each pilgrimage since 1924, we have used his private chapel 
for our services, an-i also taken part in the Liturgy at the Greek Church. 


indeed, and a picture but little changed since the boyhood of our 
Lord. I can see them still, as with rapid steps they crossed the 
little piazza looking as if they barely touched the ground, dip- 
ping their jars to the stream as they bent their flexible bodies, 
and then raising the amphoras on to their heads and with quick 
movement passing silently away. I felt that there could be no 
doubt that this spring was flowing nineteen centuries ago, and 
that to it at morning and evening came Mary to draw water 
and with her the Holy Child. 

The basin of the fountain always overflows, and sends out 
streams of water to the gardens close by, giving delightful 
freshness and beauty to the valley. All around were silver olive 
trees, budding vines, fig trees putting forth their leaves, the 
pomegranate with its scarlet blossoms and wild flowers without 
number. . . . Then there came to the fountain a blue-clad 
figure, with bare brown feet, holding a little child by the hand, 
one who might have been Madonna herself. . . . Afterwards, a 
train of camels softly padded their way along the road from 
Galilee, quietly approaching the foimtain. 

I have seen it stated in books that " the people of Nazareth 
are extremely turbulent in disposition " ; perhaps they were in 
the days of perpetual conflict, and in those still more distant days 
when the angry Jews dragged the Son of God all the long way from 
the Synagogue to the Mount of Precipitation, that they might 
cast Him down the precipice. To-day a great peace would seem 
to have descended upon this lovely valley, a peace that could be 
felt in the streets, on the hills, by the fountain, and in the church. 
Although there are Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholics, 
Maronites and Latins, and a small number of Moslems, there is 
no rehgious conflict, for the Holy Places would seem to be divided 
between Orthodox and Latin. 

Nazareth is smaller than Bethlehem, but possesses a greater 
number of orchards, gardens, and cultivated fields. It is built 
on the sides of two hills and therefore all its paths are on the slope ; 
they are very stony, but not so rough as the narrow streets 
of Jerusalem . There was no Oriental bustle in the streets, and 
the bazaars were all roofed in. The people are mostly agricul- 
turists, working hard in the fields and c\iltivating their land with 
great care ; many are also engaged in farming, gardening, and 


cattle-raising. In the town are various occupations — black- 
smiths, weavers, carpenters, and masons, besides workers in the 
cotton and grain trade, but there is no industry whatever for 
the manufacture of objects of "piety," or "souvenirs for 
tourists " so popular in Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and other centres. 
There seemed to be no poverty, and I did not meet one beggar. 
The population of Nazareth is rapidly increasing — about two- 
thirds are Christians, the rest Moslems, for, like Bethlehem, there 
are no Jews. Of the Christians, the Greek Orthodox are in a 
large majority, and there is also a small community of Anglicans. 
On the opposite side of the valley may be seen a chain of hills 
rising some 990 feet above the plains of Esdraelon. One of 
these heights is called in Arabic Djebel el Qafsah, or the " Mount 
of the Precipitation." This mountain has been venerated by 
Christians from early times as the one to which the Jews drove 
our Lord after the incident in the Synagogue to cast Him 
down the precipice. 

And all they in the synagogue, when they heard these things, 
were filled with wrath, and rose up, and thrust Him out 
of the city, and led him unto the brow of the hill whereon 
their city was built, that they might cast Him down head- 

On the right of this mountain is a small hill known as the Monte 
del Tremore, where the Franciscans have built a chapel in the 
midst of cypress trees, for, according to a legend, this was the hill 
to which the Virgin, full of terror at seeing her Son carried off by 
the Jews, came that she might see what they would do to Him. 
It was with much regret that we left Nazareth. The restful 
charm of this village is unequalled elsewhere, and the 
very hills and valleys seem to be saturated with the presence of 
Him Who being but a Carpenter, was yet Messiah. 

^ St. Luke iv, 28, 29, 


(a) From Nazareth to Samaria. 

(6) The AxNXient City of Sichem. 

(c) Over the Hills of Judah to Jerusalem. 




(a) From Nazareth to Samaria 

In the, early hours of a glorious spring morning we left Nazareth 
and drove across the plain of Esdraelon to the station at El 
Afuleh, where the train was reputed to leave at 6 a.m. for Nablus. 
At 4.30 a.m., when we were seated in the wagonette, Nazareth 
was wrapt in sleep, save for a few shepherds tending their flocks. 
The sun rose as we drove along the old caravan road, and we 
began to shiver less. On our left the Mount of Precipitation 
stood out gaunt and sinister, clearly outhned against the sky, 
whilst the mist graduaUy lifted from the surrounding hills. 
Looking back, we could just see Nazareth, attractive in its 
circle of hills, with its red roofs and grey rocks, its grassy slopes 
and grey stone walls. We were in haste to go down to Esdraelon, 
described as " that mighty expanse over which the hills of 
Nazareth, the hills of Galilee, the mountains of Samaria keep 
watch "—Esdraelon that has so many historic associations. 
We passed through the green Wadi el-Emir, and before us lay 
the spacious plain. Heavy mists were beginning to ascend from 
it, giving the valley an appearance of a vast lake, while towards 
the east the sun was rising above Mount Tabor, whose crest 
could be seen through the mists. This great mountain seemed 
to dominate the whole landscape, and its crest and green slopes 
were visible from aU sides. 

Gradually Mount Tabor disentangled itself from the hills 
around and stood right up from the plain, so that we could admire 
the more what is, without doubt, one of the finest " sights " in 
Palestine. Its height is not great— 2,000 feet above sea level, 
which might be called the proper altitude to be in keeping with 
the hills around. Tabor has the honour of special mention 

237 R 


in Scripture : " Tabor and Hermon shall rejoice in Thy Name." 
The Hermon hill mentioned is the " Little Hermon," which 
rises before Tabor, known to the Arabs as Nebi Dahi. In the 
distance we can see at the head of the Jordan Valley the magni- 
ficent Hermon whose majestic and snowcapped summit can be 
seen far and wide over Palestine. At the base of a range of hills 
to the east appeared the village of Nain, that small hamlet 
famous as the scene of the raising of the widow's son. Our 
Lord met the crowd of mourners outside the gate of the city on 
the high road by which he was journeying from Capernaum to 
Nazareth : 

And when the Lord saw her He had compassion on her, and 
said unto her, Weep not. And He came and touched the 
bier. . . . and He said. Young man, I say unto thee, 
Arise. And he that was dead sat up. * 

To-day Nain is but a collection of clay huts and Bedouin 
tents, together with some ancient ruins and a small modem 
Latin chapel in the midst of a Moslem population. Four miles 
to the east of Nain is the village of Endur, the ancient Endor, 
a town of Manasseh, where the spirit of Samuel appeared to Saul 
on the eve of the disastrous battle of Gilboa, and solemnly told 
him of the doom which was so soon to overtake him. 

Then said Saul unto his servants, Seek me a woman that 
hath a familiar spirit, that I may go to her, and enquire of 
her. And his servants said to him, Lo, there is a woman 
that hath a familiar spirit at Endor.* 

Endur is the most wretched of poverty-stricken villages ; 
mud huts and rock caves serve as dwelling-places for inhabitants 
described by one who visited them as " miserable, dark, hag-hke 
beings, who, for ought we know, may still traffic in unhallowed 
arts : for the necromancy of old times would seem to have left 
an enduring brand of bhght and blackness upon the place." ^ 

Before us rose the hill of Tell el Mutesallim, on which the 
village of El Lej jun stood out prominently, this being the " Legio " 
from which the word ' ' legions ' ' is said to be derived . It was also 

^ St. Luke vii. 13-15. ^ i Samuel xxviii. 7. 

*Over the Holy Land. J. A. Wylie. 


called Megiddo, a name supposed by some to be the origin of the 
word " Armageddon." El Lejjun was strongly fortified in turn 
by Egyptians, Canaanites, and Israelites ; the surrounding plain 
was named after it, while the Kishon was known as the " waters 
of Megiddo."^ It was close to Megiddo that Deborah and 
Barak defeated the Canaanites, and it was here also that Josiah 
attacked the Egyptian armies.'^ We were now in the midst of 
the great plain, the sun had risen, and objects in the valley 
and on the hills around had become clear to the naked eye. 
This plain, which is some 200 feet above sea level, is known to the 
Arabs as Merj ibn 'Amir (" Meadow of the son of Amir "), and 
embraces the whole of the valley to the west of Gilboa, that 
mountam made famous by the plaint of David after the death of 
Saul : 

Ye mountains of Gilboa, let there be no dew, neither let 
there be rain upon you, nor fields of offerings : for there 
the shield of the mighty is vilely cast away, the shield of 
Saul, as though he had not been anointed with oil.' 

It was along this plain that Ahab rode in his chariot aU the 
way to Jezreel, Elijah with his loins girded running before him, 
and the storm darkening behind him, after the famous contest 
with the prophets of Baal on Mount Carmel. It must have been 
a weary distance for the prophet, all the way from Mount Carmel, 
especially after such a terrible day, but the story tells us " that 
the hand of the Lord was with him " ; and moreover, he must have 
been much refreshed and cheered not only by the great victory 
of Mount Carmel, but also because the drought of three and a half 
years was over, and the heavens opened to pour out their rains. 

The plain struck us as being very fertile ; the greater part 
of it was under cultivation, covered with crops of rather thin 
wheat but healthy-looking sesame, lentils, beans, wild grass 
and thistles, while here and there were flocks of black goats and 
speckled sheep browsing on its luxuriant pastures. We saw 
quite a quantity of cranes and storks, and our driver informed 
us that gazelles were often to be found here. The plain is 
drained by the famous " brook " Kishon, a river that in its turn 

* Judges V. 19. * II Kings xxiii. 29. 

' II Samuel i. 21. 


is fed by the springs of Tabor and rivoilets of the plain, called 
anciently the " river of battles," finding its outlet ultimately in 
the Mediterranean. 

From El-Afuleh we took the little mountain train, reminiscent 
of a Swiss railway, to Nablus. We passed Jenin which, being 
interpreted, means " Spring of Gardens," a town of some 3,000 
inhabitants, a charming and picturesque Uttle place with tall 
and stately palms growing in fertile gardens. After a while we 
arrived at Sebastieh, situated on an isolated terraced hill, now 
a modem Arab village with a collection of magnificent ruins. 

Sebastieh is the ancient Samaria, which in the days of Judas 
Maccabaeus gave home to a great portion of the population of 
central Palestine. The ruins here have an interesting story to 
tell. Jeroboam transferred his royal residence from Sichem, the 
present Nablus, to Thirza, the modem Talouza, about five and a 
half miles east of Sebastieh. Later, Ahab, the son of Omri, 
married Jezebel, daughter of the King of Sidon, and introduced 
into Samaria the worship of Baal. When Samaria was captured, 
Ahab's family was exterminated and the priests of Baal put to 
death. Here the prophets Ehjah and Elisha lived from time to 
time, and hither came Naaman, all the way from Damascus, 
to be cured of his leprosy. Just before the birth of our Lord 
Augustus bestowed it on Herod the Great, who enlarged it, 
making it really beautiful, and called it Sebaste, the Greek 
equivalent to Augustus. Sebaste was the scene of the exploits of 
Simon Magus, and it was here that Philip the deacon first met 
him. The prophets speak of the " fat valleys of them that are 
overcome with wine " and Samaria they style " the glorious 
beauty which is on the head of the fat valley." The inhabitants 
in the days of Ahab seem to have divided their time between 
drunkenness and the worship of Baal, and this fair city, cradled 
in such perfect scenery, so much so that Isaiah compared the 
summit of its hill to a diadem,^ was simply a nest of profligates. 

And now there is only a collection of ruins and mud to 
represent the ancient capital of the ten tribes. 

We visited the Church of St. John, built by the Cmsaders 
in the twelfth century. According to tradition, St. John the 

* Isaiah xxviii. 5. 



Baptist was buried here, and his tomb is shown in the crypt 
of the Church. The vaulting of the Church has entirely dis- 
appeared, and only a few columns remain in the open court. On 
the top of the hill once stood the Temple of Baal, which Jehu 
' utterly broke down," and this site is marked by sixteen great 
columns. The broad terrace on which the colonnade of Herod 
stood must have been magnificent ; of it about a hundred mono- 
liths remain. Colonnades, pillars, monohths, stones, debris of 
all kinds peep through the greensward ; records of the vicissi- 
tudes of the past, its splendours, its opulence, and its vices, 
together with its miseries, its wars, and its final destruction. 

At Sebastieh we joined the great caravan road from Egypt to 
Damascus, the countryside smiling radiantly in its fresh green 
clothing, reminding us of the plains of Tuscany on a fair spring 
morning, with their smiling welcome as one drives from Perugia 
to Assisi. As we approached Nablus the valley widened, its 
fertility and beauty giving it the appearance of one vast garden. 
To the North rises Mount Ebal, the Hill of Cursing, with 
Mount Gerizim, the Hill of Blessing to the South, with numerous 
villages on its flanks, surrounded by orchards of olives and figs, 
gardens of vegetables, and fields of com. We passed women and 
girls with baskets of vegetables on their heads on their way to 
the market in Nablus ; there seemed to be himdreds of them, all 
looking bright and happy, which on that glorious and fertile 
countryside, with the sun shining so joyously, was hardly to be 
wondered at. Thus we entered the ancient city of Sichem. 

(b) Nablus, the Ancient City of Sichem 

The name of Nablus, or Nabulus, is said to be a corrup- 
tion of Neapolis, the city having changed its Semitic name for a 
later one of Roman origin. The town of Nablus corresponds 
to the Jewish city of Sichem, or Shechem, though the present 
town occupies a position somewhat west of the ancient city. 
The old town is quite distinct from the modem, which is like a 
European suburb, with its clean white houses and pleasant 
gardens, whereas the ancient city lies within great walls and is 
entered only through a massive gate which has withstood the 


ravages of time. Outside this gate and under a vaulted arch- 
way we found our hotel/ the only one in Nablus, which had 
evidently been an episcopal palace in days long passed. 

Nablus to-day has a population of about 28,000 inhabitants, 
mostly Moslems ; the majority of the Christians belong to the 
Greek Orthodox religion. There are some Latins and also a 
few Greek Uniats. The main interest of Nablus lies in the people 
themselves, the Samaritans, whose race has been preserved in the 
ancient valley for so many hundreds of years. Now they number 
about one hundred and seventy souls, but they are as distinct as 
ever from all around them, distinct in blood, tradition, rite and 
faith — in fact they are a veritable remnant of an old world five 
centuries before Christ. To-day we find this tiny band carrying 
on their old customs and practices, and, above all, we see them 
assembhng year by year on the summit of Mount Gerizim to keep 
the Passover, which they celebrate in the twentieth century as 
they celebrated it centuries and centuries ago. Clinging to the 
great promise and hope of their ancestors, they still look for a 

The history of Sichem is naturally interesting. • It originally 
formed part of the inheritance of Ephraim and the descendants 
of Joseph, and was made a city of refuge. At Solomon's death, 
Israel assembled at Sichem and offered Rehoboam the inheritance, 
but the behaviour of the latter so incensed the people that they 
gave the crown to Jeroboam the Ephramite instead. He pro- 
ceeded to enlarge and fortify Sichem, making it his capital, but 
later on removed the royal residence to Thirza, where it remained 
for fifty years, when Samaria became the capital of the Northern 
Kingdom. When Assyria had conquered Samaria, and the 
inhabitants of Ephraim had been led into captivity and their 
places filled by Pagan colonists, then Sichem regained its 
former rank. These colonists seem to have been initiated into 
the Mosaic law, though it would appear that they did not alto- 
gether abandon Paganism ; therefore the Jews of Jerusalem 
refused to acknowledge them as orthodox, and called them Samari- 
tans. In revenge the Samaritan leader, Sanballat,'^ instituted a 

^ The hotel has been rebuilt and is now quite tolerable (1926). 
• Nehemiah ii. 10. 


rival priesthood, and later a rival temple was built on Mount 
Gerizim, and from that period Sichem became the capital of the 

The city would seem to have suffered greatly at the hands of 
the Romans after the fall of Jerusalem. Their temple was 
destroyed, the town pillaged, and a new city built in honour of 
Flavins. Vespasian, called " Flavia Neapolis " ; later Hadrian 
erected a temple to Jupiter on Moimt Gerizim. Neapolis in the 
fifth century became the seat of a Christian bishopric, but the 
Christians suffered so much persecution at the hands of the 
Samaritans that in 529 Justinian closed the synagogues, and 
many Samaritans took refuge in Persia. Others became Chris- 
tians, and only a few remained steadfast in their hereditary 
faith. In the twelfth century Samaritans were still found to the 
number of about a thousand in Palestine, a hundred at Nablus, 
three himdred at Ascalon, two hundred at Cesarea, and a few 
hundred at Damascus. Nablus was captured by the Crusaders 
under Tancred, and Baldwin II. held a great Diet here. What 
became of those scattered Samaritans nobody can tell ; some prob- 
ably joined the orthodox Jews, others became Christians, while 
a few may have submitted to Islam, but what is quite certain is 
that through all the ages a number of Samaritans have dwelt 
at Nablus, preserved their faith, and have never been completely 
wiped out. To-day they still offer the sacrifice of six white 
lambs at the Passover on Mount Gerizim, and a pilgrimage to 
that mountain is also made at the Feast of Weeks and the Feast 
of Tabernacles. 

Their morals are somewhat curious ; bigamy is permitted, 
or at least tolerated, if a wife is childless, and at the death of 
a husband some near relative is expected to marry the widow. 
It is common also for old men to marry girls who are little more 
than children ; they also intermarry, and men are greatly 
in excess of the women. To-day the Samaritans dwell in the 
south-west portion of the town, holding themselves apart from 
the rest of the population ; their little synagogue is but a small 
white-washed room in a gloomy court, but here they stiU pre- 
serve the Samaritan Codex of the Pentateuch, one of the oldest 
manuscripts in the world. The Pentateuch, together with the 
Book of Joshua, are the only books of Scripture accepted by the 


Samaritans. They wear a habit quite distinct from that affected 
by the ordinary Jew : the high priest dresses in a dark red or 
brown gown and wears a red turban, while the others wear black 
gowns, with their turbans made of blue and white material. 

A few days later, after my return to Jerusalem, I was invited 
to revisit Nablus and witness the celebration of Passover on 
Mount Gerizim by the Samaritans. Regretfully I was obliged 
to refuse, but a friend of mine who was present sent me this 
account : "At sunset we climbed the arduous approach of Mount 
Gerizim. A great crowd of people from Nablus surrounded the 
trench where the priests were about to slaughter six lambs, one 
for each of the families into which the Samaritans are distri- 
buted, and the priests accompanied this slaughtering with recita- 
tions from the twelfth chapter of Exodus. Next, the lambs 
were placed upon the earth close to a glowing oven ; they were 
shorn and skinned, after which each was tied to a stake and 
placed inside the oven. The aperture of the oven was then 
covered with a kind of lid, which in its turn was covered with 
clay, after the manner in which Jews prepare the sabbath stove 
on the eve of the day of rest, so that no trace of fire or lambs 
was visible. 

" Most of them then dispersed to their tents, where their 
wives awaited them ; others placed themselves round a blazing 
fire, while the priests and old men, clad in white vestments, 
read aloud in the open air extracts from the Book of Exodus. 
Finally, an hour before midnight, the priests gave a signal 
and the Samaritans, even the girls, rushed towards the oven ; 
they removed the earth and the lid, and by the light of the flames 
which shot up, the six lambs were taken out and carried off 
triumphantly by the six heads of families. Each family then 
fell to, all standing, and the pieces of meat, seasoned with bitter 
herbs, were quickly devoured with unleavened bread. Then 
followed the sound of chants and recitations increasingly boister- 
ous, for the Samaritans make this a night of watches ; and so 
they continued until the grey dawn, and in the cold fresh air 
of the morning we descended the slopes of this hill of blessing 
completely tired out, but glad indeed to have been present at 
this feast, which preserves the patriarchal and honoured stamp 
of its origin in the wilderness, and gives an exact idea of what 


the Paschal Sacrifice was hke in Jerusalem before the coming of 
the Pharisees. The rites are minutely described in the Book of 
Exodus and are still fulfilled punctiliously by the Samaritans." 

The Jews regarded the name of Samaritan as a term of 
reproach, and as such it was intended when they shouted, 
" Say we not well that Thou art a Samaritan, and has a devil ? " ^ 
On another occasion the Samaritans would not allow our Lord 
to pass through their city, and James and John begged Him to 
destroy it by fire. 

The bazaars of the old town presented a busy aspect of bustle ; 
food seemed to be very plentiful, and business thriving. In the 
early morning I passed through the streets ; the people were 
marketing, and every shop in the bazaar was open though it was 
barely seven o'clock. The streets of the bazaars are wider and 
very much cleaner than those in Jerusalem, and sparkling rivulets 
coursed through them. Some of the streets are covered with 
tarpatdin, others had vaulted roofs, while some again are exposed 
to the sky. The bazaars have no special attraction for visitors ; 
there were no tourist commodities, not even picture postcards. 
The chief manufactures are wool, cotton, and soap ; of the last 
there are fifteen manufacturers, and it is made chiefly from olive 
oil. The wheat grown in the 'surrounding districts is said to 
be excellent, and I noticed that many shops were engaged in 
wheat -sifting. There is no building of particular interest 
except the " Great Mosque " of Jami el-Kebir in the eastern 
part of the town ; this was originally a Basilica built by Justinian 
and restored by the Cations of the Holy Sepulchre in the 12th 
century. The east portal is well preserved and resembles 
that of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Another mosque, 
the Jimi el-Khadr&, or " Mosque of Heaven," is said to stand on 
the spot where Joseph's coat was brought to Jacob by his 
brethren, and in the north-east comer of the town is the Jami 
el-Masa Kin, the Mosque of the Lepers, erected as a church by 
the Crusaders.' 

' St. John viii. 48. 

• The town of Nablus was much injured during the earthquake of July 
^927 ; 75 people were killed and over 250 badly wounded, while most of 
the houses have since been condemned as unsafe. 

(c) Over the Hills of Judah 

The road from Nablus to Jerusalem is excellent, one of the 
best in Palestine. The country looked green and fertile, wild 
flowers in great abundance, the white houses peeping out among 
the trees on the slopes of Gerizim I We passed through a 
graveyard where the Moslem dead were sleeping, each under a 
long low mound of stone and plaster. Then through vast olive- 
yards, where we saw venerable trees with massive trunks and 
gnarled and twisted boughs ; orchards of figs, vines, plums, 
oranges, lemons and pomegranates, together with the stately 
terebinth, and everj^where the sparkle of water and the rush of 
torrents. And so on through the green and shady valley until 
we arrived at Jacob's Well, the scene of the great proclamation 
that no longer would spiritual privileges be restricted to one 
favoured nation or country, but that their blessings would be 
distributed among all mankind. 

The hour cometh when ye shall neither in this mountain 
[Gerizim], nor yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father. * 

Jacob's Well is regarded as one of the best authenticated 

Holy Places in all Palestine, and. there is little if any doubt 

that Jesus Christ really did sit by this particular well and did 

say those wonderful words to that woman. I remember a 

comment that was made on this great saying : " Words that 

have driven strong men into the cloister, and drawn young girls 

from the dawning pleasures of hfe to the silence behind the 


God is a Spirit : and they that worship Him must worship 
Him in spirit and in truth. 

Sychar, the village from which the Woman of Samaria came, 
probably corresponds to the village of 'Askar, or Aschar, close to 
which is Joseph's Tomb. 

It was close to this spot that Abraham first fixed his tent, and 
here God promised to give the land to his posterity : 

And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Sichem, 
unto the plain of Moreh. And the Canaanite was then in 
the land. And the Lord appeared unto Abram, and said, 
Unto thy seed will I give this land.* 

^ St. John iv. 21. ? Genesis xii. 6-7. 



Years afterwards, Jacob returned from Mesopotamia with his 
family and flocks, and stopping in the land of Sichem, dug the 
well which bears his name. Just before his death Joseph prophe- 
sied the conquest of Canaan by the Israelites, and made his 
brethren promise to carry his remains and bury them in his land 
at Sichem. 

Jacob's Well lies in the crypt of a Crusaders' chapel built on 
the ruins of a church of the fourth century . The Orthodox Greeks, 
to whom the holy place belongs, began some years ago to erect a 
basihca over the Well. The building has not progressed since 
1912, and funds are badly needed for its completion. The actual 
depth of the well is ninety-six feet, and yet it is not infrequently 
dry in the summer. On the high road above Jacob's Well are 
the ruins of a Khan, evidently a favourite spot for native men 
and women to congregate and talk, as they did in the days of 
our Lord. About half a mile to the north is the Tomb of Joseph, 
in shape like a Moslem well. Inside we found an inscription 
stating that the tomb was restored in i860 by a British consiil. 
It is generally agreed that here lay the parcel of ground pur- 
chased by Jacob, in which place the Irsaelites buried Joseph, 
and to this day the spot is venerated as holy ground : 

And the bones of Joseph, which the children of Israel brought 
up out of Egypt, buried they in Shechem, in a parcel of 
ground which Jacob bought . . . and it became the 
inheritance of the children of Joseph. * 

Further on we passed the village of Hawara on the right at the 
foot of Mount Gerizim, then through the plain of ' Askar we 
ascended to the top of the hill and obtained a splendid view of the 
plain, framed by the mountains of Samaria, with Ebal and Gerizim 
in the distance, while far away to the north appeared the great 
Hermon. Then through the valley of El-Lubban, the ancient 
Lebonah, the valley whose rich pastures had attracted the herds- 
men of Abraham and Jacob, we ascended to the Khan el-Lubban, 
with its fountains of water, where camels and flocks were 
' watered ' in the days of the patriarchs, and where cars stop to- 
day for much the same purpose ! After a long descent, we went 
through the Wadi Bakara, with its splendid olive groves ; and 

* Joshua xxiv. 32. 


then Samaria was completely shut off, and we passed over hill 
and dale through the hill country of Judah, until we arrived at 
'Ain el-Haramiyeh (The Robbers' Well), with its refreshing 
spring, where the water was trickling down the base of the cliff. 
Then our road lay through a ravine, with yawning recesses, 
tombs, caverns, and ruins, where many of the contemporaries 
of Joshua must have slept, as also many of those who succeeded 
him. To-day they are inhabited by great birds of prey, which 
fly in and out in search of what they can devour. How the 
scenery changed ! From this rockbound desolation we passed 
along some miles of flat tableland until we reached Ramallah, 
on the top of the hill, a large Christian village with American 
mission stations and Quaker schools. 

This seemed to be a flourishing district ; houses were being 
built, the land was cultivated, and the fields enclosed between 
stone walls. On the right we could see En-Nebi Samwil, said 
by some authorities to be the ancient Mizpeh of Benjamin, 
standing on a solitary mountain peak four hundred feet above 
the plain of Gibeon and three thousand feet above sea level. 
On it, crowning the hill, once stood a mosque with a white 
minaret, landmark for the whole countryside. The minaret 
was destroyed by the Turks during the late war, but the mosque 
remains, and inside, according to tradition, is the Tomb of 
Samuel. This is one of the highest points in Palestine and 
commands one of the finest panoramas in the land. Tens of 
thousands of pilgrims gazing upon Jerusalem for the first time 
from this hill have thrown themselves on the groimd, praying and 
weeping in ecstasy. 

Not only Richard Coeur de Lion, but every Crusader on 
getting his first glimpse of the Holy City is said to have fallen on 
his knees and cried aloud with joy. Centuries later, in 1917, 
London Territorials stormed En-Nebi Samwil, from whose 
heights they looked down on Mount Olivet and Jerusalem, the 
Crusaders of to-day come at last to rescue the Holy Places 
from the hands of the Turks. Through bleak and stony land we 
ascended Mount Scopus, and arriving at the top we obtained 
the most imposing view of the city : from the Mount of OUvea 
it is huddled together, and the best effect is lost, while from 
Mount Scopus one obtains a real panorama of it as it is seen 


stretching out to the west in a long line, with its domes and its 
towers at intervals. It was here that Titus beheld Jerusalem 
before the commencement of the siege. 

It is of interest to recall that the pilgrims of olden times would 
arrive by the Mount of Olives and leave Jerusalem by Mount 
Scopus, thus ensuring that their last view of the city should be 
their best. On arrival, pilgrims would sing Psalm cxxii : 

I was glad when they said unto me : We will go into the House 
of the Lord. Our feet shall stand in thy gates, O Jeru- 
salem. . . . O pray for the peace of Jerusalem ; they shall 
prosper that love thee. Peace be within thy walls, and 
plenteousness within thy palaces. 

And on departing, when they reached the top of Mount Scopus, 
they would turn round and take a last look at Jerusalem and 
sing from Psalm cxxxvii : 

If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her 
cunning. If I do not remember thee, let my tongue cleave 
to the roof of my mouth ; yea, if I prefer not Jerusalem 
in my mirth. 





The first time I visited Bethlehem was on a cold and gusty 
morning in March. Climbing the hill beyond the Sultan's Pool 
(Birket es Sultan) one passes close to the " German colony of 
the Temple " called the " Rephaim " from its proximity to the 
plain of that name. The valley of Rephaim is mentioned as a 
point on the boimdary-line between Judah and Benjamin, 
where the Philistines were defeated by David. 

He stood in the midst of the ground, and defended it, and 
slew the Philistines : and the Lord wrought a great victory. 
. . . The troop of the Philistines were in the valley of 

To the left of the road about a mile further on is a cistern, called 
by tradition the " Well of the Magi." It is said that the Wise Men, 
after leaving Herod, not knowing where to go, rested here until 
they saw the reflection of the star in the well, when, following it, 
they came to the place where the young Child lay. According 
to tradition, this well never dries up, because it once supplied 
water to these weary traveUers on their way to seek a King. 
Here, it is said, also, that the Blessed Virgin rested on her way 
to Bethlehem. 

On the summit of the hill, some three miles from Jerusalem, 
stands the Greek monastery of Mar Elyas, which owes its name 
to its patron, a Greek Bishop of imknown date. There is no 
authority for connecting the convent with the name of the 
prophet Elijah, although there is a legend that he rested near this 
spot when escaping from Jezebel. From this point the view is 
splendid, and on a clear day the Dead Sea and the Mountains of 
Moab are plainly visible, while to the south lies Bethlehem, some 

* II Samuel xxiii. 12, 13. 

27J S 


five miles from Jerusalem. The road then descends, and passes 
on the right a chapel and hospital called Tantur, supported by the 
Latin Knights of St. John of Malta. Further on we come to 
Rachel's tomb surmounted by a dome resembling a Moslem well, 
and the tomb itself has been an object of veneration to the Jews 
for over three thousand years. The Crusaders erected over this 
monument a little building some twenty-four feet square, formed 
by four columns bound each to each by pointed arches twelve 
feet wide and twenty feet high, the whole crowned by a cupola* 
The Mohammedans in the sixteenth century destroyed a portion 
of this building, and, instead of a pyramid, built a stone ceno- 
taph. In 1841 Montefiore obtained for the Jews the key of the 
Tomb, and to concihate Moslem susceptibility, added a square 
vestibule with a mihrah as a place of prayer for Moslems. 

And as for me, when I came from Padan, Rachel died by me 
in the land of Canaan in the way, when yet there was but a 
little waj' to come into Ephrath : and I buried her there in 
the way of Ephrath ; the same is Bethlehem.^ 

Beyond the Tomb of Rachel the road divides into three 
branches : the central leads to Hebron, the right to Beit Jala, 
while the road to the left bends round the fertile vaUey above 
which rises Bethlehem. 

As we made the circle along the road to Bethlehem the views 
were fascinating, and we could picture the old town as it was in 
the time of our Lord. It crowns the top of two hills, and this 
renders a complete view somewhat difficult. The mass of buildings 
that are grouped round the principal Sanctuary, the Church of 
the Nativity, namely the Greek, Latin and Armenian Convents, 
are seen very clearly at the south-east of the village, while a 
slender and graceful minaret indicates the position of the only 
mosque in the district. 

Bethlehem lies on a limestone hill, out of which terraces are 
cut and planted with olive trees, fig and other fruit trees and vines- 
From here the grey town looks prosperous and important, in 
spite of its background of bare hills and the stony comitry in 
which it lies. It is 2,361 feet above sea level, and commands the 
view of a wide stretch of country in aU directions. Until the 

* Genesis xlviii. 7. 

lU Orotco of tRe Nadruvitv' , Bet^iunv 

[To face page 274. 

" AND THOU, BETHLEHEM . . ." 275 

fifteenth century Bethlehem was hke Jerusalem, surrounded by a 
wall and fortified by two towers, one at the top of the hill to the 
west and the other close by the Basilica. These towers were 
destroyed by order of the Sultan and the walls demolished in 

The country round Bethlehem is very fertile, although there 
is much stony ground. Passing by some fields I recalled the 
parable, " A sower went forth to sow his seed," for there was a 
man scattering grain from his hand on to the newly-ploughed 
earth, while all around the land was cumbered with stones. 
" Lilies of the field " were growing by the roadside, together with 
scarlet anemone, cyclamen, clover, and brilUant poppies. 

Bethlehem, which signifies " House of Bread " or "House of 
Food," Arabic Beit-Lahm, has existed without change for thous- 
ands of years. The first mention of this town is found in Genesis 
in connection with the death of Rachel. In the Book of Judges 
it is called Bethlehem of Judah, while Micah gives it the title 
of Bethlehem-Ephratah. It was th.e scene of the beautiful idyll 
of the Book of Ruth, and is especially famous as the home of 
the family of David. It is claimed for Bethlehem that her church 
is the oldest monument of Christian architecture in the world, 
for the Basilica erected here by Constantine dates from 330. 

After treading the paths along which the Magi rode out from 
Jerusalem with their retinue on that first Epiphany, I found 
myself in the narrow and crooked streets of Bethlehem. The 
workers in the village are industrious and skilful, and in the 
bazaar are employed many men and women who make crosses, 
rosaries and the like in olive wood, mother-of-pearl, and bitumen 
from the Dead Sea. The trinkets they manufacture, some of 
which are charming, find their way even to the markets 
of London. This is the main industry of Bethlehem, and is very 
lucrative ; but the people also use amber, and the stones of olives 
and other fruit, which they make into necklaces. The streets 
are clean and the houses tidy ; the girls and women have bright, 
clear complexions, carry themselves admirably, and I noticed 
several Madonna-like faces among them. Graceful and pictur- 
esque they looked in their long straight dresses of dark red, 
bordered with flowers, and adorned with Arabic figures worked 
in silk, in colours of good taste. The married women wear a 


coif, a stiff white veil fastened above the head and falling below 
the neck, which gives them an appearance reminiscent of the 
times of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. The girls wear a ribbon 
in their hair, over which is draped a large white cotton veil, the 
border of which is richly worked in red and blue worsted. From 
the main street I passed into the Market Place, full of animation 
and colour, and then found myself before the paved court leading 
to the Basilica. This court is the Atrium of Constantine's 
Church, from which three doors led into the Basilica ; of these, 
two have been closed, while the remaining one was reduced to 
very small dimensions in the seventeenth century to prevent 
surprise attacks from the Moslems. 

The entrance was guarded by British soldiers, one of whom 
kept perpetual guard over the Grotto of the Nativity. 

To right and left the court is flanked by the Armenian and 
Franciscan Convents respectively, while behind the Basilica 
stands the great Convent of the Orthodox Greek Church. On 
the occasion of my first visit I brought an introduction to the 
Superior of the Franciscan Convent, and on my second I had a 
Greek Archimandrite for companion and enjoyed the hospitality 
of the Greek Convent. 

The Franciscan quarters are like a little piece of Umbria, 
behind their convent is a picturesque garden with groves of 
oranges and lemons, brilliant in the sunshine after the heavy rain. 

The view from the windows of the Monastery is altogether 
beautiful. One can see the Field of the Shepherds and beyond it, 
bathed in azure blue, lay the Mountains of Moab, from whence 
Ruth came with the desolate Naomi into the harvest fields, later 
becoming the wife of Boaz, the ancestor of the kings of Judah 
and therefore of the Saviour of the world. 

The past all seemed very real, and the more so perhaps 
because Bethlehem retains its Eastern character. Such houses 
as are modern are built in Oriental fashion, and red- tiled roofs, 
those eyesores of modem Jerusalem, are absent. Ever)^where, 
too, there are grottoes, in which people lived centuries ago, and 
some are occupied to this day. 

The Greeks and the Latins have each their separate way of 
descent to the Grotto of the Nativity. Coming from the Fran- 
ciscan convent one passes through the somewhat iminteresting 

"AND THOU, BETHLEHEM . . ." 277 

Church of St. Catherine built in the 18th century, and then 
descends, by the hght of a small taper, about a dozen steps cut 
out of the rock, and, walking along a dark subterranean passage, 
arrives at the Cave of the Nativity. 

This cave is a natural grotto cut in the rock and covered in 
by artificial vaulting. The principal altar in the grotto is erected 
here, and can only be used by the Greeks and Armenians. Be- 
neath this altar the famous Silver Star, marking the spot 
where Christ was born, is let into the ground. Around it the 
solemn words are inscribed : 

Hic De Virgine Maria Jesus Christus Natus Est 

This Star belongs to the Latins, and above it hang fifteen silver 
lamps, perpetually burning ; six belong to the Greeks, four to the 
Latins, and five to the Armenians. It was this Star that caused 
so much trouble in the fifties, the quarrel leading, it is said, to 
the Crimean War. The Star disapf)eared in 1847, and only after 
five years' negotiations between the French Embassy and the 
Sublime Porte was it restored and refixed in its place in 1852. 

Here we stand in front of one of the most sacred places in the 
world. Church after church has been built above this sacred 
spot, destroyed and rebuilt, but the venerable rocks have with- 
stood the onslaughts of time as they have of man. Here the 
Prince of Peace was born : here the shepherds and Wise Men 
knelt and adored, here also in all ages countless pilgrims from 
every part of the world have come to worship. Thousands 
have seen " His Star in the East " and have gone to their distant 
homes carrying with them a faith which burns more brightly 
than the lamps hanging over the holy place. 

On one of my visits a little band of children came into the 
grotto by themselves. They walked up to the Star, knelt and 
kissed it, and then stood quite silently gazing intently at it. I 
then realised more clearly than before why Christmas would 
always remain the children's festival. The divisions among 
the Christians here, as in Jerusalem, are indeed pitiable, but it 
is impossible to think about them when kneeling by that Star, 
for it points ever onward " to that far-off Divine event to which 
the whole creation moves." 


Opposite the recess of the Nativity three steps lead to the 
Chapel of the Manger, which marks the spot where Christ was 
laid after His birth . It is said that the actual manger was taken to 
the Church of St*. Maria Maggiore in Rome in the eighth century. 
This, and the contiguous chapels, belong exclusively to the 
Latins. The Chapel of the Magi marks the spot where the Wise 
Men presented their gifts, but there is^some difference of opinion 
on this point even among the Latins themselves. The Francis- 
cans aver that the Virgin and St. Joseph continued to dwell in 
the grotto, and that the Magi visited them there. On the other 
hand, some authorities contend that "by this time St. Joseph 
had found a house, and to this house the Star led the Magi." ^ 
The evangelist, writing of the Magi, says, "when they were come 
into the house." The Franciscans say that ' house ' in the East 
signifies any habitation where people dwell, and grottoes were the 
houses of many folk in those days. In any case, it is not a matter 
of much importance. 

The romantic story of the kings of whose visit St. Matthew 
gives such a very brief account, has exercised extraordinary 
fascination over countless generations, and their memory is year 
by year kept green on the Feast of the Epiphany. The Greek 
Church never tires of singing their praises, and to it the Feast 
of the Epiphany is as important as that of Christmas. The 
Magi are revered alike by children who love the romance of 
their story and those other and grown-up children who realise 
the mystic meaning of that meeting between the great ones of 
the earth and the Divine Child straight from Heaven, together 
with the deep significance of the gifts — ^gold, frankincense, and 
myrrh — prophetic of a glory not of this world. 

Near to the Chapel of the Magi is the Chapel of St. Joseph, 
the traditional spot where, while sleeping, he received the warn- 
ing of the approaching massacre. This chapel is connected with 
a larger grotto having an altar dedicated to the Holy Innocents. 
Behind this altar is a cave, which is opened once a year on their 
Feast. As early as the tifth century mention is made of the 
fact that the relics of the children massacred by Herod were 
kept in this cave. 

* La Palestine, by the Professors of Xotre Dame de France. 

"AND THOU, BETHLEHEM . . ." 279 

Close to the altar of the Holy Innocents the Chapel of St. 
Jerome is situated. It is well known that the saint spent many 
years in Bethlehem translating the Holy Scriptures . He fervently 
believed that the grotto was the birthplace of the Saviour, and 
his chapel is the actual cell where he spent the greater part of his 
life. " In all probability in this cell lived and died the most 
illustrious of all the pilgrims attracted to the cave of Bethlehem, 
the only one of the many hermits and monks from the time of 
Constantine to the present day whose name has travelled beyond 
the limits of the Holy Land. Here for more than thirty years, 
beside what he believed to be literally the cradle of the Christian 
faith, St. Jerome fasted, prayed, and studied."^ 

Close to the cell of St. Jerome is the tomb of St. Eusebius, 
whose disciple he was, as well as his successor at the monastery 
of Bethlehem. A little further away there are two more tombs, 
one of St. Jerome himself and the other of St. Paula and her 
daughter St. Eustochia. St. Jerome writes: "St. Paula was 
buried under the church, near the Grotto of the Saviour." He 
himself composed her epitaph, for she was his chief disciple : 

Aspicis angustum prasisa in rupe sepulchrum 
Hospitium Paul* est caclestia regna tenentis ; 

which may be translated thus : 

This narrow tomb that you see cut out of the rock is the 
dwelling-place of Paula, who now lives in celestial kingdoms. 

The tombs are empty, the relics of St. Jerome having been carried 
away to the Church of St'. Maria Maggiore in Rome. 

Ascending the stairs from the Grotto one passes the Ikonastasis 
and so into the stately Basilica. Here on Christmas Day iioo, 
after hearing Mass in the Grotto of the Nativity, Baldwin I. 
was crowned first Latin King of Jerusalem. Looking up the 
nave, I rejoiced to see that the waU, which once separated the 
Greek Catholikon from the rest of the Church, had been com- 
pletely demolished. This wall was erected by the Greeks in 
1842, dividing the apse from the nave, with the result that the 
latter was completely cut off from the rest of the church which 

* Sinai and Palestine. Dean Stanley. 


became the public haunt for loafers and pedlars. This distressing 
state of affairs came to an end when the wall was removed in 
1918 through the instrumentality of the Governor^ of Jerusalem. 
On the right of the entrance stands a fine octagonal font, cut 
out of a single block of red stone, said to date from the sixth 
century with this pleasing inscription : 

" For the memory, repose, and forgiveness of sinners, of 
whom the Lord knows the names." 

Under the rule of Amaury L,^ fourth Latin King of Jerusalem, 
the inside walls of the Basilica were covered with mosaics, the 
effect of which can be imagined from the fragments which remain. 
These were added at the time when, through the influence of 
the Byzantine Emperor, Manuel Comnenus, the church imder- 
went complete renovation. In the transcept, choir, and grotto 
the mosaics represented scenes from the Bible, but of these there 
remain but three mutilated pictures — the Triumphal Entry on 
Palm Sunday, the Doubting of St. Thomas, and our Lord's 
Ascension. Round the apse of the choir may still be seen an 
inscription of five lines in Greek and Latin, of which these v/ords 
only are legible : 

The present work was finished by the hand of Ephraim, 
painter and mosaicist, under the rule of the Emperor 
Comnenus and in the time of the King of Jerusalem, the 
Lord Raval, in the year 6677 (1169 a.d.). 

The Greek monk Phocas, writing about the year 1185, says 
that out of gratitude for the services rendered to religion by the 
Greek Emperor Comnenus, the " Latin Bishop had his picture 
placed in various parts of the church . " It would seem that about 
this date an alliance was entered into between the courts of 
Jerusalem and Constantinople with a view to bringing about 
religious imity. Unhappily, however, circumstances arose which 
prevented this attempt at imity from bearing fruit. 

In the fifteenth century Edward IV. of England presented the 
lead for the restoration of the roof, and Phihp of Burgundy gave 
the pinewood. Towards the end of the seventeenth century the 

1 Sir Ronald Storrs. « 1163-1173. 

" AND THOU, BETHLEHEM . . ." 281 

Turks stripped the roof of its lead to make bullets. When the 
church was restored in 1672 the Greeks managed to obtain pos- 
session of the church, the Latins having no right to use it until 
Napoleon IIL intervened on their behalf in 1852. For the sake 
of peace no ceremonies are performed in the great nave by any 
of the three confessions. 

From the Church of the Nativity a short walk brings one to the 
"Grotto of Milk," a picturesque cave of irregular formation. 
According to a very old tradition, the Virgin rested here before 
departing for Egypt, and it is said that a drop of her milk falling 
on the floor turned the whole cavern white. The stone of the 
grotto is white and easily broken, and when put in water it renders 
it as white as milk. 

Then I followed the path through the valley which led to the 
field of Boaz, and the abundance of grain and wild flowers would 
seem to justify the renown of this vale for fertility. Close to the 
field of Boaz are to be seen the ruins which mark the site of Mig- 
dal Eder, the "Tower of the Flock." Here, according to a 
tradition which certainly dates from the fourth century, the 
shepherds watched their flocks on that wonderful night, while 
above them appeared the angels brightening the darkness of the 
night and awakening the surrounding hills with their joyous 
song : 

This day in the city of David is born a Saviour which is Christ 
the Lord. 

St. Jerome says that he loved to go into the Shepherds' Field to 
"hear the hymn which filled those men with amazement." 


It is good to linger in the Field of the Shepherds, not only 
because of the wonderful atmosphere which seems to cling to 
this place, but also because here we are brought back to first 
principles. Bethlehem has many a thrilling message for those 
who have ears to hear. But the chief message is to bid them 


reflect on the world as it is compared with what it might 

" Yet with the woes of sin and strife 

The world has suffered long ; 
Beneath the angel-strain have rolled 

Two thousand years of wrong : 
And man at war with man heeds not 

The words of peace they bring. 
Oh, listen now, ye men of strife. 

And hear the angels sing ! " 

" Man will be at war with man " so long as there lingers any 
bitterness and strife between Christian bodies ! Just before our 
Lord was bom it is said that there was a period of hatred and 
unrest. If this is so, what tremendous import must there have 
been in the message of peace brought by the angels ! Whilst I 
walked in that Field I thought of the terrible unrest throughout 
the whole world to-day, with scarce a country that could be 
called "at peace." Wliat was the Christian Church doing to 
bring Peace on earth ; how could she give tidings of peace when 
there was war in her own household ? Why not return to first 
principles ? Why not reconsider our religion from the very be- 
ginning ? Why should not Bethlehem become the spiritual focal 
point for carrying out the ideals of the Prince of Peace ? 

Russia used to send her children in thousands on pilgrimage 
to the Holy Places. To-day that country groans in agony, and 
there are no pilgrims. There is a mighty revival coming to the 
surface in that country, a spiritual revival, for her Church is 
going through fires of suffering and will come out purified " even 
as silver is tried." Russia has always turned her thoughts and 
prayers to Bethlehem in times of stress and tragedy, and so indeed, 
in a lesser degree, have Christian communities in other countries. 
"What, then, will be the attitude of the Russian pilgrim when it is 
once again made possible for him to visit Palestine and its Holy 
Places ? Is it conceivable that, after all his Church has gone 
through during the past years, he will be content to fall back 
again into his old ways of superstition and separatism ? Will he 
not rather, in his great joy at visiting these Holy Sites once more, 
see in them the vision of a greater faith and a larger hope, especi- 
ally when he kneels before that Silver Star or makes his pilgrim- 
age to this Shepherds' Field ? The only league which could have 

"AND THOU, BETHLEHEM . . ." 283 

a lasting effect upon the polity of nations and drive the demon 
of war from the face of the earth would be a League of Churches, 
but the Churches must first of all set their own houses in order. 
The Anglican Bishops assembled in conference at Lambeth in 
July 1920, issued an encyclical in which are found these words : 
" The manifold witness of the Church would be intensified and 
extended beyond all measure if it came from an undivided society 
of Jesus Christ. To restore the unity of this society, therefore, 
would be to increase the effective force of this witness in every 
part of the world to a degree which in these days can scarcely be 
imagined. No one who is not blind to the signs which abound on 
every hand can doubt that the spirit of God is moving in this 
direction in a way which must bring home to the authorities of 
all Christian communions a deep sense of responsibility in the 
face of an opportunity which is almost without parallel in the 
history of the Church." ^ 

In spite of the gross materialism that pursues its evil course 
in every country, there is a great spiritual revival gradually 
coming to the surface ; but the actual form this revival will take 
does not yet appear. Are Christian Churches preparing for its 
coming ? Will the opportunity be seized, or missed ? WTiy 
should not a spiritual revival centre round the Holy Places of 
Nazareth, Bethlehem, and Jerusalem ? What a tremendous 
power for good, what a great spiritual effect throughout the 
world might result from Hnking up in some form of spiritual 
brotherhood the various Christian sects in Palestine, the breaking 
down of the barriers which prevent free and harmonious access to 
the Holy Places by representatives of all Christian bodies alike I 

Over this Field sang the angels, Gloria in excelsis Deo et in 
terra pax hominibus bones voluntatis. It is difi&cult not to feel 
impatient with those people who appear to make this peace 
impossible. Many can worship " in spirit and in truth " with 
Franciscans or Greeks with just as much benefit as with those 
of their own religion. The Franciscans are among the noblest 
of men ; their self-denying efforts, their care of the Holy Places, 
are worthy of all respect. The reverence and devotion of the 

1 Conference 0/ the Bishops 0/ the Anglican Communion at Lambeth, 1920. 


Greek and Armenian services, the beauty of their worship, natur- 
ally Eastern and gorgeous, yet so simple that the peasants can 
follow them with joy and enthusiasm, have always their appeal. 
Why must there be barriers between these two great religions 
of the West and East, when there is really little, if any, difference 
in their Faith ? The Christian world looks to Palestine, the 
home of Christian beginnings, for strength and inspiration, only 
to find that the very places around which Christians should unite 
are centres of the most bitter and unreasoning jealousy. 

Reunion will come some day — perhaps not for many years to 
come, but come it will. I do not think the first steps will be 
taken by the Latins, or by the Greeks, or yet by the Anglicans ; 
it is more likely that reunion may come from the Armenians, the 
oldest Church in Christendom, and the one which, in defence of 
her faith, has suffered most of all. But I am inclined to think that 
reunion will come from outside, perhaps the work of someone yet 
unknown who, with entire absence of prejudice, and greatly filled 
with spiritual vision, may touch the conscience of separated 
Christendom and thus unite it, making the Church a force of such 
arresting power that no hordes of anti-Christ can prevail against 
her. For such a possibility the Church may well prepare by 
breaking down the barriers of discord and thus make straight the 
path for its coming. 

What the future has in store for the Holy Land none can tell, 
but I am firmly convinced that, in spite of present disunion, there 
are great possibilities of a slow but steady return to spiritual 
unity, and that this unity will focus itself around the Holy Places. 
May the time come when it will be possible for Greek, Latin, 
Armenian, Copt, Syrian, Anglican, and Protestant, all accepting 
the central truths of Christianity, to celebrate their worship 
round the Silver Star at Bethlehem and at the Sacred Tomb in 
Jerusalem ! To adapt the words of the Hagadah for Passover : 
" O God, rebuild it, rebuild Thine house betimes ! O bring us 
back to Jerusalem ! " 

I have dwelt on this point, for it seemed to me after many 
visits to the Holy Places that we must either regard them merely 
as sacred monuments of a wonderful past, or else as living truths 
so full of spiritual power as to be able to redeem, transform, and 
spiritualise the world. . . . Rehcs or realities, which ? 

"AND THOU. BETHLEHEM . . ." 285 

It was on a bright and sunny afternoon that I made my final 
visit to Bethlehem in the company of a well-known Greek 
Archimandrite, now Archbishop. The sun was scorching, 
and the dust unpleasant, and I envied my companion, who wore 
a white dust cloak over his picturesque blue silk cassock. 

It was deliciously cool within the Basilica after the heat and 
dust outside. From the church we passed through a doorway, 
so low that I had to bend my head in order to pass under it, into 
the courtyard of the great Greek Convent, where the Superior, 
Mgr. Gregorius, Archbishop of Bethlehem, received me with true 
Oriental courtesy. The convent is an enormous building, spot- 
lessly clean throughout, and the rooms and passages pleasantly 
cool. Well-cultivated gardens adjoin the convent, containing 
vegetables of all kinds, fruit trees, flowers and shrubs. Close by 
in a little arbour away from the glare of the sun we sat down 
and discussed current topics, religious and political. My com- 
panion , now Archbishop of Jordan, speaks English fluently, for 
some years ago the Patriarch sent him to the University of Oxford 
to study the Church of England. He is a native of Samos, 
and distinguished himself during his four years' study in the 
Samos Pythagorian College, and in his seven years' course in the 
Theological College at the Convent of the Cross. 

We discussed the Latin and Greek controversies, about which 
my host had much to say, and when I referred to some unseemly 
wrangles that had taken place, and not so long ago, both in Jeru- 
salem and Bethlehem, I was somewhat surprised to receive this 
apologia. The Archbishop of Jordan said, and the Superior of 
the Convent agreed with him, that the intense feeling which 
showed itself from time to time in unseemly disputes on either 
side was in reality the outcome of love for the Holj^ Places and 
the desire to guard them. These sites are unique in the world, 
and both Latins and Greeks must protect and cherish what they 
claim as their own by right, being guardians of priceless treasures 
handed down to them, which they, in turn, must pass on to 
generations yet to come. The Archbishop said this in all earnest- 
ness, without any bitter feeling towards the Latins, and he 
added : " We have even shed our blood to save these Holy Sites 
— how then could we give them up ? " This is the Eastern 
attitude of mind ; perhaps some day it may be modified, and 


Latin and Greek alike may come to see how much stronger their 
position and their power for good would be if they shared the 
honour of being guardians of the Holy Sites with representatives 
of other Christian communities. The guide-books would then 
no longer be able to say, " This chapel belongs exclusively to the 
Greek Church," or "to the Latin Church," for the Holy Places 
would then belong to Catholic Christendom. 

At sunset, a lay brother called us to dinner, and we adjourned 
to the refectory, a long, low room, fresh and cool. The Superior 
insisted that I should sit at the head of the table, making me, as 
he said with a charming smile, Superior for that evening. An 
excellent dinner was served, beginning with smoked ham and 
cheese, then cold fish fried in olive oil, followed by an omelette 
and ragout of Bethlehem lamb. Fruit and sweets followed, 
and the wine that was served was made at the convent under the 
supervision of the Superior. Afterwards we adjourned to the 
terrace on the roof and walked up and down conversing on many 
subjects under a starlit canopy. Several of the monks had to be 
present at the night offices in the church, so we all adjourned to 
bed early. 

The next morning, Low Sunday, I was aroused at five o'clock, 
and shortly afterwards was escorted through the church to the 
Grotto of the Nativity, where Mass was being sung by a village 
priest, at the altar beneath which lay the Silver Star. The 
tiny chapel was crowded with village folk, men and women, and 
there was an overflow into the Chapel of the Manger. The Epistle 
was read in Arabic by a small boy out of the congregation, and 
the Gospel simg by the deacon, first in Greek and then in Arabic. 
A Greek Mass is like no other form of service ; it is full of pathos 
and appeal, and the congregation take an intelligent part in it. 
Here in this quiet morning hour, celebrated on the traditional 
site of Christ's Nativity, it had a particular charm, more expecially 
when the celebrant prayed for the unity of Christendom, and the 
people, (for there was no choir) responded " Kyrie Eleison, Christe 
Eleison, Kyrie Eleison." Towards the end of the Mass I went with 
the Superior up the steps to the CathoHkon. He took me within 
the Ikonastasis, and there at the altar another Mass was pro- 
ceeding, attended by a crowd of people outside the screen. At the 
conclusion a sermon was preached in Arabic by a village priest 

"AND THOU. BETHLEHEM . . ." 287 

Afterwards in the convent we sat on the terrace in the glorious 
sunshine overlooking the Field of the Shepherds, with the gor- 
geous blue mountains of Moab beyond, and I was introduced to 
the two celebrants and the preacher, all of whom were native 
priests and married. After a simple but excellent breakfast of 
tea d la Russe, bread made at the convent and the purest white 
butter of Bethlehem, the Superior came to my room and presented 
me with several souvenirs of my visit, then he kissed me on both 
cheeks and gave me his blessing. All the monks insisted on 
accompanying us through the Basihca, and so I took the oppor- 
tunity to photograph them in the Catholikon just outside the 
great Ikonastasis. It had been an interesting experience, for 
I had seen Greek monastic life at close quarters and enjoyed the 
charming hospitality and courtesy shown me by the Superior and 
the monks of the convent. 

A picturesque throng of women issued from the church into 
the courtyard, laughing and talking, full of the joy of life. It was 
a happy day, the sun shone merrily, and the air was fresh and 

As we drove out of Bethlehem the Archimandrite pointed out 
a little village on the hill to the left of the city, called Beit Jala, 
in a picturesque situation, surrounded by plantations of vines and 
oUves. The population of this village consists entirely of Chris- 
tians, one of the very few in Judaea, and the majority belong to 
the Greek Orthodox rehgion. Beit Jala is said to correspond to 
the Canaanite town, Giloh of Judah. 

It is of +he greatest interest to all Christians to know that the 
authority for the Grotto of Bethlehem, as the place where Christ 
was bom, is incontestable. Few sanctuaries in Palestine have a 
tradition such as this one, ancient and without a break. Justin 
Martyr in the second century speaks of the grotto where Joseph 
sought shelter ; it was shown as a very holy place in the time of 
Origen, and a little later Eusebius wrote : " To-day those who 
inhabit this locality confirm the tradition received from their 
fathers, and show the grotto where the Virgin gave birth to the 
holy Child." 

There is no town on earth round which there cluster so many 
idyUic memories as gather round Bethlehem. Boaz going out 


and in at these gates and reverenced by all as a father ; Ruth, the 
loving and steadfast maiden gleaning in these fields ; David, the 
young and comely shepherd, keeping guard over his sheep. 
No sweeter reminiscence than these could there be in the annals 
of history, nor any more charming pictures of life, character, and 
mysticism. Yet these incidents, with all their fascination, pale 
before that greater incident, the glory of the birth of Emmanuel 
— God with us. Bethlehem gave an occupant to the throne 
of Judah, it also gave a Monarch Whose Kingdom is 
everlasting. Sitting on the Throne of Glory, in His Hand the 
Sceptre of the Universe, very God and very Man, He emptied 
Himself of all that glory, left His mighty Kingdom, and deigned 
to be bom in little Bethlehem, bringing peace to suffering 

May not Bethlehem, whose name will for ever be honoured 
as the earthly home of the Prince of Peace, become one day the 
spiritual focal point for carrying out the ideals of the Prince of 
Peace ? 

There fared a mother driven forth 

Out of an inn to roam ; 
In the place where she was homeless 

All men are at home. 
The crazy stable close at hand. 
With shaking timber, and shifting sand. 
Grew a stronger thing to abide and stand 

Than the square stones of Rome. 

A Child in a foul stable. 

Where the beasts feed and foam ; 
Only where He was homeless 

Are you and I at home : 
We have hands that fashion and heads that know. 
But our hearts we lost — how long ago ! — 
In a place no chart or ship can show 

Under the sky's dome. 

1 Poems. G. K. Chesterton. 




It is now s^ven years since " The Home of Fadeless Splendour " 
was first published and eight years since the author paid his first 
and memorable visit to the Holy Land. Partly as a result of 
this visit and partly at the suggestion of a friend who had also 
recently visited Palestine, the idea of a Pilgrimage to the Holy 
Land was discussed at a small gathering of clerics and lajnuen, 
with the result that the first Anglo-Catholic Pilgrimage to Pales- 
tine started from Marseilles on its great adventure on April 29th, 
1924, with Dr. Roscow Shedden, Bishop of Nassau, as President. 
The suggestion of such a Pilgrimage was taken up with much 
enthusiasm in England, we obtained without difficulty our full 
complement of pilgrims to the number of 215, and we departed 
after a solemn service of dismissal, with the knowledge that a 
sympathetic welcome awaited us in Jerusalem. 

The Holy Land had witnessed thousands of pilgrimages not 
only in days far distant but in comparatively recent times. 
There was, however, something altogether fresh in our adventure, 
for it was composed entirely of members of the English Church. 
Apart from any other reason this gave the pilgrimage great im- 
portance : England's soldiers freed the Holy Land from the 
blight of Turkish rule ; surely England's Church could no longer 
remain dumb or appear to ignore the Mother of all the Churches. 

We went as pilgrims and not as tourists ; and though we could 
not set out on our adventure as did pilgrims of yore, spending 
1 ong weary weeks in tramping desolate roads or tossing on the 
seas in small sailing vessels, yet to travel by train and steamer 
can be just as much a pilgrimage if the journey be made in the 
right spirit. 

Wo landed at Jaffa, the ancient Joppa, which is not exactly 
the best of seaports for landing. There is no harbour 
worthy of the name, and so the steamer remained on the high 


seas while fully-manned boats gathered round in clusters to take 
off the pilgrims. Sometimes the sea is so rough that the trans- 
port is not effected without inconvenience. On this occasion, 
however, the sea was calm, and the pilgrims landed in safety. 

From the moment of our arrival at this ancient port until the 
day of our departure every possible assistance was given us by 
our friends in Palestine. The Anglican Bishop in Jerusalem 
(Dr. Maclnnes) gave a reception in our honour in the garden ad- 
joining the Collegiate Church of St. George, at which every 
Christian Church in the Holy City was represented. The 
Armenian Patriarch, a dignified and scholarly cleric, came in 
person and discoursed to all and sundry in fluent French. The 
Patriarch was represented by the Archbishop of Jordan, Sjo-ian, 
Coptic and Abyssinian Bishops and priests were there, and a Latin 
priest of English nationality. There were the clergy of St. 
George's Cathedral, Archdeacon Waddy, who was our untiring 
guide, and Dr. Danby the Hebrew scholar, also missionaries be- 
longing to the C.M.S. and L. J.S. ; Sir Ronald Storrs, Governor of 
Jerusalem, and Sir Gilbert Clayton, chief Secretary to the High 
Commissioner, both of whom were of much assistance to us 
during our visit, were also present. 

We paid visits to the heads of all the Christian Churches in 
the Holy City, the whole pilgrimage was received by the 
High Commissioner, Sir Herbert Samuel, and on the last night 
of our stay in Jerusalem, by courtesy of Sir Henry Lunn, a 
dinner was given by the committee of the pilgrimage to the heads 
of the local churches and leading laymen of the Holy City, 
the Bishop of Nassau presiding. 

The pilgrims visited most of the places mentioned in this 
book, and took away with them undying memories of the Holy 
Sites in Jerasalem and Bethlehem, of the Mount of Olives, of 
the moonlit walk from the House of the Last Supper to Geth- 
semane, of the Lake of Galilee — " clear silver water in a cup of 
gold" — of Nazareth, where our charming and scholarly friend 
Monsignor Kleopas courteously entreated us, of Ain Karim, the 
birthplace of St. John Baptist, and many other such places of 
romantic interest. And one might add that the objectives of 
the pilgrimage were never forgotten, namely, to increase the 
devotion of the pilgrims by visiting and praying at the places 

L'ENVOI 293 

rendered sacred by the Incarnation, Birth, Ministry, Death and 
Resurrection of our Lord ; to render in a humble spirit any 
assistance we might be privileged to give to our co-religionists ; 
and to advance the sacred cause of Reunion. 

It was a great idea, this first Anglican Pilgrimage since the 
Reformation. Sir Ronald Storrs, Governor of Jerusalem, wrote 
shortly after our return to England : " May I assure the pilgrims 
through you, that their visit was deeply appreciated by all 
classes and all sections of the community." The Venerable 
Stacy Waddy, then Archdeacon of the Anglican Church in 
Jerusalem, wrote : " You leave us enheartened and strengthened, 
and we feel confident, enriched with friends, helpers and inter- 
preters. Farewell, and come again." The Archbishop of Jor- 
dan, representing His Beatitude the Patriarch, in bidding us 
farewell said : "I hope there will be a pilgrimage like yours 
every year, for nothing can give greater help to the cause of 
Reunion. ..." As a result of this most successful adventure 
the Anglo-Catholic Pilgrimage Association was formed for the 
purpose of reviving the pilgrimage spirit among members of the 
Church of England, and as one result lectures and addresses 
have been given all over England by members of this 

Owing to the great success of the first pilgrimage, it was 
decided to hold a second one in the spring of 1925 under the 
Presidency of Dr. Russell Wakefield, sometime Bishop of Birming- 
ham, and this time, besides the Holy Land, the pilgrims visited 
some of ths Mother Shrines of Christianity such as Patmos, 
Ephesus, Constantinople and Athens. The third pilgrimage, 
to Palestine only, followed immediately after Easter 1926, with 
Dr. Masterman, Bishop of Plymouth, as President, and on this 
occasion several archaeologists who had been attending a congress 
in Jerusalem returned with the pilgrims and gave them some 
interesting and instructive lectures on board ship. In 1927 
the pilgrimage took place in August, to give an opportunity 
to those who found the earlier dates impossible. Unfortunately 
our numbers were greatly reduced owing to the fear of excessive 
heat ; but in spite of this and other difficulties the pilgrimage 
was very successful from every point of view, and no one found 
the heat troublesome. A contingent of Americans took part 


in this adventure, including a Bishop and eight priests, and it was 
agreed by all that their presence was a great asset to the pil- 
grimage. We set out from London on August 2nd, with Dr. Cook, 
Bishop of Lewes, as President, and Dr. Ivins, Coadjutor Bishop 
of Milwaukee, vice-president. A day was spent at Alexandria, 
where we were received by His Beatitude Mgr. Meletios, Pope and 
Patriarch of Alexandria. In the evening at a special service 
held in the Anglican Church of St. Mark, the acting High Com- 
missioner of Egypt, Mr. Neville Henderson, was present in 
state, representing Lord Lloyd, together with General Sir Peter 
Strickland, commanding the British troops in Egypt, and repre- 
sentatives of the Eastern Churches in Alexandria. From Alex- 
andria we sailed to Beirut for Damascus, to be received by the 
Patriarch of Antioch, who resides in that ancient city, and visited 
the magnificent ruins of Baalbec on our way. Returning to 
Beiriit, we continued our voyage to Jaffa, and, after making our 
thanksgiving at the local Greek church, above the landing stage, 
we drove to the Mount of Olives, where a short service was held 
before we actually entered Jerusalem. Only four days were 
given to Palestine, but full use was made of this short period. 

At the Church of the Holy Sepulchre the Archbishop of 
Jordan, representing the Patriarch of Jerusalem, received us, 
and the Archimandrite Kyriakos, Guardian of the Holy Places, 
read us an address of welcome. Afterwards the pilgrims made 
their devotions at the Holy Sepulchre and at Calvary. At the 
stately Basilica of Bethlehem we were received by Mgr. Gregorios, 
Archbishop of Bethlehem, and visited the Holy Places of the 
Nativity, afterwards singing English carols on the roof of the 
Greek Convent overlooking the Field of the Shepherds. On the 
Sunday morning the solemn Liturgy was sung at St. George's 
Anglican Cathedral at which the Bishops of Jerusalem, Lewes and 
Milwaukee were present, together with representatives of the 
Orthodox and Armenian Churches, the music of the service being 
rendered by members of Wycliffe College, Oxford, who were 
spending the summer in the Holy City. The High Commissioner 
and other leading members of the British community in Jeru- 
salem were present in the congregation. In the afternoon the 
President of the pilgrimage, the Bishop of Lewes, conducted a 
service of Requiem at the great military cemetery on Mount 

L'ENVOI 295 

Scopus, where thousands of British soldiers He buried. Lord 
Plumer, High Commissioner of Palestine, with his aide-de-camp 
and household, attended this very impressive ceremony. The 
position of the cemetery is all that could be desired. At the 
back, behind the little Chapel of Remembrance, is the wonderful 
view of the Jordan, the Dead Sea with the Mountains of Moab 
beyond ; -while in front one looks across Kidron to the Holy City. 

Later that afternoon many of the pilgrims visited Ain Karim, 
the birthplace of St. John the Baptist, and were welcomed by 
Miss Carey at her delightful little Home of Rest, and afterwards 
were entertained to tea by Archbishop Anastassy, chief of the 
Russian Church in Palestine. The beauties of Ain Karim are 
described elsewhere in this book. On the same evening, by 
moonlight, the pilgrims made the deyotional walk from the 
House of the Last Supper on Mount Syon, crossing the valley of 
Kidron to the Garden of Gethsemane. 

During our stay in Jerusalem many of the pilgrims were much 
distressed at the deplorable condition of the Holy Sepulchre, 
not owing to earthquakes, but to years of neglect. Probably 
there is no Church or Cathedral in Christendom of any im- 
portance that is so hopelessly shabby. The Church contains the 
most priceless relics of Christendom, and yet because the three 
chief Churches concerned — Greek, Latin and Armenian — cannot 
agree, its walls are left to rot. It is a terrible scandal to the 
Holy City and our pilgrims were not the first to comment upon 
it. The most beautiful chapel of all, St. Helena, with its gor- 
geous fourth century capitals, has a broken floor and its altars 
are in desolation ; the same applies to many of the chapels. 
Thanks to that foolish relic of bitter quarrels, the status quo, 
renovation is, for the moment, an impossibility. There are 
thousands of Christians— Orthodox, Catholic, Anglican and 
Armenian, who would gladly help were a lead given. England 
is the mandatory power, and surely England is sufficiently strong 
to overcome even a status quo in order to put an end to such 
a deplorable scandal. 

Near by is the great Mohammedan Mosque, the Dome of the 
Rock. There is nothing squalid, no sign of decay in that build- 
ing. In the Holy City Islam can present to-day its most sacred 
fane to all and sundry without fear of reproach. Christendom 


cannot — because Christendom takes for granted that nothing 
can be done for fear of disturbance between the three rehgions 
which reign supreme. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the 
most famous Church in the world, enshrined within her the Holy 
Tomb and Calvary, cries out in its appalling desecration for help. 
Is there no Nehemiah in the Christian world to come to her 
assistance ? 

Pilgrims visited Nazareth and Tiberias in groups as time was 
short and there were still visits to be paid to the ancient Chris- 
tian sites in near East. On the last day in Palestine the Pil- 
grimage Committee, with the two Bishops, motored to Nazareth, 
passing some of the most interesting places mentioned in the 
Bible on their way, and resting awhile at Jacob's well, where 
our Lord talked with the woman of Samaria, one of the most 
certain sites in Palestine, for all Christian, Jewish and Moslem 
traditions support it. The mouth of the well is cut out of one 
stone (now horribly disfigured by an ugly iron contrivance for 
drawing up water), and is probably the original well mouth. 
The depth of the well is eighty feet and the diameter nine feet. 
Over the well a Basilica is partially erected ; it was begun before 
the war, but there has been no movement since to finish it. 
Some of us discussed the future of this building amongst our- 
selves, as also with a Greek Archbishop, and we hope that in the 
near future Anghcan and American Episcopahans may join 
together in completing the Orthodox Church at Sychar as a 
practical sign of sympathy with the Orthodox people in their time 
of trouble, and also as an earnest of our desire for the unity of 
the Churches. 

And so on through Nablus, the ancient Shechem, which has 
suffered so much from the earthquakes in July, across the plain 
of Esdraelon, with Nain on the right and on the left the slopes 
of Little Hermon, with Endor, where Saul consulted the witch. 
Behind the slope we passed close to Mt. Tabor, and on its height 
caught a glimpse of the Franciscan Monastery and the Greek 
Church, and so up the steep hill to Nazareth, 1602 feet above sea 
level. Here we were entertained to dinner by our old and revered 
friend Mgr. Kleopas, Metropohtan of Nazareth and of all GaUlee, 
who has been of great assistance to us on every pilgrimage. He 
told us of the progress he was making in his Archdiocese and spoke 

L'ENVOI 297 

very hopefully of reunion between the Orthodox Greek Church 
and its sister Church of England. As an instalment of that 
unity, shortly after our departure from the Holy Land, the 
foimdation stone was laid of a little Orthodox Church at Beisan, 
the ancient Canaanite city of Beth-shan.^ To the wall of this 
city King Saul's body and those of his sons were nailed by the 
Philistines till the men of Jabez Gilead came and bore them 
away. Important excavations resulting in the discoveries of 
Egyptian, Roman and other remains have recently been made 
here. The building of this church is of special interest to Angli- 
cans from the fact that it will be built with money chiefly from 
England and America, and also at Archbishop Kleopas' wish, the 
church will be placed at the disposal of the little Anghcan com- 
munity at Beisan. This is indeed a very practical step towards 
unity. The following inscription was written in Greek on a fine 
piece of thousand-year-old vellum from Jerusalem, and laid in 
a cavity beneath the foundation stone : " In the Name of the 
Holy Trinity 1927, under George V. King of England, Coohdge, 
President of the United States of America, Lord Plumer, High 
Commissioner of Jerusalem, the Emii Abdullah, ruler of Trans- 
jordania, Damianos I., Patriarch of Jerusalem, and Rennie 
Maclnnes, Bishop of the Anglican Church in Jerusalem, the 
foundation stone of the Church of St. John, the Forerunner and 
the great martyr George in Beisan, was laid by the Metropolitan 
of Nazareth, Kleopas Kikilides and the Anghcan Priest W, H. 
Stewart, for the love of Christ and the mutual support of the 
two holy Churches of God, Eastern and Anglican. Lord help us 
and stablish this holy house for ever and ever. Lord, help the 
benefactors among the Greeks and among the Americans and the 
fourth Anglo-Catholic Pilgrimage. Beisan (Scythopohs), August 
22, 1927." 

Late on this beautiful summer evening we drove to Haifa, 
and about midnight set sail to continue our pilgrimage to the 
Mother Shrines in the Near East, passing close to Patmos the 
following morning. 

Thus on the fourth Anglo-Catholic Pilgrimage, the " Pilgrims' 
Way " brought those who were privileged to join it to the great 

» See page 233 


shrines of historic Christianity, and also along the path which 
St. Paul passed on his wondrous journeys. The pilgrims had 
the inestimable advantage of being missionaries of Christian 
Reunion, of increasing their own devotion at the sacred shrines, 
and, above all, of being able to offer a corporate act of worship 
to Almighty God. Laus Deo ! 

It has been the privilege of each pilgrimage to distribute 
fimds collected from the pilgrims to the various good causes in 
the Holy Land. The total sum collected on the first four pil- 
grimages, apart from private gifts, etc., has amounted to nearly 

Amongst many cordial letters we received the following 
from Mgr. Tourian, Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem, which 
perhaps may give some impression of the feeling of the native 
Churches in Palestine towards the Pilgrimage Association : 

We would like to take this opportunity to express our profound 
gratitude to the Anglo-Catholics for the sincere sympathy and 
friendship which they have always shown to our Church. Their 
annual pilgrimage to the Holy Land and their visit to us has been 
a source of spiritual comfort to us, filling as they do the place of 
those of our unhappy people. We have always prayed that these 
pilgrimages may he everlasting sources of Christian inspiration and 
redoubled zeal to everyone of the pilgrims to the glory of our Lord 
and His Kingdom. May our Blessed Lord shower His bountiful 
blessings upon you all, and protect you and your families from all 
earthly calamities. 

The Pilgrimage Association is indebted to Monsieur Dionis 
du S^jour of the Messageries Maritimes, who has done everything 
in his power to make these pilgrimages successful ; to Sir Henry 
Limn for his personal and generous solicitude in helping to keep 
the pilgrimages up to a high level ; to Mr. D.N. Tadros for his 
care in arranging all preliminary and local details, and to Mr. 
Si Hey and Mr. Pickering, courteous and pleasant conductors ; 
to Sir Ronald Storrs, formerly Governor of Jerusalem, and 
Lady Storrs ; to the Bishop and all our friends in Jerusalem, for 
their kindly hospitality and arrangements for our stay in the 


L'ENVOI 299 

Holy City ; to P^re Vincent for his learned assistance ; and, on 
the Orthodox side, to the Archbishop of the Jordan, the Revd. 
the Guardian of the Holy Places, Archbishop Anastassy, and 
Mgr. Kleopas, Metropolitan of Nazareth and all Galilee, also to 
many others "whose names are legion." The fifth Anglo- 
Catholic Pilgrimage to Palestine will leave London early in 
April, 1929, and will spend most of its time in the Holy Land. 

It may be of interest to place on record some first hand 
information regarding the earthquake of July nth, 1927, and 
the damage done to life and property. The American Colony's 
buildings in Ain Karim suffered badly, especially the clinic and 
child welfare stations. The ridge of Mt. Scopus and the Mt. of 
OUves received severe shocks, and practically all the buildings 
were damaged. That imsightly building on Mt. Scopus built by 
the ex-Kaiser of Germany as a hostel, and later used as the seat 
of the High Commissioner — for years the British Government 
has been paying a heavy rent for this terrible building — is so 
badly cracked that no one is allowed inside the grounds. For- 
tunately the High Commissioner and Lady Plumer were away at 
the time of the shock. Lord Plumer has now his official residence 
on the Bethlehem road. The Hebrew university is very badly 
damaged and many private houses in its vicinity. The Russian 
Convent on the Mt. of Olives, the home of many Russian refugee 
nuns, has fared badly. The Church of the Lord's Prayer and 
the Carmelite Convent have also been badly affected, while 
the Mosque and Minaret on the site of the Ascension fell, killing 
one man. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre has not suffered 
so much as was reported in the English press, but the dome of 
the Greek Catholikon has been condemned as unsafe and must 
be entirely rebuilt, and there are many lesser buildings con- 
nected with the Church which are undoubtedly in a precarious 
condition. I hear that the Government is undertaking the 
repairs in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. What an oppor- 
tunity to repair, renovate and " make all things new " through- 
out that gloomy edifice which enshrines such priceless treasures 1 
At Bethlehem it would seem that the damage done was not great, 
and no lives were lost. 


Among the towns of Palestine, Nablus, the ancient Shechem, 
has suffered most of all. There the building material was soft 
limestone, the mortar poor, and the houses slender and often 
four storeys high, so that houses fell very easily. It is said that 
the debris was over twenty feet high, very many lives were lost, 
and bodies not discovered for weeks. Business was paralysed 
and the survivors were starving. From all parts of Palestine 
came succour in the way of food and help of every kind. Chris- 
tians, Jews and Arabs vied with each other to play the part of 
good Samaritan. Seventy-five people were killed in Nablus 
alone, and over two hundred and fifty wounded. Nablus 
is a dirty and unhealthy city with a great deal of tuberculosis, 
the people very fanatical and the women still shut up in their 
houses. One woman who came to the relieving station had not 
been out of her house for forty years ! At Ludd, the ancient 
Lydda, there were forty killed and one hundred and twenty 
wounded, while four hundred and eighty houses are in complete 
ruin. The ancient Church of St. George in Lydda, whose tomb 
has been venerated for centuries, is uninjured except the dome, 
which is badly cracked, and the Greek Convent presents a 
terrible spectacle of desolation. Ramleh, close to Ludd, has 
also suffered badly, and food was rushed into both towns almost 
immediately after the catastrophe. Generally speaking, the 
old houses and those built with arches and domes have suffered 

There is considerable increase in disease in all the towns 
and villages affected by the earthquake. The dust of the debris, 
the crowding into tents where they now live, and the exposure 
all help to .spread it. The children suffer most, and can be seen 
with red, inflamed eyes, sitting in the dust on the side of the 
roads. That most excellent institution, the Ophthalmic Hospital 
of the Knights of St. John, is doing a splendid work, but natur- 
ally the need of funds is very great.. 

As usual, the earthquakes seemed to affect places in very 
different ways. In one village nearly every house collapsed, and 
in another close by only a few were injured. Nazareth and Cana 
were almost untouched, as also Jaffa and Haifa. A central Com- 
mittee has been organised and a local committee in every town 
to try and arrange funds to help repair what homes can be 


L'ENVOl 301 

repaired and arrange for accommodation of the people before the 
^vinter. A wonderful work is going on regardless of creed and 
race, and good may eventually come out of evil by bringing the 
suffering people and their helpers together. But funds are very 
badly needed to bring about a reform in housing conditions 
and a chance to practice the first principles of cleanliness. One 
cannot close this short summary of disturbances caused by 
the earthquake without a word of praise for the " American 
Colony " in Jerusalem. Their work and organisation in the way 
of rehef, and their attention to the sufferers, has been untiring 
and the members of the Colony have set an inspiring example 
of self-sacrifice and Christian charity, for, in all probability, 
hundreds of children and adults owe their lives and recovery 
entirely to their unceasing efforts. 

During the four Anglo-Catholic pilgrimages already made 
we have visited and re-visited all the places mentioned in this 
book On two occasions we have gone further afield and spent 
days at other homes of historic Christianity, e.g., Patmos, Cyprus, 
Ephesus, Constantinople and Athens, but the Holy Land is ever 
our main objective, and the time spent there is never sufficiently 
long. For there we have learnt to realise the wealth of spiritual 
power always within our reach at the Holy Sepulchre, the Mount 
of Olives, Gethsemane, Bethany, Bethlehem, Nazareth and the 
glorious Lake of Galilee, and those who have had the inestimable 
privilege of taking part in these adventures can never wholly 
forget their entrancing memories. A pilgrimage to the Holy 
Land is exactly what one likes to make it. That is to say, it 
depends on what the pilgrim takes with him, on the spirit in 
which he makes the adventure. Comfort or discomfort are 
transient matters, and their memory quickly passes, but sacred 
associations are not transient. Jerusalem is above all a city of 
pilgrims, for the majority of those who visit it are drawn by some 
religious motive. May I be allowed to end this book with the 
expression of a hope that those who visit the Jerusalem of to-day 
may visit it in something of the pilgrim spirit ? To those who 
have never made the pilgrimage but hope to do so, I would ven- 
ture to say, do not grumble because you do not find in the East 
all the conventional civiUsation of the West . Mark and observe 


not only the material objects which surround you, but the 
customs, habits and modes of life of the mixture of races among 
which you are thrown. Keep open the eyes of your mind to get 
a little below the surface and understand the inward significance 
of all you see and hear ; and above all, keep open the eyes 
of your soul to appreciate the privileges which you may, if you 
desu"e, enjoy in the Holy Land more than in any place on earth. 
Be tolerant, be courteous, considerate and observant — above all, 
do not be aggressively British. Thus the impression which you 
make on your fellow pilgrims and on all the people with whom 
you mingle will be as favourable as the impression which Pales- 
tine in general and Jerusalem in particular cannot fail to make 
on yourselves. 

And to those who have made the great adventure I would 
only say : Do not keep this wonderful privilege to yourself 
but make known the glories of all that you have seen and heard , 
the treasures that you now possess, to those who have not had 
your priceless opportimity. 




(i.) Some Memorable Dates Connected with the History 
OF Jerusalem. 

(II.) The Thirteen Holy Places in the Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre. 

(ill.) Events Connected with the History of Bethlehem, 

(iv.) Extracts from the Mandate of 1922. 

(v.) A Short Bibliography. 



SoMB Mbmorablh Dates Connected with the History of Jerusalem. 


2500. Early Semitic settlements. 

1950. Immigration of Abraham. 

1500. Jerusalem under Egypt. 

1450. Invasion by Israelites. 

1048. Accession of David. He captures Jerusalem. 

1004. Dedication of King Solomon's Temple. 

975. Division of Israel from Judah. 

970. Surrender to Shiskak, King of Egypt. 

887. Philistines capture Jerusalem. 

837- Joash, King of Israel, captures city. 

710. Assyrians besiege Jerusalem. 

608. Judah vassal to Egypt. 

386. Destruction of Jerusalem by N ebuchadnexzar . 

537. Return of Jews from Babylon under Cyrus. 

516. Dedication of Second Temple by Zerubbabel. 

458. Ezra's mission to Jerusalem. 

445. Nehemiah rebuilds the walls. 

348. Bagoses of Persia occupies Jerusalem. 

334. Alexander of Macedon defeats Persians. 

332. Alexander visits Jerusalem. 

320. Ptolemy, King of Egypt, captures Jerusalem. 

198. Antiochus the Great captures Jerusalem. 

168. Antiochus Epiphanes desecrates the Temple. 

165. Restoration of Temple and walls by Judas Maccabeus. 

134. Siege of Jerusalem by Antiochus Sidetes. 

107. Aristobulos First Asmonean King. 

63. Capture of Jerusalem by Pompey. 

49. Walls rebuilt by Antipater. Construction of Second Wall. 

40. Capture of Jerusalem by Parthians. 

37. Capture of Jerusalem by Herod the Great 

17. Third Temple built by King Herod. 

4. Birth of Jesus Christ in Bethlehem. 


6. Death of Herod the Great. Judea a Roman province. 

25. Pontius Pilate, Governor of Judea. 

29. Crucifiixion of Jesus Christ. 

41. Third Wall built by Herod Agrippa. 

70. Capture and destruction of City under Titus. 

136. Jerusalem rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian and called vElia 


312. Constantine converted to Christianity. The Cross found by 
Bishop Macarius under Queen Helena. 

303 y 



325. Council 0/ Nicea. 

333. The Bordeaux Pilgrims' visit to Jerusalem. 

335. Churches of Holy Sepulchre and Golgotha consecrated. 

350. St. Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem. 

363. Julian fails in attempt to rebuild the Temple. 

450. Churches built and walls repaired by the Empress Eudocia. 

451. Jerusalem is made a Patriarchate. Council of Chalcedon. 
570. Birth of Mohammed. 

614. Capture of Jerusalem and destruction of churches by 

620. The Monk Modestus restores the Holy Sepulchre. 

622. Mohammed flees from Meccah to Medinah. 

629. Restoration of the Holy Cross. 

637. Jerusalem surrenders to Caliph Omar. 

637-1099. Jerusalem under the Arabs. 

670. Pilgrimage of Arculf, Bishop of Gaul. 

691. Dome of the Rock and Mosque of Aksa built by Abd-el-Melik. 

800. Hospice of St' Maria Latina founded by Charlemagne. 

969. Jerusalem under Egyptian Caliphs. 

10 1 2. Church of Holy Sepulchre destroyed by Caliph el Hakem. 

1037. Restoration of Holy Sepulchre and Dome of the Rock. 

1077. Capture of Jerusalem by Seljuk Turks. 

1093. Peter the Hermit visits Jerusalem. 

1095. The First Crusade. 

1099. Jerusalem captured by Crusaders, Godfrey de Bouillon First 

Latin King. 
1099-1 187. Jerusalem under the Latins. 

1 100. Death of Godfrey de Bouillon ; accession of Baldwin I. 

1 118. Death of Baldwin I. ; accession of Baldwin II. Foundation 
of Knights of the Temple. 

1 1 30. New Church of Holy Sepulchre founded. 

1 13 1. Death of Baldwin II. ; accession of Fulk of Anjou. 

1 144. Death of Fulk of Anjou ; accession of Baldwin III. 

1 146. Second Crusade. 

1 150. Church of Holy Sepulchre completed. 

1 162. Deathof Baldwin III. ; accession of Amaury, Count of Jaffa. 

1 174. Death of Amaury ; accession of Baldwin IV. 

1 185. Death of Baldwin IV. ; accession of Baldwin V. 

1 186. Death of Baldwin V. ; accession of Guy de Lusignan. 

1187. Capture of Jerusalem by Saladin, and Battle of Hattin. 

1188. Third Crusade. Richard Coeur de Lion. 

1 191 . Acre capital of Christian Kingdom. 

1 192. Death of Saladin. Conrad, Marquis of Montserrat, titular 

King of Jerusalem, followed in a few months by Henry of 

1196. Fourth Crusade. 

1197. Amaury II., titular King of Jerusalem. 

1202. Fijth Crusade. Latin capture of Constantinople. 

1216. Sixth Crusade. Andrew of Hungary. 

1218. St. Francis of Assisi in Egypt and Palestine. 

1229. Emperor Frederick II. of Germany occupies Jerusalem and 

crowns himself King. 
1229-1242. Jerusalem under the Christians. 

1 1 30. Frederick II. leaves Jerusalem. Last Christian king to 

reside in the city. 












Richard, Earl of Cornwall, and William, Earl of Salisbury, 

last Christian rulers in Jerusalem. 
The Kharezmian Tartars capture Jerusalem. Defeat and 

massacre of the Christians. 
Jerusalem under the Mamluks. 
Seventh Crusade led by Louis IX. 
Departure of King Louis. 
Sultan Beybars sweeps country of Christians ; massacre 

and slavery. 
Final appeal from Acre to Europe for help for Christians. 
Eighth and last Crusade led by Prince Edward. Ten Years' 

Sultan KalaOn captures Acre ; end of Christian occupation. 
Turks capture Constantinople. St. Sophia turned into a 

Jerusalem taken by the Turks. 
Jerusalem under the Turks. 

Present walls rebuilt by Suleiman the Magnificent. 
The Golden Gate blocked up. 
Expulsion of Franciscans from Mount Syon. 
Visit of Chateaubriand to Jerusalem. 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre destroyed by fire. 
Restoration of Church of Holy Sepulchre by the Greeks. 
Jerusalem under Egypt. 

Peasants revolt and capture city. Reconquered by Egypt. 
Palestine and Syria restored to Turkish rule. 
Anglican Bishopric founded. 

Dispute between Latins and Greeks over Holy Places. 
Crimean War. 

Declaration of War on Turkey. 
(March 26th). First battle of Gaza. 
Second battle of Gaza. 

Capture of Beersheba and Gaza by Allied Forces. 
The Balfour Declaration: " Palestine a home- 
land for the Jews." 
Capture of Hebron and Bethlehem. 
Surrender of Jerusalem to the Allies. 
Official entry of General AUenby and Allies 

into Jerusalem. 
The British given the Mandate for Palestine. 
Jerusalem under British Mandate. Balfour 
Declaration re-aftirmed. 
Sir Herbert Samuel, First British High Com- 
missioner in Palestine. 
First Anglo-Catholic Pili;rimage to Palestine. 

(April 17th). 


(Nov. 2nd). 

(Dec. 3rd). 
(Dec. 9th). 
(Dec. nth). 

1920 (April 24th). 

(July 7th). 

1924 (April 29th). 

1925, Appointment of Lord Plumer as High Commissioner. 


The Thirteen Holy Places in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 

Objects of the Daily Ceremonial Visits by the Franciscans at 

4 o'clock p.m. 

1. The Blessed Sacrament in the Church of the Apparition. 

2. The Column of the Flagellation. 


3. The Prison of Christ. 

4. The Chapel of the Division of the Garments. 

5. The Invention, or Finding of the Cross. 

6. The Chapel of St. Helena. 

7. The Chapel of the Crowning with Thorns. 

8. The Place of Crucifixion. 

9. The Taking Down from the Cross. 

10. The Stone of Anointing. 

11. The Holy Sepulchre. 

12. The Altar of the Apparition to St. Mary Magdalene. 

13. The Church of the Apparition to the Blessed Virgin. 


A Chronological List of Events Connected with the History of 




327. The early Christian Basilica of the Nativity founded by the 

Empress Helena. 
386. St. Jerome and his friends SS. Paula and Eustochiiim settled at 

403. Death of St. Paula- 
420. Death of St. Jerome. 
527. Justinian enclosed the town with a new wall to protect it from 

assaults of plunderers. 
614. Chosroes II., King of Persia, who had destroyed Jerusalem, 
spared Bethlehem ; according to tradition, the army, noticing 
the mosaics of the Magi, refrained from committmg any 
638. Omar I. spared the Basilica, but turned part of it into a mosque. 
809. On Christmas Eve the first of the hostilities between Greeks and 
Latins took place in the Grotto of the Nativity. 
loio. A tradition that the church miraculously escaped destruction 

at the hands of the Fatimite Caliph Hakim. 
1099. The Basilica protected by the Crusaders. 

iioi. Baldwin I. crowned on Christmas Day by Dagobert, the Latin 
Patriarch, first Latin King of Jerusalem, his predecessor 
Godfrey having refused that title. 
1 103 . The Anglo-Saxon Saewalf , a merchant of Worcester, England, the 
first British pilgrim who followed the Crusaders, tells that the 
Saracens had destroyed all at Bethlehem except the Monastery 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 
1 1 10. Pope Pascal II., at the request of Baldwin II., made Bethlehem a 

Latin Bishopric. 
1 169. The Greek Emperor Manuel Comnenus restored the walls of the 

Basilica with gilded mosaics. 
1 192. Hubert Fitzwalter, Bishop of Sahsbury, England, and afterwards 
.\rchbi3h0p of Canterbury, begged of Saladin that two priests 
and two deacons might be installed at Bethlehem to celebrate 
Divine Service, which boon was granted. 
1227. .\ Bull of Gregory IX. confirmed the privileges of the Basilica ia 
favour of the Latins. 



1234. The Franciscans established oratories at Bethlehem. 

1334. The Orthodox Greek Patriarchate of Jerusalem created an Epis- 
copal See of Bethlehem. 

1482. Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, provided pinewood rafters 
for the painted and gilded roof of the Basilica, and Edward IV. 
of England supplied the lead for covering the new timber work. 

1628. Philip IV. of Spain sent money for the restoration of the Church 
at Bethlehem. 

1672. Dositheus II., Greek Patriarch of Jerusalem, having newly 
restored the Basilica, assembled a Council within its walls to 
vindicate the Church's Orthodoxy from the aspersions that 
had been cast upon it. 

1672. The Latins excluded from the Basilica. 

1834. A shock of earthquake injured a portion of the Basilica. 

1847. The " Silver Star " stolen from the Grotto of the Nativity. 

1853. The key of the principal entrance of the Basilica was claimed by 
Napoleon III. A key was therefore made by order of the 
Sultan of Turkey to gratify the Latins, who were also given the 
key of the Crypt of the Holy Manger. 

1886. Nicodemus, Greek Patriarch of Jerusalem, abolished the See of 
Bethlehem, and placed the Greek portion of the Church and 
its adjoining convent under the care of a Superior with the 
title of " Guardian of the Holy Places." 


Extracts from the Mandate for Palestine to Entrust to a 
Mandatory Selected by the Principal Allied Powers for the 
Administration of the Territory of Palestine within such 
Boundaries as may be Fixed by them. Done in London 24TH day 
OF July, 1922. 

Article i. The Mandatory to have full powers by legislation. 

Article 2. The Mandatory responsible for placing the Country under 
such political and economic conditions as will secure the 
establishment of a Jewish National Home, and also for 
safeguarding all civil and religious rights of the inhabitants 
of Palestine. 

Article 3. It shall encourage local automony. 

Article 4. TheZionist organisation to be recognised as the public body 
for the purpose of advising and co-operating with the 
administration in such social economic matters as may 
affect the establishment of the Jewish National Home and 
the interests of the Jewish population in Palestine. 

Article 5. No Palestine territory to be ceded to, or leased to, any 
foreign power. 

Article 6. Jewish immigration under suitable conditions to be en- 
couraged so long as rights of other sections are not pre- 

Article 7. Provision to be framed to facilitate the acquisition of 
Palestinian citizenship by Jews who take up permanent 
residence in Palestine. 

Article 8. Privileges and immunities of foreigners, formerly enjoyed 
under the Ottoman Empire, not to be applicable in Palestine. 


Article 9. The judicial system shall assure to foreigners, as well as 

to natives, a complete guarantee of their rights. Respect 

for the status of peoples and communities and for their 

religious interests to be guaranteed. 

Article 10. Extradition in force between the Mandatory and other 

Powers shall apply to Palestine. 
Article 11. (a) The interests of the community in connection with the 
development of the country to be safeguarded. 
[b) The Administration to have full power to provide for 
public ownership or control of any of the natural 
resources or of the public works of the country, 
(c). A land system to be introduced appropriate to the 

needs of the country. 
{d). The Zionist organisation with consent of the Adminis- 
tration may construct any public works, services 
and utilities, and develop any of the natural resources 
of the country. 
Article 1 2 . Diplomatic and Consular protection to be afforded to Citizens 

of Palestine when outside its territorial limits. 
Article 13. The Mandatory to be responsible for the Holy Places, religious 
buildings and sites in Palestine, also for securing free access 
to the Holy Places and free exercise of worship, whilst 
ensuring public order and decorum. The Mandatory will 
have no authority to interfere with the fabric or the 
management of purely Moslem Sacred Shrines. 
Article 14. A Commission to be afforded by the Mandatory to define and 
determine the rights and claims in connection with the 
Holy Places and the rights and claims relating to the 
different Communities in Palestine. 
Article 1.5. Complete freedom of conscience and the free exercise of all 
forms of Worship ensured for all. No discrimination to 
be made between the inhabitants on the ground of race, 
religion or language. No person to be excluded from 
Palestine on the sole ground of his religious belief. The 
right of each Community to maintain its own schools is 
Article 16. The Mandatory is responsible for exercising such super- 
vision over religious and charitable bodies of all faiths 
as may be required for the maintenance of public order. 
Article 17. Forces necessary for the preservation of peace and order, 
and for the defence of the country may be organised by 
the Administration subject to the supervision of the 
Article 18. No discrimination in Palestine against the Nationals of any 
State (Member of the League of Nations) as compared with 
those of the Mandatory or of any foreign State in matters 
concerning taxation, commerce or navigation, the exercise 
of industries or professions, or in the treatment of 
Merchant vessels or civil aircraft . Subject to this and other 
provisions of the Mandate, the Administration may, on 
the advice of the Mandatory, impose such taxes and 
Custom Duties as it may consider necessary. 
Article 19, The Mandatory to adhere to any general International 
Conventions already existing, or which may be concluded 
hereafter with the approval of the League of Nations. 



Article 20. Co-operation in the execution of any common policy adopted 
by the League for preventing and combating disease, 
including diseases of animals and plants. 
Article 21. Law of Antigi'ittes. Equality of treatment in the matter 
of excavations and archaeological research to the nations 
of all States members of the League, 
(li) Antiquity to mean any construction or any product 
of human activity earlier that a.d. 1700. 

(b) Any person finding an antiquity, and not being furnished 

with an authorisation, on reporting the same to an 
official of the Competent Department shall be re- 
warded according to the value of the discovery. 

(c) No antiquity to be otherwise disposed of, and no anti- 

quity may leave the country without an export 
{d) A penalty for maliciously or negligently destroying 01 

damaging an antiquity, 
(e) Equitable terms fixed for expropriation of lands likely 

to be of historical or archaeological interest. 
(/) Authorisation to excavate only granted to persons 

of archaeological experience. 
{g) The proceeds of excavations to be divided between the 
excavator and the Competent Department. 
Article 22. English, Arabic, and Hebrew to be the official languages 

of Palestine. 
Article 23. The Administration to recognise the Holy Days of all the 

Communities in Palestine. 
Article 24. An annual report as to the measures taken during the year 
to carry out the provisions of the Mandate to be made at 
the Council of the League of Nations. 
Article 25. These provisions of the Mandate for Palestine are not applic- 
able to trans-Jordania, which comprises all territory lying 
to the East of a line drawn from a point two miles West of 
the town of Akaba on the gulf of that name up to the 
centre of the Wadi Araba, Dead Sea. and River Jordan 
to its junction with the River Yarmuk ; thence up the 
centre of that river to the Syrian frontier. 
Article 26. Any dispute between the Mandatory and another State 
member of the League to be submitted to the Permanent 
Court of International Justice. 
Article 27. The consent of the Council of the League required for any 
modification of the terms of the Mandate. 


The Holy Bible, Authorised and Vulgate versions. 
Golgotha and the Holy Sepulchre. Sir C. Wilson. 
La Palestine. Professeurs de Notre Dame de France. 
New Guide to the Holy Land. Fr. Barnabas Meistermann. 
Over the Holy Land. Rev. J. W. Wylie.. 


Nel Paese di Gesu. Mathilde Serao. 

Jirusalem. Reyn^s Monlaur. 

The Holy Sepulchre. George Jeflfrey, F.S.A. 

Les Eglises de la Terre Sainte. M. de Vogii^. 

The Pilgrim in Jerusalem. The Right Rev. O. H. Parry. 

The Greek Patriarchate of Jerusalem. Archdeacon Dowling. 

The Church and Faith of Armenia. Rt. Rev. Dr Abel Abrahamiara. 

The Land and the Book. W. M. Thomson. 


Jerusalem (2 vols.). Dr. George Adam Smith. 

Round about Jerusalem. Rev. J. E. Wright. 

Jerusalem (Mediaeval Town Series). Sir C. M. Watson. 

Walks About Jerusalem. Hanauer. 

Excavations at Jerusalem. Bliss and Dickie. 

The Temple and the Tomb. Sir C. Warren. 

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible. 

Jerusalem. R. PP. Vincent and Abel. (Tome II., Fascicule III.). 

Thh Crusades 

The Crusades. Sir G. W^. Cox. 

The Crusades. Archer. 

The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Conder. 

The Saracens. Gilman. 


Islam. Samuel M. Zwemer. 

The Faith of Islam. Rev. Edward Sell. 

Palestine Under the Moslems. Guy le Strange. 

The Koran. Translated by George Sale. 

Mahommedanism. Margouliouth. 

Life of Mahomet. Sir William Muir. 

Dictionary of Islam. T. P. Hughes. 


The Talmud. Chaplin. 

Recovery of Jerusalem. Sir C. Wilson and Sir C. Warren. 

History of the Jewish Church. Stanley. 

The Hagadah for Passover. 

The Bahai Movement 

The Hidden Words. Baha'u'llah. 

The Bahai Revelation. Thornton Chase. 

The Bahai Movement. Chas. M. Remey. 

Taratat and other Tablets. Baha'u'llah. 

Paris Talks of Abdul Baha. 

Some Answered Questions. Abdul Baha. (Translated by Laura Clifiord 

Bahu'a'llah and the New Era. J. E. Esslemout. 


Abdul Baha Abbas, Sir, 224-7 
Abraham, Chapel and Convent of 77 
(see Church of the Holy 
Absalom, Tomb of, 148 
Abu Dis, Moslem village of, 209 
Abyssinians, 59, 138 

Easter Services of the, 25 

in the Chi^rch of the Holy Sepulchre, 
Achor, Valley of, 95 
Acre, 103, 105, 107, 230-2, 231, 244 

Gulf of St. John of, 224 
Adam, Chapel of, 84, (see Church of the 

Holy Sepulchre) 
Adiabene, 146 
iElia Capitolina, 46, 202 
Agony, grotto of the, 139 
Agony of Mary, Chapel of the, 77 
Ain el-Har .i.iiyeh, 268 
Ain-es-SultAn, fountain of, 213 
Ain Karim, i53-5> 167 
Ain Miryam, 252 
Ain Sitti Miriam, fountain of, 149 
Aksa, Mosque el, 192, 195 
Allenby, General, 47, 60, 69, 89 
Amaury, Count of Jaffa, 105 
American Colony, 301 
Angels, Chapel of the, 80 

at Nazareth, 250 
Anglican Church in Jerusalem, 68 
Anna, St, 59 

tomb of, 138 
Annas, House of, 66 

monument of, 151 
Annunciation (Nazareth) Chapel of 
the, 250 

Latin Church of the, 249 

sanctuary of the, 248 
Antonia, fortress of, 45, 46 
Apostles, Fountain of the, 210 
Apparition, Chapel of the, 54, 76, 81 
Arak es-Schemes, 210 
Arimathea, 38 
Aref Pasha el Dajani, His Excellency, 

Armenians (see St. James' Church) 

account of, 65 

and Re-union, 284 

at Bethlehem, 276 

customs of, 67 

Holy week, ceremonies of, 124, 
126-7, 131 

interview with vice-Patriarch of, 65 

Uniat Church of the, 56 
Ascension, Chapel of the, 139, 140 
Ashkenazim, 159 

dress of the, 160 
Askar (Aschar), 266 
Assumption, 138 
Assumptionists, 63-64 

Bab, the, 225 

Bab Abdul Hamid, 153 

Babel Amdd, 147 

Bab el Khalil, 48 

Bab Sitti Miriam, 147 

Bab el Mugharibeh, 149 

BabenNebtDaGd, 152 

Bab Sahwun, 152 

Bab es Sahireh, 147 

Bab-es-Silsileh, 191 

Bahaism, 224-7 

Baha'o'Uah, 225 

Baldwin T, 36, 86, 102, 279 

Baldwin II, 102 

Baptism of Christ, traditional spot of 

the, 215 
Beatitudes, Mount of the, 242 
Becket, Thomas k, 196 
Beggars' Steps, 76 
Beirflt, 294 

BeisAn, (Bethsan), 235, 297 
Beit Jaia, Christian village of, 274, 

Ber Koziba, revolt of, 38 
Bernard of Clairvaux, 103 
Bernard of Morlaix, 103 
Bethabara, 215, 238 
Bethany, village of, 142, 144, 

description of, 210-5 

valley of, 144 
Bether, 38 

Bethesda, Pool of, 60 
Bethlehem, 141, 250, 273-288 

dates connected with, 308-9 
Bethphage, village of, 143 
Betbsaida, 239, 240 


314 INDEX 

Birket el Hamra, 150 

Birket es Sultan, 152, 273 

Bittir, 38 

Bliss, Dr., 64, 150 

Boaz, Field of, 281 

" Bridge of the Meetings," 235 

Caiaphas, House of, 64, 67, 121 
Calvary, Altar of, 57, 84 

chapel of, 84 

position of, 75 

site of, 46, 57, 83 
Camels, Valley of, 210 
Cana, 245-6 
Capernaum, 236 

Eucharistic discourse at, 241 

synagogue at, 236-7, 239, 258 
Carey, Miss, House of Rest of (Ain 

Karim) 155 
Carmel, Church of our Lady of Mount, 

Mount, 224, 227, 228, 230, 259 
Casa Nova (Nazareth) 249, 251 
Castle of Blood, 211 
Cave of the Nativity, 277 
Cenaculum, 61-3, 119 
Cesarea, 105 
Chain, Gate of the, 191 

dome of the, 193 
Cherith, Brook, 95 
Chorazim, 237 
Chovev6 Zion, 170, 173 
Christian Street, 49 
Christopher, St., 215 
Clayton, Sir Gilbert, 292 
Constantine, 75, 83, 275 
Copts, 59, 77, 81, 85, 124-131. 138 
Cotton Merchants, Bazaar of the, 188 

gate of the, 188 
Couziba, Convent of St. George of, 95 

Cradle of Christ, 196 
Credo, Crypt of the, 142 
Cross, Convent of the, 154 

Chapel of the Finding of the, 82, 83 

Church of the, 82 

True, 180 
Crusades, 47, 244 

capture of Jerusalem in the, 47, 49 

147. 159 , ^ ,, 

story of the 99-113 (see Godfrey 
de Bouillon, Saladin) 
Crusader's Tower, 76 (see Church of 
the Holy Sepulchre) 

Dagobert, Archbishop, loi 
Damascus, 294 

gate, 44, 49, 146, 147 
Damietta, siege of, 108 
Dames Reparatrices, Convent of the, 

Pamianos, Greek Patriarch, 88, 93-4, 

124, 130-1 

David, Gate of, 67 

street of, 49, 121 

tomb of, 51 

tower of, 46, 47 

tribunal of, 193 
Dead Sea, 141, 273, 275 

description of, 217-8 

fruit of the, 218 
Deir ez Zeitounieh, 55, 66 
Deir Do<isi, Convent of, 94 
Deir Y4sin, 154 
Dervishes, 183 
Division of the Garments, Chapel of 

the, 82 
Djebel el Qafsah, 254 
Djisr el Moudjaraia, 235 
Dome of the Rock, 106, 188, 191, 196 
Dominicans, 52 
Dominus Flevit, 142 
Dormitio, Church of the, 60-1 
Dung Gate, 149, 188 

Earthquakes, Damage done by 

recent, 299-301 
Ebal, Mount, 261, 267 
Ecce Homo Arch, 46, 122 
Ekron, Jewish Colony of, i6o, 167 
El Ades, 147 
El Afuleh, 235, 257 
El Arish, 36 
El Battof , Plain of, 244 
ElChanouk, 246 
El Kantara, 35 
El Lejjun, village of, 258 
El-Lubban, Khan of, 267 

valley of, 267 
El Mejdel, 238 
El Mukhraqu, 229 
El Rafeh, 36 
Elijah, 229, 260, 273 

grotto of, 228 

mountain of, 229 

synagogue of, 159 
Elisha's Spring, 213, 260 
Emmaus, 167 
En Nebl Daud, 61, 121 
En Nebl Musa, 121 ,122, 124, 219 
En-Nebt Samwil, 154, 268 
Endor, Village of, 258 
England and the Armenians, 65 

and Palestine, 165-6 
Er Reineh, 246 

Esdraelon, Plain of, 249, 254, 257 
Eudocia, Empress, 52, 150 
Evil Counsel, Mount of, 119, 151 
Excavations, 64 

Feast of Tabernacles, 263 
Feast of Weeks, 263 
Filioque Clause, 97, 98 
Finding of the Cross, Chapel of the, 



Fire, Easter (see Holy Week Ceremonies 

Flagellation, Chapel of the, 55 
Flavia Neapolis, 262 
Forty Martyrs, Church of the, 78 
Fountain of the Apostles, 210 
Fountain of the Virgin, 149, 246 
Francis of Assisi, St., 52, 53, 108, 109, 

Francis Joseph of Austria, 54 
Franciscans and the Cenaculum, 62 

and the Garden of Gethsemanc, 139 

and the Holy Sepulchre, 81-2, 84 

and the Stations of the Cross, 54 

at Acre, 321 

at Ain Karim, 154 

at Bethlehem, 276 

at Cana, 245 

at Capernaum, 236 

at Mount Tabor, 244 

at Tiberias, 243 

claims to the Holy Places, 53 

in Jerusalem, 109 
" Frank " Mountain, 141 
" Friars of the Cord of the Convent 
of Syon," 109 

Gadarenes, Country of the, 241 
Galilee, Lake of, 237, 239, 242, 243 
Gates of Jerusalem, 38, 50, 51, 58, 

147-9. 152, 153 
Garden Tomb, the, 146 
Gaza, British Military Cemetery at, 36 
Gedara, Jewish Colony of, 170 
Gehenna, Valley of, 141, 151 
George, St., 37 

Gerizim, Mount, 261, 262, 263, 266, 267 
description of Samaritan Passover 
on, 264.5 
German Catholic Society of Cologne, 60 
German Colony of the Temple, 273 
German Oriental Society, 237 
Gethsemane, 139-40 

Maundy Thursday Procession to, 1 19 
Gezer, ruins of, 168 
Giloh, 187 
Godfrev de Bouillon, 47, 48, 85, 100-2, 

Golden Gate, 119, 138, 147, 196 
Golgotha, 46 (see Calvary) 
Gordon's Calvary, 146 
Gibeon, Plain of, 268 
Grail, Holy, 229 
Greek Church (see Orthodox Greek 

Greek-Melkites (Greek Uniats), 56, 
58-9, 90, 91 
at Nablus, 262 
at Nazareth, 251 
Gregorios, Mgr. Archbishop in Beth- 
lehem, 285 

Grotto of Ain el-Habis, 155 
of Elijah, 228 
of Milk, 281 
of the Agony, 139 
of the Annunciation, 248 
of the Madonna, 138 
of the Nativity (Bethlehem), 276 
of the Nativity of St. John Baptist, 

Hadjaret ea Nasira, 244 
Hadrian, 46, 74, 147, 159, 189, 262 
Haifa, 160, 223, 224 
Haram esh Sherlf, 45, 106, 121, 165, 

Haret al Meidan, 159 
Haret al Yahud, 159 
Haret el Armen, 64 
Hattin, Horns of, 238, 244 
Hawara, village of, 267 
Hebron, 160, 274 

Helena, Empress, 62, 75, 82, 83, 147, 
152, 228 

Queen of Adiabcne, 146 
Hermon, Mount, 258, 267 
Herod, Agrippa I, 46, 64, 147 

Antipas, 147 

gate of, 100, 147 

the Great, 45, 64, 260 
Hinnom, Valley of, 151 
Holy Sepulchre, Authenticity of site of, 


Brotherhood of the, 88 

description of, 80 

services at the, 81 
Holy Sepulchre, Church of the, 44, 73, 
74.75.77,79,80, 113 

bells of the, 133 

chapels of the, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 84 

condition of the, 295 

site of the, 83 
Holy Week Ceremonies of the 

Abyssian Easter, 132 

Armenian, Coptic and Syrian Pro- 
cessions, 124, 131 

Armenifin " Washing of the Feet," 

Greek Ceremony of the Holy Fire, 

Greek Easter, 135 

Greek Midnight Mass, 132 

Greek Palm Sunday Procession, 124 

Greek " Washing of the Feet," 125-6 

Latin Blessing of the New Fire, 123 

Latin Distribution of Palms, 118 

Latin Procession to Gethsemane, 118 
Holy Angels, Nuns of the Congregation 

of the, 66 
Holy Cross, Basilica of the, 75, 81 
Holy Family, Church of the, 251 
Holy Ghost, Chapel of the, 62 



Holy Places, Authenticity of, 74 

disputes about, 285 

unity of the, 284 {see Franciscans, 
Orthodox Greek Church) 
Holy Winding Sheet, Chapel of the, 82 
Hdtellerie de N6tre Dame de France, 

63, 152 
House of the Virgin, 250 
Hulda (Khulda) Jewish Colony of, 169 
Hyrcannus, 45 

Innocents, Altar of the Holy, 279 
Isaiah, Martyrdom of, 152 
Islam, 179, 197 [see Moslems) 
Izates, 146 

Jabnkh (Jabneel), 171 
Jacob's Well, 266-7 

Orthodox Greek Basilica at, 267 
Jaffa, 35, 45, 100, 105, 124 

gate, 38, 152 
James, Tomb of St., 148 
Jamnia, 171 
Jebus, 44 

Jehoshaphat, valley of , 119,137, 141, 

tomb of, 148 
Jenln, 260 

Jeremiah's Grotto, 44 
Jericho, 209-16 
Jerusalem, dates connected with, 305-7 

description of, 38-9, 49-51 

great earthquake in, 195 

history of, 43 

holy places of, 307-8 

pilgrimages tOj 50, 291-302 

taken by English, 48, 268 

site ol, 44 

streets of, 49 

valleys of, 141 -5 

view of, 140, 268 
Jewish Colonisation Association, 173 
Jews and Rachel's Tomb, 274 

and the Balfour Declaration, 169-170 

and the Holy Sites, 87 

and the Riots (Easter, 1920), 124 

colonies of, 167 

emigration and immigration, num- 
bers of. 159, 175 

in History, 159 

population in Palestine, 159 

Wailing Place of the, 165 
Jesus, Spring of (Nazareth), 252 
Jezreel, 235, 259 
Jezz&r, Mosque of, 231 
Joachim, St., 59 

tomb of, 138 
John Damascene, St., 94 
John Mark, House of, 68 
John the Baptist, St., 103, 153, 154 
155. 238, 360, 261 

Jordan, 214, 215, 236, 239 

Archbishop of, 285 
Joseph of Arimathea, 38, 61 

garden of, 82 

tomb of, 82 
Joseph, Count of Tiberias, 249 
Joseph, St., 138, 250, 251 
Joseph the Patriarch, Tomb of, 266-7 
Judah, Mountains of, 141 
Judas Maccabaeus, 38, 168 
Julius Severus, 38 
Jupiter, Temple of, 189, 263 
Justinian, 37, 195, 216, 263, 265 

Ka'abah, r88 

Ka'bah, 180 

Kafr-el-Tur, village of, 140 

Kafr Kenna, 245 

Kafr SilwSn, 149 

Kaloniyeh, 167 

Kastal, village of, 167 

Katra, Jewish Colony of, 170 

Keniset-el-Balita, 252 

Khadijah, 180 

Khamsa Khoubsat, 244 

Kh4n ez-Zeit, 57 

Khan Frandji, 231 

Kh&n HathrHr, 210 

Khuldah, Jewish Colony of, 169 

Kidron, Brook, 119, 138, 145 

valley of the, 138, 147 
Kings, Caverns of the, 145 

tombs of the, 146 
Kishon, Brook, 259 

plain of, 235 

river, 230 
Kleopas, Archbishop of Nazareth, 

252, 292, 296 
Korasmians, iii 
Kubbet-es-Sakrah, 191 
Kubbet es Silsileh, 193 
K>Tiakos, Archimandrite, Guardian 
of the Holy Places, 294 

Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 59 
Latin Rite, 58, 73, 79, 81 
Lavigerie, Cardinal, 58 
Lazarus, Tomb of, 201-2 
Lefta, village of, 167 
Liturgies, Greek, 89 
Lord's Prayer, the, 142 
Lot, Lake of (Dead Sea), 217 
Lotus, Valley of the, 210 
Louis, St , King of France, 111-12 
Lyons, Council of, 98 
Ludd (Lydda), 37, 38 
Lunn, Sir Henry, 282 

Machravm, Jewish colony of, 160 
Macarius, 83 



Magdala, 238, 239 
Magi, Chapel of the, 278 

well of the, 273 
Mandate, 35, 166, 169 

extract from the, 309-11 
Manger, Chapel of the, 278, 286 
Makkidet el Hadjilah, 215 
Mansourah, Arab village of, 244 
Mar Elyv4s, 273 
M&r S&bck, Greek Convent of, 94 
Maritsou, Benedictines of, 119 {see 

Maronites, 59, 1 17 
Mary the mother of Mark, 68 
Mary, column of, 250 
gate of the Lady, 147 
virgin {see Virgin Mary) 
Masjid, 188 

Maugrabins, Gate of the, 149 
Mecca, 180, i8i, i88 
Medina, i8i 

Medresch el Messieh, 251 
Megiddo, 259 

Meisterraan, Padre Barnabas, 252 
Melek el Monadhem, 62 
Memnon, 231 
Mensa Christ*, 244, 252 
Merj iba 'Amir, Plain of, 259 
Migdal Eder, 281 
Mihrab, 191 
Milk, Grotto of, 281 
Mizpeh, 154, 268 
Moab, Mountains of, 141, 210,273, 276, 

Mohammed, Person and History of, 

179, 181 
Monastic Brotherhood of the Holy 

Sepulchre, 88 
Monte del Tremore, 254 
Montefiore, 274 
Moriah, Mount, 137, 145, 148 
Moslem and Christian League, 186, 

Moslems and Bethlehem, 276 
and riots with the Jews, 124 
and the Balfour Declaration, 184 
and the Cenaculum, 62 
and the Chapel of the Ascension, 140 
and the Church of the Holy 

Sepulchre, 78 
and the Dome of the Rock, 188, 197 
and En Neb! MusA, 121, 122 
and the Tomb of Rachel, 274 
and the Virgin, 138 
faith and practice of the, 182 
glace and prayer of the, 191 
traditions of the, 145, 194, 196-7 
Mosque of heaven, 265 
of J^mi el-Kebtr, 265 
of the lepers, 265 
Mount Carmel, Church of Our Lady of, 

Moza, Jewish colony of, 167 
Mufti, Grand, 183-6 

Mflristan, 68, 102 
Museums, 63 

Nablus, 260, 261-5 

Nahalat Yehudah, Jewish colony of, 

Nain, village of, 258 
Napoleon I, 224, 229, 249 
Napoleon III, 60 

Nathanael, traditional house of, 245 
Nativity, Church of the, 274 

grotto of the, 276, 277-9, 286, 287 
Nazareth, 243, 246-254, 283 
Convent of the Sisters of (Carmel), 

synagogue at, 251 
Nebi Dahl, 258 
Nebi Mus&, 119, 249 
Nestorians, 65, 99 
Nes-Ziona, Jewish Colony of, 173 
New Fire, blessing of the, 123 
New Gate, 63, 153 
Nicodemus, tomb of, 81 
Noli me Tangere, chapel of, 81 
Notre Dame de France, Hdtellerie de, 

63. 152 
Nutrition, Church of the, 251 

Ointment Bearers, Church of the, 78 
Olive Tree, convent of the, 66 
Olives, Mount of, 137-8, 268 
Omar, 78-9, 101, 138, 195 

Mosque of, 79, 188 
Ophel, Mount, 119, 149 
Opthalmic Hospital, 300 
Order of the Knights Hospitallers and 

Templars, 102 
Orthodox Greek Church, 92 

account of, 87 

and reunion, 93, 297 

and the Anglican Church, 93 

and the care of the Holy Places, 88 

and the Holy Sepulchre, 75, 86 

at Bethlehem, 60, 276 

at Beisan, 297 

at Cana, 245 

at Nablus, 262 

at Nazareth, 252 

at Jacob's Well, 267 

at Jordan, 215 

at Sychar, 296 

ceremonies of the, 134 

clergy of the, 89 

in the Great Schism, 95 

liturgies of the, 89 

politics of the, 89 

Palestine, 35-6 

Exploration Fund, 43 
Palms, city of, 213, 216 



Passover, Feast of the, i6o 

description of, i6i 

Samaritan, 264-5 
Pater, Church of the, 141 
Patriarch of Jerusalem, 88-9, 124, 

interview with, 93-4 
Pella, 46 
Pentateuch, Samaritan Codex of the, 

Persians, 75, 151, 82 
Peter the Hermit, 100 
Piacenza, the Pilgrim of, 151 
Pilgrimages, Anglo-Catholic descrip- 
tion of the four, 291-302 

association, 293, 298] 
Poor Clares, Convent of the, 246 
Potter's Field, 152 
Praetorium, 54 
Precipitation, Mount of, 251, 253, 254 

" Prison of Christ," 55, 64, 67, 82 
Probatica, 59 (see Bethesda, Pool of) 

QuoROUN Hattin, 244 
Quarantana, Mount of, 94, 214 

Rabani, Sheoghi, 227 

Rachel's Tomb, 274 

Rafah, 36 

Ramall&h, Christian village of, 268 

Ramleh, 38, 167 

Rehoboth, 160, 171-2 

Remembrance, Chapel of, 295 

Rephaim, valley of, 38 

Richard Coeur de Lion, 106, 107, 268 

Riots (Easter, 1920), 124-5 

Rishon-le-Zion, 160, 172-3 

Robinson's Arch, 165 

Rock of the Sun, 210 

Rosh Perrar, 160 

Rothschild, Baron Edmond de, 168, 

Rotunda, 74, 76, 79 
Russian Church, 139-40, 201, 153, 155 
convent, 57 

Sacrifice, Place of, 229 
Sacristy of the Holy Land, 82 
Safed, 160 
St. Anne, Altar of, 250 

Church of, 58-60, 106, 138 
St. Bartholomew, Chapel of, 245 
St. Caralombus, Greek Monastery of, 

St. Catherine, Church of, 277 
St. Dismas, Altar of, 82 
St. Francis of Assisi, 52, 53 

and Nazareth, 248 

and the Crusades, 108, 109 

St. Gabriel, Greek Orthodox Church of, 

St. George, Anglican Church of, 68 

convent of, 92 

Greek Church of, 92 

Greek Feast of, 92 

tomb of, 37 
St. Helena, chapel of, 82, 132 

at Carmel, 249 

at Nazareth, 23R 
St. James, Armenian church of, 46, 66, 

chapel of, 78 

tomb of, 148 
St. Jerome, 140 

chapel of, 279 
St. Joachim, 250 
St. John, hospice of, 27 

hospital of, 102, 106 
St. John of Acre, 232 

Knights of, 231 
St. John of Couziba, monastery of, 

St. John of Jerusalem, 69, 102 
St. John of Malta, Latin Knights of, 

St. John Baptist, church of, 103, 260, 

desert of, 155 

grotto of the Nativity, 154, 238 

home of, 153 
St. John Damascene, 94 

church of, 260 
St. Joseph, altar of, 250 

chapel of, 278 

tomb of, 138 

workshop of, 251 
St. Longinus, chapel of, 82 
St. Louis, French hospital of, 152 
St. Mary Magdalene, birthplace of, 

chapel of, 78, 81, 201 

church of, 139 
St. Mary of Mount Syon, 62 
St. Mary on Syon, convent of, 53 
St. Mary's Gate, 76 
St. Michael, Coptic chapel of, 77 
St. Onuphrius, 151 
St. Paul, 220, 232, 242 
St. Peter (Tiberias), 243 
St. Peter in Gallicantu, 64 
St. Sabas, convent of, 94 
St. Salvatore, convent of, 53, 153 
St. Stephen, basilica of, 146 

gate of, 51. 58, 138, 147 
St. Thecla, chapel of, 78 
St. Theodosius, convent of, 94 
Sakhrah, 44, 193 

Salesian Monastery (Nazareth), 246 
Saladin, 37, 52, 59, 66, 103, 105-7, 107, 
102, 241 

pulpit of, 195 
Samakh, 235 
Samaria, 237-260 



Samaritans, 262 

history of the, 262-3 

morals and dress of the, 263-4 

Passover of the, 264-s 
Samaritan, Inn of the Good, 210, 219 
Samuel, Sir Herbert, 292 
Samuel, the Prophet, tomb of, 268 
Sanhedrin, 171 
Scala Santa, 55 
Scandal, Mount of, 149 
Schism, Great, 95-9 
School of the Messiah, 251 

of the Prophets, 229 
Scopus, Mount, 145, 268 

British military cemetery on, 145 
Sebastieh, 260 i 
Sephardim, 159 
Sepulchre [see Holy Sepulchre) 
Sharon of Galilee, Plain of, 244 
Shatta, 235 

Shechem (Sichem), 261 
Sheep, Gate of the, 147 
Shepherds, Field and Grotto of the, 

276, 281-2, 287 
Shias, 183 
Shobfek, 102 
Sichem, 261 
Sidon, 112 

Siloam, Pool of, 64, 119, 149, 150 
SiloS, village of, 119, 149, 150 
Sodom, 217-9 

Simon the Pharisee, house of, 201 
Sitti Miriam, valley of, 149 
Solomon, 148, 149, 152 

stables of, 196 

throne of, 197 
Sons of St. Francis, 109 
Sorec, valley of, 154 
Spasm, Church of Our Lady of the, 

Spina Chriati, 213 
Stabat Mater, altar of the, 58 
Stations of the Cross, 50, 54, 58, 84 

on Good Friday, 12 1-2 
Stone of Anomting, 79 
Stones of the Christians, 244 
Storrs, Sir Ronald, 280 
Street of Bad Cookery, 57 
Sufis, 183 

Suliman II, 152, 192 
Sultan's Pool, 152, 273 

spring, 213 
Sunnis, 183 
Sycammos, 123 
Sychar, village of, 266 

Orthodox Church at, 296 
Synagogues at Capernaum, 236-7 

at Nazareth, 251 
Syon, 46, 152, 154 (Convents of) 

Church of Holy, 62 

Crusaders' Basilica of, 61 

gate, 121, 152 

mount, 44, 1 19 

sisters of, 55 

Syrians, 59 
at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 

Holy Week ceremonies of the, 124, 
Syrian-Jacobites, convent of the, 68 

TAbigah, 236 

Tabor, Mount, 244, 247, 237 

Talmud, 190 

Tancred, 100, 247, 263 

Tantvir, 274 

TantQra, 229 

Tartars, Kharezmlan, 47 

Tchilinguirian, Mgr., 65, 124 

Tel Hflm, 236 

Tel el Mutesallim, hill of, 258 

Templars, 102 

Temple, 44, 45. 46, i37, 165, 188-9 

Temptation, Mount of, 94 

Thorny Jujube Tree, valley of the, 210 

Tiberias, 236, 240, 243 

Togriet ed Debr, 210 

Toledo, Council of, 99 

Tomb of Rachel, 274 

Tomb of the Kings, 68 

Tomb of the Virgin, 52, 138 

Tomb of Lazarus, 202 

Tophet, 151 

Tower of David, 46, 47 

Tower of the Flock, 281 

Traditions of Mary Magdalene, Martha 

and Lazarus, 202-3 
Transfiguration, Mount of the, 244 
Tremore, Monte del, 254 
True Cross, relic of the, 180 
Tyre, 106, 229 
Tyropaeon valley, 56. 148 

Unction, Stone of, 134 

Veronica, House of, 56 

Via Dolorosa, 51, 54. 57, 122, I38 

Vincent, P6re, 299 

Vineyards, i73-4 

Virgin, Blessed, 273, 278 

arches of the, 82 

chapel of the Agony of the, 77 

fountain of the, 149. 246 (Nazareth) 

home of the, 252 

house of the, 250 

kitchen of the, 251 

tomb of the, 62 

well of the, 155 
Viri Galilaei, convent of, 88, 14X 
Visitation, 153, I55 



Wadi Bakara, 267 
Wadi Beit Hanlna, 154, 167 
wadi el-Emir, 257 
wadi el Jemel, 210 
wadi el Khanin, 173 
wadi Kelt, 95, 211 
wadi el Moussalib, i53 

wadisathaf, 155 

Wailing Place, the, 165, 188 

" Washing of the Feet," Armenian, 127 

Greek, 125 
Well of the Magi, 273 

White Fathers, 58 

Winding Sheet, Chapel of the, 82 

Yebna, Arab village of, 171 
Yemenites, 160, 172 

Zacharias, Tomb of, 148 
Zebulon, Plain of, 244 
Zion, Mount, 137, 144 
Zionism, 165, 166, 167, 175 

London: frinteo bv william clowes and sons, limited. 

University of British Columbia Library 



FORM 310 



3 9424 02151 4440